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W. M. MACKENZIE, M.A., F.S.A. (Scot.) 






Recent developments, both national and educa- 
tional, point to a revival of serious interest in Scottish 
history. This little book is intended as an aid in 
that direction. Its purpose is to provide an outline 
of the history of Scotland as history ; to do in brief 
compass what has been done exhaustively by the 
historians of many volumes. The writer has con- 
fined himself to the things that really mattered in 
building up the kingdom and shaping the fortunes 
of its people. He has sought also to tell the story 
as a whole, to keep touch with Highlands and 
Borders as well as with the central Lowlands ; to 
connect the course of events in Scotland, where 
needful, with the general drift of European history ; 
and to indicate the bearing of the facts on what is 
characteristic in the national evolution. For this 
purpose full use has been made of the large, and 
especially the more recent, histories ; but the 
original sources available have also been indepen- 
dently consulted, and every effort made to keep 
the matter abreast of the latest and most assured 




results of special studies. The aim of the author 
as a whole has been to substitute a clearly written, 
coherent, and, it is hoped, interesting narrative not 
overburdened with names and dates, for the broken 
succession of ' merry tales ' and exaggerated episodes 
to which Scottish history on this scale has been 
reduced, and which has destroyed at once its popular 
interest and its educational value. 



I. The Romans in Scotland - - - i 

II. The Kingdom of Alban - - - 5 

III. The Kingdom of Scotia - - - - 14 

IV. The Scoto-English Kings : Malcolm III, 

Canmore (1057); Edgar 'the Peaceable' 
(1097); Alexander I, 'the Fierce' (1107) - 20 
V. Norman Scotland : David I, ' the Saint ' 
(1124); Malcolm IV, 'the Maiden' (1153); 
William I, 'the Lion' (1165) - - - 31 
VI. The Golden Age : Alexander II (1214) ; 

Alexander III (1249- 1286) - - - - 47 
VII. Medieval Scotland - - - - - 61 
VIII. The Struggle for Independence : i. John 

Balliol ( 1 292-1 296) ----- 72 
IX. The Struggle for Independence : ii. Sir 

William Wallace ( 1 297-1 305) - - - 80 
X. The Struggle for Independence ; iii. King 

Robert Bruce, Part I (1306-13 14) - - 92 
XI. The Struggle for Independence ; iv. King 

Robert Bruce, Part II (1314-1329) - - 102 
XII. David II (1329-1371) ----- 112 

XIII. The Stewart Kings: Robert II (1371); 

Robert III (1390) ----- 118 

XIV. The Poet-King; James I (1406-1437) - - 127 
XV. James II (1437-1460) - - - - - 136 





XVI. James III (1460-1488) - - - - 142 

XVIL James IV (1488-1513) - - - - 155 

XVIII. Scotland in the Fifteenth Century - 170 

XIX. James V (1513-1542) _ _ . _ 180 

XX. Queen Mary: Part I (1542-1558) - - 191 
XXI. The Reformation : Queen Mary — Part II 

(1558-1560) - - - - - - 203 

XXII. Queen Mary: Part III (i 561-1 567) - - 216 

XXIII. James VI: Part I (i 567-1 587) - - 231 

XXIV. James VI: Part II (1587-1603) - - 244 
XXV. The First Episcopacy: James VI and I 

of Great Britain — Part III (1603-1625) - 257 
XXVI. The National Covenant : Charles I — 

Part I (1625-1638) - - - - - 268 

XXVII. The Wars of the Covenant : Charles I 

— Part II (1639- 1 649) - - - - 277 

XXVIII. Scotland under the Commonwealth 

(1649-1660) ------ 292 

XXIX. The Second Episcopacy : Charles II — 

Part I (1660-1680) ----- 307 

XXX. ' The Killing Time ' — The Revolution : 
Charles II — Part II (1680- 168 5) ; James 
VII (II) (1685-1689) - - - - 324 

XXXI. The Revolution Settlement — The 
Colony at Darien : William II and 
Mary (i 689-1 702) ----- 345 

XXXII. Scotland before the Union - - 364 

XXXIII. The Union of the Parliaments : Anne 

(1702-1707) ------ 375 

XXXIV. ' Improving ' the Union : The Risings of 

the * Fifteen ' and the ' Nineteen ': 
Anne (1707-1714) ; George I (1714-1719) 388 
XXXV. Scotland before the ' Forty-Five ' : 

George II (1727) ----- 402 





XXXVI. The ^Forty-Five '(1745-1 746); George II 

(1727-1746) ------ 418 

XXXVII. From the ' Forty-Five ' to the Death 

OF George II (1746- 1760) - - 438 
XXXVIII. Industrial Expansion and the 

Literary Revival: George III (1760) 449 
I XXXIX. Political Affairs in Scotland during 

THE Reign of George III (i 760-1 820) 458 
XL. The Era of Reform — The Disruption : 
George IV (1820); William III (IV) 
(1830); Victoria (1837) - - - 469 


The Stewarts - - - - - - - 481 

The Bruces -------- 482 

The Scottish Succession ----- 483 

The Stewarts and Hanoverians - . - 484 



Roman Soldiers - -- -- -- 2 

loNA Cathedral - 7 

A Viking Ship - - - - - - - 19 

Dunfermline Abbey ------ 27 

Great Seal of Alexander I — Obverse - - 29 

Great Seal of Alexander I — Reverse - - 29 

Great Seal of David I — Obverse - - - 32 

Great Seal of David I — Reverse - - - 32 
Dryburgh Abbey -------37 

Great Seal of Malcolm IV — Obverse - - 40 

Great Seal of Malcolm IV — Reverse - - 40 

Great Seal of William the Lion — Obverse - 41 

Great Seal of William the Lion — Reverse - 41 

Great Seal of Alexander II — Obverse - - 48 

Great Seal of Alexander II — Reverse - - 48 

Great Seal of Alexander III — Obverse - - 53 

Great Seal of Alexander III — Reverse - - 53 

Ploughing ------- - 63 

A Preaching Friar ------ 68 

Great Seal of John Balliol — Obverse - - 76 

Great Seal of John Balliol — Reverse - - 76 

Coronation Chair, containing the Scone Stone 81 
Sword at Kinfauns, known as the ' Wallace 

Sword '--------82 

Edward III (1312-1377)- ----- 93 

Great Seal of Robert Bruce — Reverse - - 96 

Great Seal of Robert Bruce — Obverse - - 97 




Encounter between Bruce and De Bohun - 104 
Bruce's Sword and Head of a Battle-axe 


Candlestick from a Dumfriesshire Cottage 

VISITED BY Robert Bruce - - - - no 

Great Seal of David II — Obverse - - - 113 

Great Seal of David II — Reverse - - - 113 

Great Seal of Robert II — Obverse - - - 119 

Great Seal of Robert II — Reverse - - - 119 

Silver Groat: Robert II - - - - - 121 

Great Seal of Robert III — Obverse - - - 122 

Great Seal of Robert III — Reverse - - - 122 

Silver Penny: Robert III - - - - - 123 

James I - - - - - - - -131 

James III and his Son ------ 149 

Unicorn: James III - - - - - - 150 

A ' Wappinschawing ' - - - - - - 164 

Flodden Field - - - - - - - 168 

' Wild Scots ' - - - - - - - -176 

Coin: Ducat or 'Bonnet-piece' of James V - 181 
James V and Mary of Guise, Father and Mother 

OF Mary, Queen of Scots - - - - 187 

Cardinal Beaton (1494-1546) _ - _ - 192 
George Wishart, John Knox's Spiritual Teacher 

(I5i3(?)-i546) - - - - ' - - - 197 

Castle of St. Andrews- - - - - - i99 

John Knox (1515-1572) ------ 204 

William Maitland of Lethington, Secretary of 
State to Mary, Queen of Scots, and Knox's 

Ablest Antagonist ( 1 528(?)-i 573) - - - 217 

Queen Elizabeth (1533- 1603) - _ . - - 219 

Queen Mary and the Earl of Darnley - - 221 
Earl of Moray, Queen Mary's Half-brother, and 
Knox's Most Powerful Supporter (i53i(?)- 

1570) -------- 232 

The Maiden, or Scotch Guillotine - - - 238 

Mary, Queen of Scots (i 542-1 587) - - - 243 



James VI and I (i 566-1625) ----- 245 

GowRiE House - - - - - - - 251 

Thumbikins for Torture : at Abbotsford - - 256 

Charles I (1600- 1649) - - " - - - 271 
Signing the Covenant in Greyfriars Church- 
yard - - - - - - - -275 

Covenanters' Flag ------ 278 

The First Marquis of Argyll - - - - 283 

James, Marquis of Montrose - - - - 285 

The Passage of Montrose in Winter into 

Argyll -------- 287 

Oliver Cromwell (i 599-1658) - - - _ 296 

John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale - - - 309 

Archbishop Sharp - - - - - - - 314 

Murder of Archbishop Sharp - - - - 321 

Charles II (1630-1685) ------ 325 

The Boot 332 
James VII and II (1633-1701) - - _ _ 
John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount 

Dundee - -- -- -- - 337 

Glencoe - - - - - - - - -353 

The Darien House, Bristo-Port, Edinburgh - 359 

Reid's Close, Canongate, Edinburgh - - - 369 
James Douglas, Second Duke of Queensberry 

(1622-1711) 381 
Prince James Francis Edward Stuart, ' The 

Old Pretender' (1688-1766) - - - - 389 

The Porteous Mob breaking into the Tolbooth - 415 
Prince Charles Edward Stuart {' Bonnie Prince 

Charlie') - - - - - - - 421 

Holyrood Palace ------- 427 

The Grassmarket, Edinburgh _ . - _ 429 

Skene Dhu from Culloden ----- 434 

Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765) - - - - 437 

George III (i 738-1 820) - - - - - - 451 

Allan Ramsay (1686-1758) - - - - - 457 

Henry Dundas, First Lord Melville (1742-1811) - 461 




James Watt (1736-1819) ------ 471 

Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847) _ _ _ . 475 
Sir Walter Scott, Bart. (1771-1832) - - - 477 


Map of Scotland ------- xvi 

The Kingdom of Alban - - - - - 17 

Map of Central Scotland, showing Sites of 

Battle-fields ------- 86 

Plan of the Battle of Bannockburn - - 105 

Plan of the Battle of Flodden Field - - 169 

Plan of the Battle of Langside - - - 230 
The Highlands of Scotland, showing Distribu- 
tion OF Clans - - - - - - -253 

Plan of the Battle of Dunbar - - - - 298 

Map of Border Counties, showing sites of 

Battle-fields - - - - - - - 333 

Scene of the Battle of Killiecrankie - - 347 

Map illustrating the ' Forty-five * - facing 422 

Plan of the Battle of Culloden - - - 433 





1. Julius Agricola and Mons Graupms. — We enter 
Scottish history in the track of Roman legions. In 
less than forty years Britain south of the Cheviots 
had been made a Roman province. To complete 
the conquest of the northern tribes, the new gover- 
nor, Julius Agricola, led his army from York to the 
shores of the Firth of Forth, only to find himself 
among tribes hitherto unknown. He met with little 
resistance, and in the summer of a.d. 8i a chain 
of small earthen forts was constructed along the 
narrow land between the Firths of Forth and Clyde. 
One of these was on Bar Hill, Dumbartonshire, 
near Kilsyth ; and trie leaden bullets of x\gricola's 
slingers have also been found in the fortifications of 
Birrenswark, in Annandale. Meantime a fleet ex- 
plored the coast, and kept in touch with the legions. 
But when in a.d. 85 Agricola passed the Forth, he 
was met by the united forces of the Caledonians {i.e., 
men of the forest). These were warriors large in 




limb and with reddish hair, hke the Germans. They 
took up a position on a hill called Mons Graupius,"^ 
facing the Roman camp. They fought with long 
heavy swords and small oblong shields, while their 
chief men were mounted or rode in war-chariots. 
' Among the many leaders,' the foremost was 
Calgacus ('the sworded one'). The firm advance 


of the armoured Romans drove back the horsemen 
and chariots in confusion. The Caledonian foot- 
men, descending from the hill to surround the less 
numerous Romans, were scattered by Agricola's 
cavalry. Retreating to the edge of the great 

* Whence by a misreading the name ''Grampius " and 
the Grampian Mountains. Where Mons Graupius was, is 



Caledonian Forest, they again tried to make a 
stand ; but Agricola dismounted his cavalry, and 
sent them with his light troops into the wood. 
Night alone ended the slaughter and pursuit. But 
Agricola 's men were too few lor a conquest, and 
he himself was shortly after recalled to Rome. 
His campaigns in Scotland had been only a 
successful raid. The forts were abandoned. 

2. The Wall of Antonine. — More than half a cen- 
tury passed ere the Romans again appeared among 
the ' wild hills and marshy plains ' of the Lowlands. 
The Roman general was LoUius Urbicus, and the 
occupation was part of the Roman method of 
defence. From the Tyne to the Solway Firth a 
wall had been raised by the Emperor Hadrian for 
the protection of the province. In a.d. 140 LoUius 
Urbicus constructed a line of defence between 
Carriden on the Firth of Forth and New Kilpatrick 
on the Clyde. It consisted of a rampart of turf 
about 10 feet high, on a foundation of stone. 
Behind was a mihtary road, and out in front was 
a ditch 40 feet wide and 12 feet deep. This waU is 
called by the name of Antonine, the reigning Em- 
peror. Along its line, and at important positions 
between the two walls, were strong forts or stations, 
almost all of turf, except such as Castlecary, east 
of Kilsyth, with quarters for soldiers and their 
families, some stone buildings, wells, and baths. 
Such a fort at Birrens guarded the road down 
Annandale, and another, of great extent, at New- 
stead near Melrose, the valley of the Leader and the 
highway to York. Southern Scotland was thus 
not a Romanized country, but a military region, a 

I — 2 


breadth of frontier where the attacks of the northern 
tribes could be stopped without affecting the peace 
of the province proper. These tribes were now known 
as ' Picts/ They tattooed their bodies with the 
shapes of animals, and a Latin poet speaks of ' the 
figures fading on the dying Pict/ But even this 
stronger occupation did not last for more than fifty 
years. The Meatae between the walls, the Picts 
beyond, and roving bands of Scots from Ireland, 
proved too much for the Roman garrisons ; and 
these were at last withdrawn behind the more solid 
stone defences of the southern wall. Once and again 
Roman Emperors entered the country to strike a 
blow at the fierce free tribes, but the Picts continued 
to harass the province, until in a.d. 410 the Roman 
army was withdrawn, when Rome itself had fallen 
to the barbarians of Northern Europe. 

3. 5^. Ninian introduces Christianity. — Ere the 
end came the Roman Empire had become Christian. 
Nynia, or Ninian, was a missionary to the Britons of 
the north, and built a stone church at Whithorn, 
near Wigtown Bay. There were Christians among 
the Britons about the Clyde ; and Patrick, a youth 
born at Roseneath, after being carried off as a 
slave to Ireland, regained his liberty, and returned 
to the northern part of that island to preach the 
new religion , already introduced by Roman mission- 
aries in the south. 





1. St. Columba. — When the hght of history again 
falls upon Scotland, it is to show us the little fleet 
of coracles — boats of skin upon a framework of wood 
— in which Colm, or Columba (' the dove with his 
companions, ' resolving to seek a foreign country 
for the love of Christ, sailed from Scotia to Britain ' 
— that is, as the names were then used, from Ireland 
to Scotland (a.d. 563). They settled in the little 
island of Hy, now lona. The neighbouring coast, 
southwards, with its islands, had long been in the 
possession of their countrymen, who had formed the 
Scottish kingdom of Dalriada in what is now north 
Arg5dl. They were Christians. But north and east 
of them stretched the kingdom of the Picts. It was 
to these people that Columba had come on his 
mission. He sought out the Pictish King, Brude, 
in his capital at Inverness. It is said that Columba 
beat the King's magicians in working miracles, 
and so converted him. He gave permission for the 
Christian missionaries to pass through his kingdom. 
The names of these are still preserved in the districts 
to which they went. Donnan was martyred in Eigg. 
Maelrubha has left his name in Loch Maree. Machar 
went to Aberdeen, and Cormac to Orkney. At the 
same time the mission of Ninian was again taken 
up in the south by Kentigern or Mungo, who founded 
a Church at Glasgow. 

2. The Celtic Church. — The Irish or Celtic Church 


which Columba planted in Scotland was peculiar in 
many ways. It was a Church of monks. Each 
monastery consisted of a number of huts clustering 
round a church, all built of wood and clay and 
thatched. Here the brethren lived together, them- 
selves providing for all their needs. Some worked 
at copying books for the Church services, which they 
ornamented beautifully. The head of the monas- 
tery was an Abbot. There were also bishops, but 
their duty simply was to consecrate new brethren : 
they did not rule, as in the Christian Church else- 
where. When a missionary founded a new monas- 
tery, it was subject to the monastery of its founder. 
An Abbot named his successor, and did so from his 
own family, or from that of the neighbouring chief. 
Each group of monasteries was thus a sort of tribe 
in a country of tribes. The monks were peace- 
loving men, who made converts by their fervent 
preaching, their kindness to the poor, and the ex- 
ample of their hard, simple lives. They thus had 
great influence among the people, while the Roman 
missionaries in England usually attached themselves 
to the Kings and the nobles. 

3. Dalriada and Strathclyde. — Columba himself 
was a politician as well as a missionary. The Picts, 
just before his arrival, had conquered Dalriada. 
Columba secured its independence, and had a yoimg, 
vigorous King appointed, whose name was Aidan. 
The Scots then tried to extend their kingdom south- 
wards along the Forth. There they met an enemy 
as heavy of hand as the Picts. The eastern half of 
Lowland Scotland was now in possession of the 
English, who had settled on its coast. They had 


driven the native Britons westwards to the hills, 
where the British kingdom of Strathclyde was 
formed, stretching from its chief fortress of Alcluyd, 
or Dumbarton (' fort of the Britons as far south 
as the river Derwent in England. With these 
Britons Aidan and his successors joined at times 
in fighting the English. But they always lost, and 
both Strathclyde and Dalriada were for a period 
subject to the English kingdom of Bernicia. Bernicia, 
when united with the district to the south known 
as Deira, the modern counties of York and Lan- 
caster, made up the kingdom of Northumbria, 
which thus reached from the Forth to the Humber 
and Mersey. When, by the middle of the seventh 
century, Northumbria had overcome the Picts as 
well as the Scots and Britons, it seemed likely to 
become the leading power in Scotland. 

4. Northumbria and the Celtic Church. — Northum- 
bria was already a Christian state, and its Chris- 
tianity also had come from lona. Two of its Princes 
had taken refuge among the Picts on the death of 
their father and the overthrow of their kingdom 
at the hands of a neighbouring English King. The 
Picts and the Northumbrians were usually on 
friendly terms. One of the Princes became the 
father of a Pictish King. The other, on recovering 
the throne, sent for a missionary from the Celtic 
Church. A monastery was founded, in the usual 
Celtic fashion, on a little island off the coast, since 
known as Holy Isle. There arose a church, ' not 
of stone, but wholly of hewn timber, after the manner 
of the Scots, and roofed with a thatch of reeds.' 
Later another monastery was placed in a crook of the 



Tweed at Old Melrose.* In this house was taught 
the shepherd lad who afterwards became famous as 
the good St. Cuthbert, the great missionary of the 
eastern Lowlands. But in Northumbria the Celtic 
Church received its death-blow. Missionaries from 
the Roman Church came northwards, and the 
differences between the two bodies gave rise to 
serious disputes. The great feast of Easter they 
calculated to fall at different dates, these being 
sometimes about a week apart. In other ways, 
too, the practices of the rival Churches dashed. 
The whole matter was referred to the King of 
Northumbria at the Synod of Whitby in a.d. 664. 
On the ground that St. Peter, whom the Pope 
claimed to represent, held the keys of heaven — as 
both parties agreed — while Columba did not, the 
King decided in favour of the Church of Peter. 
Most of the Columban clergy therefore left the 

5. The Columban Church Conforms. — Now, Pict- 
land and Northumbria were in close touch with each 
other, and forty years later, when Pictland w^as once 
more free, King Nectan adopted the Whitby judg- 
ment, and wrote to a Northumbrian Bishop, begging 
him to send men ' who would make in his nation a 
church of stone after the manner of the Romans/ 
The clergy who stood fast in the old ways he 
expelled from the kingdom. Their places were 
taken by Roman clergy, or secular priests, from 
Northumbria. A few years afterwards lona and 
Dalriada also admitted the new usage, and the dis- 
appearance of the Celtic form of Church had begun. 

* About two miles below the modern Melrose. 


6. Rise of Pictland. — Already Pictland, as we have 
noted, had shaken off the power of Northumbria ; 
to be followed by Dalriada and Strathclyde. North- 
umbria was humbled in the great Pictish victory at 
Dunnichen Nectan's Fort'), in Forfarshire (685). 
But the Picts were a divided people. Their country 
was crossed by the line of mountains known as The 
Mounth.^ The tribes north and south of this barrier 
could not wholly combine, and usually quarrelled 
over the kingship. Columba had found King Brude 
at Inverness ; later the Pictish King is more often 
south of the Mounth. Only a very strong monarch 
could keep the tribes united. Moreover, a King suc- 
ceeded to the throne by right of his mother, not of 
his father, who very often was a stranger. Brother 
succeeded brother, or, failing such, the next heir w^as 
a sister's son. Under these conditions civil war was 
common. Early in the eighth century one of the 
lesser Kings of Pictland defeated the other claimants, 
and seized the chief position for himself. This was 
Angus MacFergus — ' a bloody tyrant ' he is called. 
He inflicted a heavy ' smiting ' upon Dalriada, and, 
with the help of Northumbria, also conquered Strath- 
clyde. But with his death the overrule of Pictland 
ended, and the old quarrels broke out afresh. 

7. The Northmen. — And now a new and terrible 
foe descended upon the country. The Vikings 

creek-men or Dugalls C dark strangers began 
to appear in their ' dragon-ships ' on the coasts to 
plunder and slay. Their home was the barren shores 
of the Baltic and North Sea, where they first lived 
by whale-fishing and selling furs. Each ship carried 

* More familiar as the Grampian Mountains. 


from sixty to seventy-five men, all daring sailors and 
fearless fighters. They were traders as well as 
pirates, and sold their plunder in the fairs of the 
Continent. The rich ' grave-goods,' weapons and 
ornaments and tools, found in their burials show 
how wealthy they became. Scotland must have 
been worth plundering, or they would not have 
gone to it. 

8. The Scottish Conquest. — Chiefly the Northmen 
attacked churches and monasteries for the sake of 
the rich church furniture and vessels of silver set 
with precious stones. For as yet they were ' gen- 
tiles ' or heathen, worshippers of Thor and Odin. 
Again and again lona was ravaged ; its buildings 
were burnt, and its monks slain. These raids com- 
pleted the ruin of the Celtic monasteries, and the 
monks were scattered. They also brought about 
the downfall of the independent Pictish kingdom. 
The Northmen first settled in the islands round the 
coasts. The Nordereys, or ' north isles ' — that is 
the Orkneys and Shetlands — were a ' den of pirates.' 
Thence they crossed the Pettland,* or Pictland (now 
the Pentland), Firth, and from time to time occupied 
the mainland as far south as the Beauly Valley. 
There the Norse names of places, such as Dingwall 

field of the meeting ' — the thing), come to an end. 
Other bands overran the Sudereys, the ' southern 
isles ' — that is, the Hebrides — and thence raided 
across the ' Scotland Firth,' their name for the 

* The Latin form ' Picti ' in Northumbria gave the 
English ' Peht/ or ' Pecht,' and this again, by rule, 
appears in the northern tongue in the form ' Pett.' The 
pronunciation ' Pettland ' Firth still survives in Caithness. 


Minch. This name shows that the Scots of Dalriada 
had spread northwards along . the west coast. 
Argyll, which then extended to Loclibroom, in Ross- 
shire, means ' coast-land of the Gael/ These Scots 
were thus pressed inwards upon the Picts. The 
southern Picts, harassed on every side, failed before 
the Scots ; and Kenneth MacAlpine, King of Dal- 
riada, succeeded in possessing himself of their 
kingdom (844). This was the first stage in the for- 
mation of the kingdom of Scotland. But the Scottish 
name for the country ruled by Kenneth and his 
successors was Alban. In its fullest extent it 
stretched from the Forth to the Spey. Beyond was 
Moravia, or Moray, whose eastern part was called 
Ross, and north of that province were the districts 
held by the Norse. 

9. Gaels and Saxons, — The long warfare of Picts 
and Scots had thus come to an end. A hard fortune 
had made Kenneth their King, and their hands were 
full in defending themselves against the tireless 
enemies who swarmed upon their coasts. But 
Kenneth was a Scot, and the Scottish clergy once 
more found a place among the Picts. They were 
the preachers and teachers. Thus Gaelic as spoken 
by the Scots, being the language both of the Court 
and the Church, displaced the native Pictish, a 
Celtic tongue like Welsh. Scarcely anything re- 
mains of it but the names of shadowy Kings and 
many place-names.* In after-days the British or 

* Such as those beginning with Pet or Pit, e.g., Pitlochry 
and For in Forteviot, Forfar, etc. Celtic thus disappeared 
in north-east Gaul before the Latin of the missionaries. 



Welsh language of Strathclyde in like manner 
gave place to Gaelic. The people of ancient 
Alban have since always called themselves Gaels. 
English-speaking folk are in Gaelic Saisenach, or 

10. The Bishop of Alban. — Kenneth, though he 
restored the Columban clergy in Pictland, did so on 
the Roman lines. He founded both a monastery 
and a church in Dunkeld, and made it a bishopric. 
Later this honour was transferred to St. Andrews. 
The Bishop became head of the ' Scottish Church ' 
as ' Bishop of Alban.' The rule of Bishops instead 
of Abbots meant the rule of Rome. The monastic 
system, too, decayed of itself. The lands of the 
monasteries fell to Abbots, who did not even trouble 
to take Holy orders, but paid others to do their 
work. The Church property became the inheritance 
of their children. These lay Abbots were thus 
wealthy and important men. A lay Abbot of Dun- 
keld married a King's daughter, and, as we shall see, 
was the founder of a royal race (see Chapter HI, § 3). 
The appearance of another class of religious men 
marks the break-up of the monastic life. These 
were the Culdees ('devoted to God'). They were 
hermits, who lived solitary lives in ' deserts,' or 
places apart. This fashion, too, came from Ireland. 
Gradually the Culdees drew together in small com- 
munities under an Abbot, married like the other 
clergy, and acquired property. Such bodies con- 
tinued in Scotland for the next two hundred 
years, and some even longer. But the future of 
the * Scottish Church ' was with Rome, not with 




1. The Royal Succession in Alban. — The new king- 
dom of Alban was hedged round with perils. The 
Britons of Strathclyde harried it and burned Dun- 
blane. There was war, too, with Bernicia, or 
Lothian, as the district between the Forth and the 
Tweed now came to be called ; and Kenneth, in one 
of his many raids, destroyed the monastery at Old 
Melrose. Nor was there unity in the kingdom itself. 
The Crown again became the object of unceasing 
plots and contests. According to the Scottish 
fashion, the King's successor, known as the Tanist 
(' second one was appointed during his life. He 
was some near relative of the royal house, by pre- 
ference the King's brother. On his death the 
succession went back to the former King's son, if 
suitable. Thus brother succeeded brother and 
nephew uncle. The result of this arrangement was 
jealousy on the part of other members of the family, 
who imagined they had as good or a better right to 
the position. So besides the many Kings who fell 
in battle not a few perished by assassination. 

2. Alban and the Danes. — The worst foe of x\lban 
was still, for nearly a hundred years, the Northmen. 
Of these the Danes had set up a kingdom in Ireland 
round Dublin. From that centre, under leaders 
like Olaf the White and Thorstein the Red, they swept 
through ' the kingdom of the Scotch, like red fire in 
dry reeds.' Their highway was up the Clyde, where 



the only defence against them was the fortress of 
Alckiyd, or Dumbarton. But it only delayed them 
until it was captured. These raids were, as a rule, 
mere plundering expeditions in the summer-time, 
and the Danes then retired to their ships with their 
booty and captives. There was desperate fighting 
even as far east as Fife, and Thorstein the Red was 
for a time master of nearly half the coimtry. Not 
till sixty years had passed was a descendant of 
Kenneth — Constantine III — able to inflict a severe 
blow upon the conquering ' war-smiths ' (904). Con- 
stantine married his daughter to a Danish leader, 
and this led to his taking the field with the Danes 
and the Britons against the English King Athelstane. 
On the bloody ' death-field ' of Brunanburgh (934) , 
in Northumbria, the allies were scattered, and Con- 
stantine, ' the cunning, white-haired chieftain, fled,' 
leaving his son and many kinsmen among the slain. 
But, later, when Edmund of England drove the 
Danes out of Cumbria, the southern portion of 
Strathclyde, he made over that district to Malcolm I 
King of the Scots, on the understanding that he was 
to be his ' fellow-worker ' against them ' both by 
sea and by land.' 

3. Strathclyde and Lothian are Added to Alban. — 
Strathclyde proper, however, continued to give 
trouble, though its Kings were now sprung from a 
member of the royal house of Alban. By a.d. 1018 
this line, too, failed, and Malcolm II was strong 
enough to unite the Western kingdom with his own. 
In the same year he secured a still more important 
addition. Aided by the last King of Strathclyde, 
he burst into Lothian. For a month a comet had 


blazed in the sky, omen of some great disaster. 
The disaster befell in the crushing defeat of the 
Northumbrians at Carham-on-Tweed, and the 
surrender to Malcolm by the Ear] of the fertile 
^ lands of Lothian. It was a great event in the history 
of Scotland, for the people of the new community 
were in time to supplant those of the older in 
guiding the destinies of the country. Malcolm II 
died King of Scotia, having taken another im- 
portant step in breaking through the ancient rule 
of succession, and leaving the kingdom direct to 
his grandson Duncan I, son of the lay Abbot of 

4. Scotia and the Norse Earls. — Duncan's chief 
troubles, which at last led to his death, were in the 
North. There the task of facing the Norse vikings 
had been left to the local mormaers, oi ' great 
officers,' of the Kings of Alban — ' Earls ' as the 
Norsemen called them ; ' Kings ' they are styled 
by the Gaelic historians, and as Kings they usually 
acted. They ruled the wide provinces of Moray, 
Ross, and Caithness. But the Norsemen were too 
strong for them. Ketil Flatnose established a 
kingdom in the Western Isles, from which the 
King of Norway claimed tribute. Sigurd the Stout 
began a line of Jarls, or Earls, of Orkney, who also 
held the Shetland Isles and Caithness. Malcolm II 
married his daughter to Sigurd. Their son, Thorfinn 
the Ugly, very tall and black-haired,* was a terror 
by the time he was fifteen years old. He made 
himself master of the islands north and south and 

* The Northmen were usually men of fair hair and com- 


of Caithness. King Duncan gave the Earldom of 
Caithness to ' his sister's son/ Moddan. But 
Thorfinn drove him out, and further ' subjected 
to himself Sutherland and Ross/ Thereupon 
Duncan went north with a fleet, while Moddan led 
an army as far as Thurso. Thorfinn with his galleys 
fell upon Duncan in the Pentland Firth. The ships 
were lashed together, and there was ' a battle severe 
and long.' The Norse archers ' thinned ' the more 
numerous crews of the King. Duncan's men cut the 
lashings and fled. Thorkell, or Torquil, an ally of 
the Earl, surprised Moddan at Thurso. The house 
in which he slept was set on fire, and, ' as he leapt 
down from the beams of the upper story, Thorkell 
hewed with a sword after him, and it hit the neck 
and took off the head.' 

5. Assassination of King Duncan. — Duncan made 
a stand with a fresh army at Torfness (Burghead), 
but again was defeated, while Thorfinn marched 
south, ravaging and burning. ' They killed such 
men as they found, but women and old men 
crept away into deserts and woods with howling 
and whining ; some they whipt before them and 
made captives.' Duncan himself was slain by 
one of his generals, Macbeth, Mormaer of Moray, 
whose stepson, Lulach, had a claim on the throne 
according to the old Scottish rule of succes- 
sion. Thorfinn became ' the richest of all the 
Earls of Orkney.' Duncan's sons took refuge in 
England. The Crown had come north again to 

6. Macbeth (a.d. 1040-1057). — Macbeth proved 
himself an able and popular King. He was kind 




to the poor and generous in gifts to the Church. 
In his reign, says the chronicler Wyntoun, there 
was — 

' Great plenty 
Abounding baith on land and sea.' 

But Duncan's eldest son, Malcolm, after seventeen 
years, found himself strong enough to attack 
the supplanter. In a battle in Aberdeenshire 
Macbeth and his supporters of Moray were defeated, 
and the King was slain. Malcolm, known as 
Canmore ('big head'),* recovered the throne for 
the descendants of the Abbot as Malcolm III. 


'CANMORE' (1057); EDGAR 'THE PEACEABLE' (1097); 

1. The New Kingdom. — With Malcolm III, who 
was crowned at Scone, begins a new period in 
Scottish history. In his reign and the reigns of 
his sons the government of Scotland was trans- 
formed. It had grown np on Celtic — that is, tribal — 
lines. It had absorbed the British or Welsh king- 
dom of Strathclyde and the English district of 
Lothian. Beyond the Forth the original kingdom 
of Alban had been divided into seven great tribal 
territories, each under its Mormaer, or ' Earl ' as 
he now came to be called. These Earls held their 

* So called for his wisdom. 



positions by birth and their lands by custom. They 
seem to have claimed the right to elect the King 
from the royal family. How far the King's authority 
would extend depended entirely on his own ability 
and military strength. During the next hundred 
years all this was changed. The form of govern- 
ment became English, or, rather, Norman-English, in 

In 1066 William, Duke of Normandy, the Con- 
queror, had made himself King of England. Many 
Englishmen fled before the Conqueror into Scotland, 
and, later, Norman nobles were introduced and 
settled in the country by the Scottish Kings. Thus 
Scotland, too, was conquered, though peacefully, by 
the new men and the new ideas. The English 
order and laws, and, later, these as modified by the 
Normans — even the English speech, hitherto con- 
fined to Lothian, in time took the place among the 
governing classes of the old tongue and the Celtic 
modes of life. These, however, long lingered on 
among the pathless mountains and in the remote 
islands of the North and West. In the Western 
Islands, indeed, the Gauls recovered ground which 
had been lost to the Norse. But in the more 
fertile, richer, more populous, and more accessible 
lowlands and plains, including those that fringe the 
east coast, a great change took place. Thus arose 
a division in the country which deeply affected its 
history, and is still seen to some extent — as in 
different languages. 

2. Malcolm and the Norman Kings. — Malcolm 
himself had been brought up in England, and spoke 
English as well as Gaelic. As his second wife he 


married the Princess Margaret, who, with her 
brother Edgar, the Athehng or Prince of the old 
Enghsh hne of Kings, had taken refuge for a time 
in Scotland. Malcolm's ambition, too, was to extend 
his kingdom southwards by getting possession of 
the Earldom of Northumberland, which, with 
Lothian, had made up the old kingdom of Bernicia. 
For this i)urpose ne invaded the North of England 
at least five times during his long reign of thirty- 
six years. On one of these occasions he ravaged 
the district of Teesdale. A quick-tempered and 
wdlful man, he proved himself a cruel enemy. Old 
men and women were slaughtered ' like swine.' The 
young people of both sexes were carried off to Scot- 
land to be slaves. But Malcolm had to do with the 
' stark ' Norman Kings, as cruel and as determined 
as himself. ' The Conqueror ' followed Malcolm 
to his own kingdom with a fleet and an army. At 
Abernethy, on the Earn, the Scottish King, without 
any fighting, became William's ' man,' receiving in 
return lands in England and a gift of money. 
Duncan, Malcolm's son by his first wife, the widow 
of Earl Thorfinn the Ugly, was handed over to the 
English King as a hostage or pledge that the bargain 
of peace would be observed. 

3. Malcolm's Campaigns, — But while WiUiam was 
absent in Normandy, Malcolm returned to his old 
work of pillaging and burning in Northumberland. 
William's son Robert crossed the Tweed to find 
the country deserted and cleared of everything before 
him. He retired to biuld a ' New Castle ' on the 
Tyne as a check to the Scots. Other castles were 
afterwards built for the same purpose at Durham 



and Norham on the Tweed. The Conqueror's 
death again gave Malcolm his chance ; but 
William II (Rufus) brought him to the same terms 
as his father. In addition he occupied Cumberland, 
which the Scottish Kings claimed as part of Strath- 
clyde, and refortified Carlisle to guard the valley of 
the Eden. Scotland was to be kept within her 
natural boundaries, the Tweed, the Cheviot Hills, 
and the Esk. When Malcolm went to visit Rufus 
in England to complain of such treatment, that King 
refused to see him unless lie would ' do right ' to 
him as his overlord. Thus begins the English claim 
that the King of Scotland was a vassal of the King 
of England — a claim that was to work so much 
mischief to both countries. Malcolm would not hear 
of being treated as a mere subject like any English 
baron. In high anger he returned home, once more, 
and for the last time, to lead an army across the 
Tweed on his old mission of destruction in Northum- 
berland. Near Alnwick he and his eldest son were 
caught in an ambush and slain. Many of his soldiers 
were drowned as they retreated over the swollen 
waters of the x\lne (1093). 

4. The New Court, — It was Queen Margaret, 
Malcolm's English wife, who did most in the trans- 
formation of the Scottish kingdom and the Scottish 
Church. She was a clever, refined, and well-educated 
woman, who had lived abroad as well as at the 
English Court. Over her fierce husband she had a 
great influence. He seems to have allowed her to 
carry out what changes she pleased at home, 
while he occupied himself w4th his adventures in 
England. She directed her efforts to making the 


Scottish Court more civilized and dignified. The 
King was to be somebody far above other men, 
who were to obey and reverence him. Finer 
manners were imposed upon the royal household. 
Gold and silver plate appeared on its table. Foreign 
merchants were encouraged to come to the country, 
bringing fine cloths of various colours such as Scot- 
land could not provide. The fashions of dress 
changed. The chief royal residence was fi.xed 
farther south, nearer the English-speaking parts of 
Scotland. The earlier Kings had lived at Scone, 
on the Tay, or at Forteviot or Abernethy, on the 
Earn. Now ' the King sits in Dunfermline town.' 
Margaret brought up her children very carefully. 
Her six sons, it is w^orth noting, all had English 
names. Three of them afterwards filled the Scottish 
throne. Margaret took an interest, too, in the 
condition of the poorer people, relieving their 
hardships as much as she was able, and free- 
ing many of the slaves. Unlike her warlike 
husband, she could read, and possessed many 
books. Her favourite volumes Malcolm caused 
to be adorned with gold and precious stones on 
the covers. One of these ma}^ still be seen in the 
Library at Oxford, her beautiful ' Book of the 

5. St. Margaret: Her Reforms in the Church, — 
Margaret was also a very pious woman, so that for 
her devotion to the Church and her good works 
she was raised to the rank of a saint. At Dunferm- 
line she built the Church of the Holy Trinity, after- 
wards the Abbey Church, and the sepulchre of many 
Scottish Kings. To it and to St. Andrews she gave 


many costly gifts, such as crosses, chalices, and 
rich vestments for the priests. lona, the former 
place of royal burial, rose again from its ashes. At 
sacred seasons, such as Easter or Christmastide, 
hundreds of poor people were fed in the royal hall 
b}^ the King and Queen, ' waiting upon Christ in 
His poor.' But the Scottish Church had shared 
in the looseness and corruption which had spread 
over the Church of Western Europe during the 
stormy centuries of the invasions. The clergy 
married, contrary to the directions of the reforming 
Popes, who wished priests to be unmarried men. 
Church property was often held by laymen (see 
Chapter II, § 5). Sunday was not observed as 
a day of rest : people continued their ordinary 
occupations on that day as on others. The service 
of the Mass, the chief service of the Roman Church, 
was celebrated ' with some sort of barbarous rite.' 
These practices Queen Margaret set herself to reform. 
For three days she argued with the Gaelic-speaking 
clerics upon their ways, her husband acting as 
interpreter. In the end she had her will. By her, 
and still more by her sons, the Scottish Church was 
at last brought into line with that of England and 
under the rule of Rome. But Margaret wore herself 
out with her fastings and strict observances of 
Church duties. She was lying ill in Edinburgh 
Castle when her son Edgar brought the news of 
the King's death. In a few hours she, too, was dead. 
She was buried in the church she had erected in 
Dunfermline, perhaps the greatest woman in Scottish 
history, in view of what she herself did and what 
she influenced her sons to do. Malcolm's body was 


later brought from England and laid beside that of 
his Queen. 

6. A Celtic Revolt, — The Celts of the North could 
hardly be expected to look on these sweeping 
changes with favour. They disliked the new 
notions of the Queen, and were jealous of her English 
friends. The kingdom for which they had fought, 
of which they still formed a great part, and which 
had been ruled by Kings of their owti race and tongue, 
seemed to be slipping from their grasp into the 
hands of foreigners. As long as the ' big-headed ' 
and heavy-handed Malcolm lived there was nothing 
for it but to submit. On his death, however, they 
rose in arms. Following the rule of Tanistry, they 
chose his brother Donald Bane (' the Fair ') as 
King, and ' drove out all the English who had been 
with Malcolm.' But against Donald came Duncan, 
Malcolm's first son, who had all these years Hved as 
a hostage in England. He had the support of 
William Rufus, having ' done such homage as the 
King required.' He thrust Donald from the throne, 
and, when the Scots rose against him and massacred 
his English following, he made peace with them 
' on condition that he should never more bring 
English or Frenchmen (Normans) into that country.' 
But the Scots, led by the Mormaer of Mearns, 
again revolted, and Duncan was betrayed and 
slain. His uncle Donald was chosen King a second 
time, and he seems to have been helped by Margaret's 
son Edmund, ' the only one of her sons who fell 
away from goodness.' Edmund, in return, re- 
ceived the southern half of the kingdom. Finally 
Edmund's elder brother, Edgar, backed by the 





English King, whose vassal he confessed himself 
to be, put down both Kings. Edmnnd became a 
monk. Donald Bane was captured, his eyes were 
put out, and he was imprisoned for life. 

7. Edgar the Peaceable and Magnus Barelegs. — 
Edgar was surnamed ' the Peaceable ' because no 
wars disturbed his reign. He is said to have been 
a kind and just ruler. He carried on the policy 
of his mother : he was generous in making gifts 
of land to the Church, and his chief officials were 
Englishmen. His sister became the ' good Queen 
Maud ' of England. . He resided mostly at Dunedin, 
soon to be better known as Edinburgh . In his reign 
a fresh arrangement was made about the Western 
Isles. Magnus, King of Norway, had asserted his 
authority there, and set up a King subject to himself, 
whom the Islesmen rose against and slew. Magnus 
returned to sweep over the whole Hebrides with 
fire and sword. The people who could not save 
themselves by flight were slain. ' The cheerful 
wolf reddened his tooth in many a wound.' Magnus 
agreed with Edgar to have every island ' between 
which and the m.ainland a helm-carrying ship could 
pass.' Then he had his galley dragged over the 
isthmus at Tarbet, and so secured Kintyre. He 
and his followers dressed in the ' short kyrtle ' of 
' the Western Countries,' and so he was called 
' Magnus Barelegs, or Barefoot.' 

8. Alexander the Fierce. — On Edgar's death the 
kingdom was again divided, his brother Alexander 
taking Alban with the southern shore of the Firth 
of Forth, while David, the youngest of the family, 
had Lothian and Strathclyde, with the title of Earl. 



Alexander's chief residence was at Invergowrie, 

in war, and a good 
friend to the 
Church. He was 
the first King be- 
yond the Forth 
to give grants by 
charter or written 
deed. Hitherto a 

possessor of lands gr^at seal of Alexander i— reverse. 

had nothing by 

which he could maintain his right to his property 
save the testimony of witnesses who saw it given 

great seal of ALEXANDER I — OBVERSE. 

near Dundee, and 
the principal 
towns of his king- 
dom were Edin- 
burgh, Stirling, 
Perth, and Aber- 
deen. A rebellion 
by the mtn of 
Mearns and Moray 
he suppressed in 
such a merciless 
fashion as to win 
from his subjects 
the name of ' the 
Fierce.' There- 

after he founded 
an abbey at Scone. 
He was a true son 
of Malcolm and 
Margaret, pitiless 


to him, or the fact that he had held it for 
many generations. If these failed, there was no 
way to settle the claim but by the sw^ord. The 
Gaels did not care for charters. It seemed as if 
they were being robbed of their ancient rights. 
Many hundreds of years after this there were still 
chiefs in the Highlands who would boast that 
they held their lands by the sword and not by 
the ' sheep-skin.' The witnesses to Alexander's 
charters, the leading men at his Court, are the 
Celtic Earls. He ruled through the old families of 

9. Alexander and the Bishops. — Previous to the 
reign of Alexander there had been but one bishopric 
in Scotland, that of St. Andrews. Alexander added 
Dunkeld and Moray. A bishop controlled all the 
clergy over a certain district known as his ' diocese.' 
The chief church of the diocese was a cathedral, 
the seat of the bishop. The office was endowed 
with estates, and the bishops soon cam^e to be very 
rich and powerful men. On the death of the last 
Celtic bishop of St. Andrews, Alexander appointed 
an Englishman, and, on his death, another. 
Neither found St. Andrews ' a peaceable, friendly 
place.' They wished to recognize the supremacy 
of the English Archbishops, one preferring York 
and the other Canterbury. As such an arrange- 
ment seemed to suggest the supremacy of England 
as a whole over his own kingdom,* Alexander 
would not admit the claim, and each of his 
bishops left him. He would not even allow the 

* The submission of the Welsh Church to Canterbury 
was a step towards the subjugation of Wales. 


case to be taken to Rome for settlement. Finally, 
Pope Clement III declared the Scottish Church 
to be independent, and subject only to the Holy 
See (1188). 


' THE LION ' I (n65) 

I. The Normans in Scotland. — David I completed 
the work which his family had begun and carried 
so far — the remoulding of the Scottish kingdom. 
Brought up in England, he was entirely Norman in 
his tastes and sympathies. A writer of the time 
says that he was ' a youth more courtly ' than his 
elder brothers, and, ' polished from a boy, had 
rubbed off all the rust of Scottish barbarism.' 
During the seventeen years that David ruled the 
Lowlands he surrounded himself with his Norman 
friends. Many received from him grants of lands, 
while others acquired lands by marriage. When he 
became King, he followed the same policy. Now, 
for the first time, we meet the names which are so 
familiar in the country's history. A Balliol had 
lordships in For^r. Walter Comyn was Chancellor, 
the highest official in the kingdom. Later this 
family acquired great holdings in the Highlands, 
and became the most powerful in Scotland. A 
Bruce was lord of Annandale. A younger member 
of the house of FitzAlan was settled on wide estates 
in Renfrewshire and Ayrshire. Among his followers 


was a family named Wallace. 


The Fitz Alans, who 
had come but re- 
cently from Brit- 
tany, became 
hereditary High 
Stewards of Scot- 
land, who attended 
to the King's 
personal affairs. 
From them sprang 
the later Kings, 
the royal house 
of Stewart. The 
language of these 
Normans, and of 
the retainers they 

brought with 
them, was French. 
David thus intro- 
duced into the 
country a new 
nobility, owing 
their position to 
himself, and ready 
to stand by him 
against the ancient 
possessors of the 
land, to whom 
they were foreign 
in blood and 
speech. As they 
held their estates 
on the feudal condition of doing military service 


Note the armour, and compare with 
the description on p. 33, § 2. 



to their superior the King, they constituted a sort 
of royal garrison or standing army. Scotland was 
now a ' feudal/ not a * tribal ' kingdom. 

2. The Norman Chivalry and the Norman Castles. — 
The Normans were the best soldiers of the age. 
Fighting, and hunting with hawk or hound, were the 
occupations of their lives. Each knight wore in 
battle a shirt of mail or network of steel, and a 
peaked steel helmet. He carried a long kite- 
shaped shield, a sword, and a lance. He fought on 
horseback. The Norman army was thus formed 
of cavalry, or ' chivalry.' Footmen were despised, 
though for certain purposes they might be necessary. 
A heavy-armed and well-horsed knight counted 
himself a match for any number of them. But 
being few in number, the Normans strengthened 
themselves with their castles. These they built on 
steep hillocks. The summit was surrounded with a 
stout paling, or palisade. Inside this was raised a 
wooden tower. Round the bottom of the hillock, 
a ditch was dug, and on the outer bank was another 
palisade. Thus was formed a mote. Such a castle 
did not take long to erect, did not cost much, and 
was strong enough to resist the efforts of a simply 
armed people. The place of the wooden buildings 
was in time taken by towers, or ' keeps,' of stone, or, 
as they were called in Southern Scotland, ' peels.'* 
Such were the earliest forms of Norman castles in 
Scotland, and the sites of these ' motes ' are most 
numerous where they were most necessary to keep 
down a restless people. They lie in a crowded 
ring round the district of Galloway. 

* Latin palwn, becoming pelum, a palisade or fence. 



3. Rebellion in Moray. — The value of the Norman 
knights as an addition to the royal power was soon 
made clear. A few years after David came to the 
throne, and while he was absent in England, a re- 
bellion broke out in Moray. It was led by Angus 
the Mormaer, son of Heth, who was son of a sister 
of Lulach, Macbeth's stepson, the rival royal 
family. The Constable of Scotland, the head of the 
military force of the kingdom, stopped the advancing 
Highland host at Strathacro, in Forfarshire. Against 
the mailed knights the thin-clad, poorly-armed men 
of the North could make no stand, and were defeated 
with great slaughter. Angus was slain, but his 
brother Malcolm, ' the heir of his father's hate and 
of English wrongs,' refused for many years to submit. 
Then David appealed for help to the barons of the 
North of England. The news of their coming was 
enough. Malcolm was seized and given up by 
some of his own followers, and imprisoned in the 
castle of Roxburgh. 

4. David's English Wars. — David married an 
English wife, who brought him the Earldoms of 
Northampton and Huntingdon. For these he was 
a vassal of the King of England. He thus took an 
oath to Henry I, with the other English barons, to 
support his daughter Matilda as Queen. Matilda 
was David's niece. But David had further, through 
his wife, a descendant of a former Earl of Northum- 
berland, a fresh claim on that earldom. When civil 
war broke out between the supporters of Queen 
Matilda and those of King Stephen, David, of course, 
took the side of his niece. Four times he led an 
army across the Border, partly to serve her interests, 



still more to serve his own in the matter of Northum- 

5. The Battle of the Standard (a.d. 1138). — The most 
important of these expeditions was the third. He 
had a great array drawn from every quarter of his 
kingdom from Orkney to Galloway. As usual, the 
Scottish army burnt, pillaged, and slew without 
sparing. The Archbishop of York proclaimed a 
holy war. The men of York, led by their Norman 
lords, assembled to drive back the Scots. Even 
some of David's own Norman friends, such as 
Robert Bruce and Bernard Balliol, who held estates 
in Yorkshire as well as Scotland, took the field against 
him after vainly trying to make peace. The small 
English army was drawn up on the hill-side near 
Northallerton. In their centre was a car, bearing 
on a pole some sacred relics, and the banners of 
four northern saints. This was the ' Standard ' 
which gives its name to the battle. The English 
knights dismounted and formed the first line. 
David wished to attack with his own Norman and 
English men-at-arms, but his Highlanders and 
Galloway Scots angrily claimed the right to lead. 

* Why trust so much, my King,' said one of the 
Celtic Earls, ' to the good- will of these Frenchmen ? 
None of them, for all his mail, will go so far to the 
front as I, who fight unarmoured in to-day's battle.' 
David changed his order of battle, and the ' bare- 
breeched ' Scots rushed on the English spears. 
Again and again they charged, but failed to pierce 
the shield-wall of the knights in mail. The archers 
poured their arrows upon them as they advanced, 

* many of them looking like hedgehogs with the 



shafts still sticking in their bodies/ David's son, 
Prince Henry, with the horsemen, did cut a way 
through the English lines, but was unsupported. 
A cry was raised that the King had fallen, and 
the Scottish foot melted away. David led back 
the remnants of his army to Carlisle, his Scots 
and English quarrelling all the way home. Still, 
in the divided state of England, he continued to 
hold the northern counties. By an arrangement 
with Stephen, Prince Henry received his father's 
English earldoms, including Northumberland. Soon 
after Matilda abandoned the contest. Till the end of 
the reign the Scottish frontier was once more the 
valley of the Eden and the River Tees. 

6. Kirks and Abbeys. — ' David,' says the chronicler, 
' illumined the land with kirks and with abbeys.' 
In this work he surpassed his predecessors. To 
the three earlier bishoprics he added six. The 
bishopric of Glasgow covered the whole extent of 
the Scottish portion of Strathclyde. Others were 
Brechin, Dunblane, Aberdeen, Ross (Rosemarkie), 
and Caithness (Dornoch). The Culdees ' these 
places were brought under the new system. But 
no single bishop with his cathedral could serve the 
needs of such large districts. Accordingly these 
were soon divided into parishes, each with its 
own church and priest. For their support the 
people had to pay tithes or teind, the tenth part of 
all their produce. But the great religious institu- 
tions of David were the abbeys. Many of the most 
famous owe their foundation to him. A new Melrose 
was built higher up the Tweed. Other houses, with 
their stately and beautiful churches, were placed 



at Kelso and Dryburgh. David instituted the 
historic Abbey of Holyrood.* Fifteen rehgious 
houses in all, from Dundrennan Abbey in Wigtown- 
shire to the Priory of Kinloss in Moray, are said to 
have been established by the devoted King. These 
he endowed with estates from lands in the royal 
possession, so that one of his successors long after 
could speak of him as ' ane sore saint for the Crown,' 
meaning that he ' left the kirk over-rich and the 
Crown over-poor/ The King's example was fol- 
lowed by some of his leading nobles. Walter the 
Steward founded an abbey at Paisley. 

7. Regulars and Seculars. — The religious houses 
were occupied mainly by monks, a class of clergy 
who lived together under strict rules, and so were 
called the ' regular ' clergy, while the parish priests, 
living out in the world, were known as 'seculars.' 
The head of a monastery was known as an Abbot or 
Prior. Some houses, such as Holyrood, were the 
homes of ' canons,' who were ' seculars ' living 
together like monks. The name is preserved in 
the street above Holyrood, called the Canongate, 
the ' gate ' or road of the canons. Members of 
these orders David brought from England and 
France to make a start in Scotland, and the 
knowledge and skill which these brought with them 
were, of course, national benefits. This century and 
the next were the great period of church-building 
in our country, and that meant the coming of archi- 
tects and masons from abroad. It was said that 
' preaching could not be heard for the sound of 
hammers and trowels.' The great churches were 

* I.e., Holy Rood — the Cross. 



many years in building, and were for long being 
repaired and extended. Their size, and the beautiful 
stonework and fittings whieh they contained, show 
that much weeilth must have gone to their con- 
struction. The new clergy, too, naturally sup- 
ported the interests of the King, as did the new 
nobility. Bishops appear with Earls and barons 
as the counsellors of the King. David died at 
Carlisle in a.d. 1153, a 'saint ' in popular tradition, 
and certainly an accomphshed and high-minded 
King. His rapid and far-reaching reforms he 
carried out with a high hand, but without losing 
the affection of the people. 

8. Malcolm the Maiden, — David's eldest son, 
Prince Henry, the hero of the Battle of the Standard, 
had died before his father. Henry's son, Malcolm, 
a boy of ten, was therefore his feudal successor. 
That he should succeed peacefully to the throne 
shows that the royal position was at last fixed. 
But to the Northern Celts a boy-King was something 
new, and Donald MacHeth at once made a bid for 
the throne. He was helped by his brother-in-law, 
Somerled, who had himself set up a petty kingdom 
among the mixed Gaels and Norsemen of Argyll 
and its highlands. For three years the MacHeths 
held their ground. But Somerled was drawn away 
by a chance of making himself King of the Hebrides. 
Donald was captured and sent to keep company 
with his father in Roxburgh Castle (see § 3). The 
new King of England, Henry II, took advantage of 
Malcolm's youth to force him to give up the northern 
counties occupied by his father. Certain of the 
great Earls thereupon attempted to displace Mai- 


colm, and give the throne to his brother WiUiam. 

Malcolm crushed 
this revolt with- 
out difficulty. 
Then he invaded 
Galloway, whose 
lord, Fergus, had 
been his most 
powerful oppo- 
nent, and brought 
that province 
into subjection. 
Shortly after, 
Somerled of Argyll 
again threatened 
mischief. He took 


a fleet up the 
Clyde, but, ere 
anything could be 
done, he was slain 
by one of his own 
men in his tent at 
night. Somerled 
was the ancestor 
of the Macdougalls 
of Lorn and the 
Macdonalds, after- 
wards Lord of the 

Malcolm showed 
himself to be as 

'able a King as the rest of his family, but he died 
young. Because of his delicacy and good looks he 





'.I 'J 


was called ' the 
Maiden/ as ' Bon- 
nie Prince Charlie' 
was, long after, by 
the Gaelic poet. 

9. William the 
Lion and the 
Treaty of Falaise. 
— William the 
Lion,* who fol- 
lowed his brother. 
Malcolm, was an 
unlucky monarch. 
From his per- 
sonal appearance 
he was also known 

as Rufus, 'the 
Red,' and as 
' William the 
Rough.' As might 
be expected, his 
first concern was 
to recover North- 
umberland, lost 
by Malcolm. To 
accomplish this 
he gave his sup- 
port to Henry ITs 
rebel sons, and 
even sought aid 
of the King of 
France. But 


* Why SO called is not known. The Alexanders, who 
follow^ displayed the lion on their seal. 


Henry and the King of France were, for the 
moment, at peace. Wilham now led an army 
across the border, which broke up into plunder- 
ing bands or gathered to capture some cattle. 
The town of Warkworth was burned to the ground, 
and a hundred of its inhabitants, who had taken 
refuge in a church, dragged out and massacred. 

On the very day on which this occurred the inva- 
sion came to a sudden and startling end. A body of 
Yorkshire barons had ridden northwards to check 
the Scots. On a misty morning they found them- 
selves under the walls of Alnwick Castle, where a 
small troop of knights were tilting in a meadow. 
One of the knights rode out to challenge the new- 
comers. But the English barons were not there for 
sport. A scuffle followed ; the knight's horse was 
speared, and he was brought to the ground. He 
was then discovered to be the King of Scots. He 
had proved himself a true ' knight,' but an unwise 
King. The valuable prize was secured, and hurried 
off with his attendants to London. Henry sent 
him over to the Castle of Falaise, in Normandy, 
where he lay in irons. As the price of his release 
he had to acknowledge himself vassal of the King of 
England for his whole kingdom (a.d. 1174). 

10. Scotland a Vassal Kingdom. — For fifteen years, 
therefore (1174-1189), the English King was be- 
yond dispute the superior or overlord of Scotland. 
The chief Scottish castles received English garrisons. 
The Scottish barons became Henry's liegemen, and 
were bound to support him even against their own 
King. All matters of importance affecting Scot- 
land had to be decided by Henry. William, when 
summoned, had to attend at his superior's Court in 



England or Normandy. He could not put down 
disorders in his own country without Henry's leave. 
Such a state of things had never existed before in 
Scotland. At no previous time, then, had the 
kingdom been really subject to that of England. 
Fortunately, Henry's successor, Richard, wanted 
money for a crusade in the Holy Land, and by the 
Treaty of Canterbury (1189) sold back his feudal 
rights to the Scottish King for 10,000 marks. The 
English garrisons were removed, and Scotland was 
once more a free kingdom. But the English Kings 
still clung to some vague claim of superiority, and 
it never quite passed out of Scottish history. 

11. Revolts in Galloway. — The results of William's 
rash folly at Alnwick did not end with his own 
capture and shameful release. At home the native 
Scots fell upon the English and Fleming traders who 
had been settled in the towns. The two brothers 
who were lords of Galloway raised their people, 
destroyed the royal castles, and drove away the 
royal officers with all who did not hold their lands 
by ' right of blood.' But they quarrelled. By 
Gilbert's orders his brother was seized, his eyes and 
tongue were torn out, and he was left to perish in 
agony. For this deed Henry, as overlord, compelled 
him to pay a heavy fine. But Gilbert played off 
Henry against William, whom he hated. He was 
willing to submit to the King of England, and, 
relying upon Henry's favour, he raided and plun- 
dered southern Scotland till the day of his death. 
William could not act against him without Henry's 
consent. But Roland, the son of the murdered 
brother, was growing up at the Scottish Court. He 
married a Norman lady, and his training made him 


a Norman at heart. On Gilbert's death he drove his 
cousin out of Galloway, and, with the help of his 
Court friends, made himself master there. But he, 
too, had to accept the English King as his superior. 
William gave Gilbert's son the Earldom of Carrick, 
which, in turn, was to give Scotland a King. Roland, 
however, remained the King's fast friend and sup- 
porter, and on Henry's death William, as we have 
just seen, recovered his kingly rights. 

12. The Rise of the MacWilliams. — In the North 
a new family of ' pretenders ' had asserted them- 
selves. Their head was Donald Bane (* the Fair '), 
son of William, son of Duncan, first son of Malcolm 
Canmore, who had held the throne for a brief term 
after his father's death. Donald had strong sup- 
port, and for six years was really King in Moray 
and Ross. William led a great army against him, 
but Donald withdrew^ into the mountains, and the 
King had to be content with building forts and 
leaving garrisons to keep him there. Besides, he 
had his hands full with the difficulties in Galloway. 
When these were settled he once more set out to 
deal with Mac William. Roland of Galloway accom- 
panied him, and falling in with Donald Bane and 
his followers near Inverness, defeated them. Donald 
was slain on the field. Towards the end of the 
reign his son renewed the struggle of the northern 
Gaels against Kings ' rather Norman than Scottish 
in blood, manners, speech, and life.' But he w^as 
betrayed by some of his men, beheaded, and hung up 
by the heels. 

13. William and the Earl of Caithness. — William 
held his Northern dominions by very slender ties. 
The old Viking spirit and habits still survived. 



Local chiefs sowed their land in spring and reaped 
their scanty crops in autumn. The summer they 
gave up to piracy along the coast, and they passed 
the winter in revelry. The Earls of Caithness and 
Orkney were, for the islands, subjects of the King of 
Norway ; but when an Earl died, his lands were 
divided among his sons. These then usually fought 
with and destroyed each other. At this time Harald 
was sole Earl. He married a daughter of MacHeth, 
and in her name attacked Moray. He seized the 
Bishop of Caithness, who was in the King's interest, 
blinded him, and cut out his tongue. But William 
drove Harald to take shelter in the islands and 
wasted his lands. This was a new experience for 
the descendants of the victorious Vikings. Harald 
submitted, and had to redeem his mainland earldom 
with 2,000 pounds of silver. The days of an in- 
dependent Earl of Caithness were over. Almost 
the last act of the Lion King was to force Harald's 
successor, John, to acknowledge his authority. 
From this journey he returned to die in his favourite 
residence at Stirhng, having reigned for fifty years. 

14. The Burghs. — In spite of his dangers and 
troubles William did not neglect the peaceful interests 
of his kingdom. The country was fast becoming 
prosperous. Manufactures and trade were increas- 
ing. The centres of industry were the burghs or 
towns. The name ' burgh ' was English, and meant 
a fortified enclosure. Towns in which trade sprung 
up at first found it necessary to protect themselves 
in this way. Thus William had a ditch made round 
the burgh of Inverness, which the inhabitants, 
known as burghers, or burgesses, enclosed with a 



stout paling. Some of these burghs were, to begin 
with, places to which goods were brought from 
abroad. Such was Berwick, which soon became 
the greatest of them all. Others, like Edinburgh, 
grew up under the shelter of a strong castle. A 
cathedral, too, attracted workers and traders to 
settle round it. Such a settlement became Glasgow. 
So, too, did a monastery, as happened with Dun- 
fermline. A burgh belonged to the owner of the 
ground on which it was built. Those belonging 
to the King were royal burghs. All the burghs had 
special privileges. No one but a burgess could 
make or dye cloth ; nowhere but in the burgh 
market could goods from home or abroad be bought 
or sold. All goods except those of burgesses had 
to pay a small toll or tax. These tolls went to the 
owner of the burgh. So did rents for the lands held 
by the burgesses, and every burgess was required 
to hold so much land with a house. The burgh had 
its Court, but the fines also had to go to the superior. 
It soon became the practice, however, for a burgh 
to agree to pay a fixed rent to its superior, and uplift 
its own revenues through officers appointed to manage 
its affairs, known as 'baillies.' At seaports, however, 
a tax or ' custom ' was laid on all goods sent abroad, 
and was collected by the King's 'customers.' David I 
had encouraged the growth of burghs, but it was 
William who first issued charters to them, as he 
did to the great barons, in which all their rights 
and privileges were clearly set forth. Ayr, Perth, 
and Inverness can still show their charters from 
the Lion King. Most of the inhabitants of the 
burghs were of English stock or Flemings from 



Flanders across the North Sea. They were the chief 
traders : the native Scots still preferred a country 
Hfe. Thus the burghs spread the Enghsh language, 
and wherever they grew up they were centres of 
order and industry. 


ALEXANDER III (1249-1286) 

1. The Last of the MaeHeths and MacWilliams. — 
The reigns of the two last Alexanders are known 
as the ' Golden Age ' of Scottish history — golden, 
because it was a time, on the whole, of peace, and 
altogether of growing national prosperity. The 
royal power was now strong and well organized, 
and so able to deal with any disorder easily and 
successfully. Alexander was seventeen w^hen he 
was crowned at Scone on the day after his father's 
death. A rising in the North followed at once. 
It was headed by Kenneth MacHeth and Donald 
MacWilliam. But Moray, with its Norman barons 
and busy burghs, had no longer a welcome for such 
intruders on its peace. They were crushed by 
Farquhar Macintagart (' son of the priest who 
had succeeded his father in the lands of the old 
Celtic monastery at Applecross (see Chapter II, § lo). 
He carried to the King the heads of the leaders, 
and in return was knighted and created Earl of 
Ross. So ended the claims of the MaeHeths and 
the royal line of Macbeth. Some years after 
another MacWilliam took the field. He, too, was 



\ \ \ 

captured and executed with his whole family, down 

even to his infant 
daughter. Thus 
at last perished 
the rival stock of 
Donald Bane (see 
Chapter IV, § 6). 

2. Murder of the 
Bishop of Caith- 
ness. — Farther 
north there was 
again a quarrel, be- 
tween the people 
and a Bishop of 
Caithness. ' The 
men of Caithness 


thought him 
rather hard in his 
episcopal govern- 
ment/ Earl John 
refused to protect 
him. Thereupon 
some of the ' worst 
men ' shut up the 
bishop in a house 
and set fire to it, 
whereby he was 
suffocated. Earl 
John was held 
responsible for 


I (•/! 


this outrage, and 

while the actual doers of it were mercilessly 
punished, he was fined and stripped of half his 



earldom, uatil he had paid a further large sum. 
But John was the last of his line, and when he died 
— as it happened, too, through the burning of his 
house — the southern part of his wide territory 
was erected into the Earldom of Sutherland. This 
breaking up of the great Earldoms of Moray and 
Caithness reduced the power of the Earls. There 
were to be no more troubles of the old kind from 
these quarters. 

3. Rising in Galloway, — Since the days of the 
Battle of the Standard, Galloway, as we have seen, 
had been ruled by half-independent lords. They 
even possessed estates in England, and kept up 
close relations with the English King. Alan, the 
last lord, son of William's friend Roland, had been 
among the barons who forced King John to accept 
the Great Charter. They had covered Galloway 
with churches and convents. Now, Alan dying 
left three daughters, all married to Norman hus- 
bands. But the chiefs of Galloway did not wish 
to see their land divided, or to have Normans for 
their masters, so they begged the King to take 
the lordship for himself. When the King refused, 
they elected as their lord Thomas, a half-brother 
of the sisters, and invaded the districts near them. 
Alexander and the royal army were saved from 
disaster among the hills and swamps by the Earl 
of Ross and his Highlanders. The Galloway men 
were dispersed with great slaughter. All who 
came to the King's tent with ropes round their 
necks received a full pardon. Thomas fled to 
Ireland, to return next summer with a following of 
Irishmen. But the Galloway men were persuaded 



to submit. Thomas was sent to prison for life. 
The captured Irishmen were taken to Edinburgh, 
and torn asunder by wild horses. Galloway was 
divided between the two surviving daughters of 
Alan. One of these, Devorgoil, or Devorgilla, was 
married to John Balliol, and was herself the King's 
cousin. When her husband died, she built to his 
memory the last abbey raised in Scotland, the 
beautiful * Sweetheart ' Abbey near Dumfries. 

4. Relations with England and France. — Alex- 
ander, like his predecessors, hankered after the 
fair dales of Northumberland. King John and his 
barons were now at war over the Great Charter, 
and the barons agreed to let Alexander have the 
lost province in return for his assistance. The 
Scottish King accordingly led an army through 
England to aid them, as far as Dover. But in the 
meantime John died. England, too, was now a 
fief of the Pope, w^ho was supporting John, and 
Alexander found himself and his kingdom under 
the ban of the Church. This was a serious position, 
for it meant the silencing of Church services, the 
loss of the priest's blessing, and, as was thought, 
the closing of the gates of heaven to the people 
cursed by the Pope. On the withdrawal of the 
Scottish army, and the payment of a heavy fine, 
Church and kingdom were reconciled. To John's 
successor, Henry III, Alexander at Berwick did 
homage for his English estates, including the 
Earldom of Huntingdon. That earldom had passed 
to him on the death of liis uncle David, who had 
received it from William the Lion. David left only 
daughters, one of whom was the mother of Devorgoil 


ot Galloway and grandmother of John Balliol the 
elder, while a younger sister married Robert Bruce 
of Annandale. Of these marriages were to spring 
the future rivals and Kings. Alexander now 
married Joanna, Henry's sister. But the English 
King did not cease to press the claim of supremacy, 
and even misled the Pope into supporting him. 
Alexander responded by reviving his claim to 
Northumberland. War seemed certain when the 
English barons came forward as peacemakers. 
With them the brave and genial King of Scotland 
was very popular, and if they had any serious 
quarrel with their own King they might need his 
support. So an arrangement was come to at York 
by which Alexander parted with his estates in the 
South of England, receiving instead those of Tyne- 
dale and Penrith — the former as a sovereign fief, for 
which he did homage ; the latter as an ordinary 
feudal holding, for which he had to present each 
year at Carlisle a falcon for the English King. 
Henry, however, became jealous of the close con- 
nexion of Scotland with France, where he was 
prosecuting an unsuccessful war. On Joanna's 
death Alexander had married, as his second wife, 
the daughter of a powerful French baron. An 
unfortunate incident gave Henry his opening for a 
quarrel. Walter Bisset, a Scoto-Norman, who had 
lands near Beauly, had been unhorsed at a tourna- 
ment near Haddington by the young Earl of AthoU. 
Some of Bisset's followers thereupon burnt down 
the house in which AthoU was staying, so that he 
perished with two of his men. Bisset was banished, 
and his Northern lands forfeited — soon afterwards 




to become the property of another Norman family, 
the Frasers. He carried his complaint to the Enghsh 
King, and preparations were made for an invasion of 
Scotland. Great armies gathered on both sides of the 
Border, but the English barons again forced a peace. 
Neither King, it was agreed, was to help the enemies 
of the other, or attack, except in self-defence. 

5. Alexander and the Isles. — All hope of extending 
the kingdom southwards being now given up, the 
King turned his attention to the West. The 
islands there still pertained to the King of Norway. 
Early in his reign Alexander had established his 
power more firmly in Argyll, which was ruled by 
the descendants of Somerled ; the head of the clan 
Dugall in the North, and the head of the clan 
Donald in Islay and the southern mainland. Chiefs 
and people submitted to Alexander, but for the 
islands their superior was the Norwegian King. 
Such an arrangement was bound to cause friction, 
and so Alexander tried to induce King Haco to 
give up his rights, even offering to buy them. But 
Haco would not be persuaded, and declared he 
' had no need of money.' Alexander determined 
to use force. He gathered a fleet in the Clyde, and 
declared he would ' set his standard east on the 
cliffs of Thurso, and reduce under himself all the 
provinces which the Norwegian monarch possessed 
to the westward of the German Ocean.' But by 
the time he reached Oban Bay he was seriously ill, 
and he was landed on the island of Kerrera to die. 
By his own request his body was laid in Melrose 
Abbey. Not he, but his son, was to be the 
* Tamer of the Ravens ' of Norway. 



G. Alexander III — His Coronation. — Only eight 

years old the young 
Alexander was im- 
mediately crowned 
in Scone Abbey. 
The solemn oaths 
taken by the 
Sovereign on such 
an occasion were 
first repeated in 
Latin, the lan- 
guage of the Church 
and of culture, and 
then explained in 
Norman - French, 
the speech of the 


Scottish Court. 
After the ceremony 
the King took his 
seat outside on the 
Stone of Destiny, 
the sacred slab of 
sandstone said to 
have been brought 
with the Scots 
from Ireland. 
Here the nobles 
knelt and did 
homage. Finally, 
an old Highlander 
stepped forward, 
and, bowing to the King, repeated in his ' mother- 
tongue ' — Gaelic — the roll of the royal ancestors 





back to the first King of Scots who ruled in Alban. 
None could foresee that with Alexander himself the 
ancient Celtic line was to close. 

7. The ' Kings Friends ' and the ' Queen s Gain- 
say ers.' — The Scottish nobles, native and Norman, 
were now closely united by intermarriages and 
their interests as a favoured class. Their quarrels 
became the quarrels of ambition, not of race. The 
King being imder age, two powerful parties strove 
for the control of the kingdom during his mi- 
nority. This was to be a familiar state of things 
in Scottish history. At the head of the one party 
was Alan Doorward, or Durward, a gallant and 
able soldier, who held the position of Justiciar, or 
Chief Justice. With him were Robert Bruce of 
Annandale and Alexander, the High Steward. They 
had also the support of the King of England, to whose 
little daughter Margaret King Alexander was married 
at the age of ten. This party called itself the ' King's 
friends.' On the other side were the Comyns, the 
most powerful family in Scotland, numbering among 
its members two Earls and more than thirty knights. 
The head of the family was the Ear] of Mentieth. 
The Comyns were backed by their relative, John 
Balliol of Galloway. Their opponents dubbed them 
the ' Queen's gainsayers,' or opponents. But the 
fact that they were thus clearly opposed to English 
interference won them the popular sympathy. 
For a few years they directed the Government. 
Then Durward easily persuaded the English King 
to assist him in placing his own friends in power. 
The child-Queen, too, was not comfortable in the 
hands of the Comyns. vShe complained that she 



was confined to Edinburgh Castle as a place of resi- 
dence — ' a dismal and solitary fortress/ as she 
described it, ' exposed to the unhealthy air from 
off the sea/ vSo, while Henry hurried with an army 
to the Border, the Durwards seized the castle with 
the King and Queen, as well as the Great Seal, with 
which all royal documents had to be impressed. 
Thus, possessing the symbols of Government, the 
Durwards made up a new council of regency, in 
which Henry was, in a way, included as ' Principal 
Counsellor to the illustrious King of Scotland/ 

8. Fall of the Durwards. — But the Durwards, as 
leaning upon the King of England, were unpopular, 
The Comyns were regarded as the national party. 
Moreover, the new Regents quarrelled with the 
Church, and by order of the Pope were excom- 
municated by the Bishop of Dunblane and the 
Abbots of Kelso and Melrose. Such a sentence cut 
them off from all fellowship with Christian men. 
It was out of the question that the country should 
be governed by excommunicated persons. The 
Comyns and their friends accordingly broke in upon 
the sleeping King at Kinross, and carried him off 
to Stirling. This was to become the favourite mode 
of changing the Government in Scotland. Dur- 
ward fled to England, and his party broke up. 
To show their attitude to England the Comyns 
now made an alliance with the Welsh, whose inde- 
pendence also was in danger from that country. 
In the end, however, the two parties, in order to 
preserve peace, shared the government between them. 

9. The Battle of Largs (1263), and the Conquest of 
the Hebrides. — As soon as he came of age, Alexander 


took up the task which had fallen from the dying 
hands of his father. Once more a strong appeal 
was made to Haco of Norway to surrender his 
claims on the Western Isles. But Haco was in a 
mood to do quite otherwise. The Earl of Ross and 
other northern lords, encouraged by Alexander, 
were raiding the islands. Haco took the sea with 
a large, well-equipped fleet to assert his authority. 
The half-independent chiefs of the Hebrides were 
forced to submit and join him. The King of Man 
eagerly brought assistance to Haco. Meantime 
Alexander made preparations to meet the invaders. 
The Sheriff or Keeper of the royal castle at Ayr 
was set to work building ships and supplying bolts 
for crossbows. The burgesses of Ayr were ordered 
to garrison the castle, and as they refused to do 
so, the Sheriff had to hire soldiers. Haco brought 
his fleet into the Firth of Clyde to make himself 
master of the islands there. Some of his allies from 
the Hebrides sailed up Loch Long, dragged their 
light galleys over the isthmus from Arrochar to 
Tarbet, crossed Loch Lomond, and harried the 
fertile plain of Lennox, carrying away much plunder. 
But the gales of early autumn blew upon Haco's 
ships and scattered them. Several were driven 
ashore at Largs, where the shipwrecked crews were 
hemmed in between the hills and the stormy sea. 
The peasantry, summoned by the blazing beacons, 
gathered with their spears and bows, and fell upon 
the unlucky Norsemen. The Steward, who owned 
Bute, brought up a body of knights. Fighting went 
on all day, till at evening boats came from the rest 
of the fleet and with difficulty managed to carry 



off the remnant of the shipwrecked crews. Haco, 
discouraged by his losses of ships and men, coasted 
northwards again. Wherever his men attempted 
to land they were set on by the western Scots. 
After a stormy voyage he reached Kirkwall, where, 
an aged man unable to bear such hardships, he 
fell ill and died. Alexander followed up his 
advantage by sending a strong force under Alan 
Durward, the High Constable, to subdue the Isles. 
The King of Man gave in without a struggle. Three 
years later the son of Haco ceded all the Western 
Isles to the Scottish King for a payment of 4,000 
marks and a yearly rent of 100 marks, know^n as 
' the Norway Annual.' Orkney and Shetland, how- 
ever, still remained with Norw^ay. 

10. The Scottish Church and the Pope. — It has 
been already noted how the Scottish Church secured 
its independence. No English Archbishop was to 
be its head, but the Pope alone. But not even to 
the Pope would the King or the Church blindly 
submit. William the Lion forced a bishop on 
St. Andrews against the wish both of the native 
clergy and of Rome. Alexander III would allow 
no Papal official to enter his kingdom without his 
permission. When the Pope ordered that the 
Scottish Church should pay to the King of England 
a contribution towards a new Crusade to drive the 
Turks out of the Holy Land, he was met with a 
refusal. The Scots would send Crusaders of their 
own. A small band of knights set out to join the 
main army under ' Saint ' Louis IX of France, 
among w^hom was the Earl of Carrick, who was 
never to return. His widow married Robert Bruce, 


son of the Lord of Annandale, who thus received the 
earldom. When next the Pope demanded a pay- 
ment towards the expenses of a Crusade, it was to be 
made to himself, and accordingly he received a tax of 
the tenth part of the whole property of the Church. 

11. Alexander and the Claim of Supremacy. — At 
the time of Alexander's marriage to his daughter 
the wily Henry III had tried to get the boy-King 
to acknowledge him as his superior. But that, 
Alexander said, was a matter for his Great Council, 
and Henry did not press him further. A new King 
now sat on the throne of England, whose name 
was to be carved deep upon Scottish history. 
To Edward I Alexander, as an English baron, had 
to do homage. The Earl of Carrick went through 
the ceremony of kneeling and taking the oath of 
fealty on behalf of the Scottish King. ' I become 
your man,' said Alexander, ' for the lands w^hich 
I hold of you in the kingdom of England, for which 
I owe you homage, saving my kingdom.' The 
report continues thus : ' Then said the Bishop of 
Norwich, And saving to the King of England, 
if he right have, your homage for your kingdom " ; 
to whom the King immediately answered, To 
homage for my kingdom of Scotland no one has 
any right but God alone, nor do I hold it of any, 
but of God." ' There was need for Alexander to 
be firm and careful with the able statesman and 
soldier who was now his neighbour. Already 
Edward had begun to press his feudal rights over 
the Scottish nobles, including the King, who held 
lands in England, demanding their service and aid 
in money against the Welsh. 



12. Tragic Death of the King, 1286. — The closing 
years of Alexander's reign were saddened by family 
losses. His gentle and beautiful English wife died 
in 1275. Five years later she was followed by 
her younger son, and three years after died her 
only daughter, and the Prince of Scotland. Her 
daughter had been married to Haco's grandson, 
Eric of Norway, and left a child, Margaret. Alex- 
ander himself was now childless. The succession 
passed to the infant Princess of Norway. Alex- 
ander, therefore, summoned his Great Council, and 
thirteen earls, eleven bishops, and twenty-five 
lords accepted the Maid of Norway as heiress to 
Scotland, the Hebrides, Man, Tynedale, and Penrith. 
But the King, forty-four years old, was still a man 
in his prime, and he married again. In March of 
the year after he attended a meeting of his Council 
in Edinburgh, assembled to deal with the case 
of the imprisoned Thomas of Galloway. After the 
business came a jovial feast, while outside raged a 
terrible storm. Nevertheless, Alexander deter- 
mined to ride home to his wife, who was at King- 
horn, in Fife. The ferryman sought to stop him 
and his three squires at the Queen's Ferry ; the 
master of the royal salt-works at Inverkeithing 
begged him to go no farther. But there was no 
staying the doomed King, who laughed at fear. 
With two guides he pushed on. Soon in the thick 
darkness even the guides lost their way. The riders 
could no longer see each other, and trusted themselves 
to the instinct of their horses. Suddenly the King's 
horse stumbled, missed its footing, and pitched over 
the cliff with its rider. Alexander was picked up dead. 


13. A Dark Outlook. — Alexander III was a tall, 
strongly-built man of a frank and kindly nature. 
He was most popular with the people, for he was 
' loyal, loving, and liberal,' so that ' all wept his 
loss.' He was the last of the ' Kings of peace.' 
With but little fighting he had brought the Hebrides 
within the bounds of his realm. There was no 
longer anything to fear from Norway. Luckily his 
father and himself had, for the greater part of their 
reigns, to face Kings of England who were unskilful 
and rash, against whom their own barons rose in 
arms. While England was in confusion, and her 
wealth was wasted in vain wars, Scotland had strong 
kings and increasing riches. The English barons, 
too, distrusting their kings, did not encourage war 
between the countries ; and the Scottish barons, 
holding estates in England which they had no wish 
to lose, were of the same mind. Now when Scotland 
was suddenly robbed of the wise guidance of Alex- 
ander, a strong-willed and ambitious King filled 
the throne of the southern kingdom. The leading 
barons in Scotland were divided in their interests 
and allegiance. Their head was, for the first time, 
a girl, and a' child besides. Well might the unknown 
poet pray for ' succour ' to a kingdom left in such 
' perplexity.' 



1. Races and Languages. — Scotland was now 
occupied by several races. But racial wars had 
ceased. With peace and the spread of industry 
the different peoples had settled down and begun to 
mix freely with each other. In the islands and 
along the northern and western shores was a mingled 
stock of Gaels and Norse, which the purer Gaels 
of the inner glens called the Gall-Gael, or the 
* stranger-Gaels.' English from the Lowlands had 
spread along the east coast, and were settled in 
the towns. The south was part English and part 
British or Welsh. Norman barons with their 
followers were everywhere. They married into the 
leading Celtic families, and so acquired earldoms 
and lordships in the heart of the Highlands and in 
Galloway. The Scoto-Norman ruling class spoke 
French ; English was the language of trade, and in 
the more open districts was displacing the native 
Gaelic. French disappeared befcfre the end of the 
thirteenth century. 

2. Bondmen and Freemen. — But there was a social 
division common to the people as a whole. Many 
were unfree bondmen, or serfs. They were labourers 
on the land, and could not remove from the estate 
on which they were born. If they did so they 
became * fugitives,' and could be pursued and 
brought back. To be at liberty to go where he 
willed was the mark of a freeman. The bondmen 
were transferred with the land from one lord to 


another. ' All that they had was their lord's.' 
They might even be disposed of apart from the rest 
of the property. In the reign of Alexander II the 
Prior and monks of Coldingham bought a serf, with 
his sons and daughters and all his descendants, for 
three marks.* The Kings made gifts to the Church 
of bondmen and their families. But the hard times 
coming brought freedom to this class. Every man 
was needed for the wars, and to be a soldier was to 
be free. The needy nobles preferred to get rent 
in place of the right to make the bondmen work 
for them. Thus the landless, servile class gradually 
disappeared. Next to the bondmen came the 
' husbandmen,' who had small holdings, and paid 
a rent partly in produce, partly in work at special 
seasons, such as seedtime and harvest. Higher 
than these were the ' farmers ' proper, who took 
lands at a fixed rent from year to year. These were 
a most important class. 

3. Cultivation of the Land. — Under Celtic con- 
ditions the people had been mostly herdsmen 
and shepherds. t But as the land was divided up 
and the population increased, agriculture became 
more and more necessary to supply sufficient food. 
William bade his barons and clergy ' to live like 
lords and masters upon their own domain, not like 
husbandmen and shepherds, wasting their lands 

* A mark was 6s. 8d. 

1 Whence the extensive rights in land possessed by the 
early Kings, enabhng them to make such great grants to 
nobles and the Church. In a pastoral community all land 
not in actual occupation is in the gift of its head. Compare 
the case of the many estates belonging to the Czar of 



and the country with multitudes of sheep and 
cattle.' The Alexanders insisted upon every man 
tilling his land. But the chief agents in extending 
and improving agriculture were the monks. Every 
monastery was a model farm. Better cattle and 


sheep and horses were brought into the country. 
The Scottish knights at the Battle of Largs rode 
upon Spanish steeds. The Normans were also great 
hunters, and deer, wild boars, and wild fowl 
abounded in the forests scattered over the whole 

4. The Food of the People. — The chief crops raised 
were oats, barley, peas, and beans. Eight or 
twelve oxen were needed for the plough, and for 
this reason the smaller farmers had to combine and 
till their land in common. They thus lived together 
in small ' vills,' or villages, and ground their corn 
at the lord's mill. Wheat was grown on the sunnier 
fields of the south, but it was the food of the 
rich, being four times as dear as oats. Ale was a 
common drink, but for the wealthier folk there was 
wine from France. The principal flesh food of the 
lower classes was pork. Herds of swine were fed 
in the forests round the cleared land. On the 
grassy hills and moors of the Lowlands were great 



flocks of sheep ; and the wealthy consumed much 
beef. Cheese was made everywhere, but especially 
in Forfarshire. Great numbers of poultry and 
geese were to be found on every homestead. With 
the approach of winter, w^hen the pasture failed, 
the bulk of the herds had to be slain, and salted 
for winter use as ' marts,' whence we get the date 
Martinmas (November ii). Of fish there was an 
abundant supply, and on the fast-days of the 
Church nothing else was eaten. The salmon was, 
of course, a ' royal fish,' and there w^re special rules 
as to its capture. But white-fish, herring, eels, 
and even porpoises w^re familiar food. Foreign 
fishermen also frequented the seas of ' fishy Scot- 
land.' Daintier foods, such as figs, rice, raisins, 
etc., were brought from abroad. Spices from the 
East improved the cooking, and foreign sweets and 
home-grown fruits had their place on the table of 
those who could afford them. But even with such 
resources Scotland had often difficulty in feeding 
itself, and corn was commonly imported from 
England and Ireland. 

5. Houses and Castles. — Houses were still built 
almost entirely of wood, or of basket-work filled in 
with turf and thatched. When Alexander III built 
for himself a ' new hall ' in Caithness, it was made of 
' boards.' There was thus a constant danger of fire, 
and in one year eight towns were burnt to the 
ground. The common fuel was peat or wood, but 
the monks of Newbattle Abbey were already work- 
ing the coal near Dalkeith. The nobles, mean- 
wliilc, were fast putting up castles of stoue — thick 
walls defended by towers and enclosing wooden 



buildings. These were now usually built near water, 
so that they could be surrounded by a water-filled 
ditch or ' moat/ As rents were paid mostly in 
produce, the lords had to move from place to place 
with their families and retainers in order to consume 
their stores of food. Thus the Court was never 
long settled in one place, and Alexander III had 
castles or halls in nearly every county of southern 

6. Commerce and Manufactures. — Of the country's 
produce what could not be fully used at home was 
sent abroad. Such were hides, fleeces, wool, and 
cured fish. Scotch pearls sold high in England. 
All classes engaged in this overseas trade. Kings, 
nobles, and abbots, as well as the merchants, had 
their ships which carried cargoes from their estates 
to Flanders or France, and brought back corn, fine 
cloths, wines, iron goods, and delicacies. Trading 
was no dishonour in Scotland, and there, in con- 
trast to other countries, the landed gentry and the 
people in business were, consequently, on good 
terms. The burgesses were not as a class in opposi- 
tion to the nobles. Even the Celtic Lord of Argyll 
had his trading ships. The same was the case in 
certain manufactures. The principal one was salt, 
made from sea- water in shallow ' pans.' William 
the Lion had many salt-pans, as also had his suc- 
cessors. Monasteries received such works in gift. 
Ships were built in most of the Scottish ports. A 
' wonderful vessel ' was built for a crusading French 
lord at Inverness. There wood was abundant, but 
the skilled workmen had to be brought from foreign 
countries. Trade overseas had, of course, its 




special risks. Ships putting into English ports were 
sometimes seized, and released only on an order 
from the King. Pirates haunted the coasts. But 
trading ships were easily turned into ships of war. 
A rich citizen of Berwick, Canute by name and so 
probably of Danish blood, had one of his vessels 
with his wife in it carried off by an Earl of Orkney. 
He thereupon sent against the Earl a fleet of four- 
teen ships fitted out at his own expense. 

7. The Burghs and the Merchant Guild. — At home 
all buying and selling was confined to the burghs, in 
which were also weekly markets and yearly fairs 
held in the open space round the market cross. 
To these came the country folk and strangers to 
dispose of their goods. The merchants of a burgh 
were formed into a ' guild,' or brotherhood, under 
strict regulations. No one but a member of the 
guild or a ' stranger merchant ' could traffic in the 
leading articles of sale — cloth, hides, or wool. No 
business could be done before a bell rang at a certain 
hour. No one was allowed to buy goods on their 
way to the market, so as to limit the supply ; or to 
buy up all there was of any sort of food, so as to 
make it dearer. All articles for sale were tried by 
officers of the burgh, who saw to it that they were 
of proper quality, and sold at a fair price. The first 
Scottish coins, ' sterlings/ or silver pennies, were 
issued by David I ; Alexander III added half- 
pennies of silver. By far the richest and most 
populous of all the burghs was Berwick. Burgesses 
who were merely workmen, such as dyers, shoe- 
makers, butchers, glovers, etc., were kept to their 
trades, and could not be merchants or members 



of the guild without first ceasing to be workmen. 
But the ' craftsmen ' in time came to have guilds 
of their own. The ruling officials of the burghs 
were the baillies, who, if the burgh was free and not 
still controlled by its superior, were elected by the 
community. They collected the tolls on articles 
sold in the burgh markets. They had courts for 
the punishment of offenders against the burgh 
laws. They made rules for keeping the streets 
clean — no easy matter when rubbish was usually 
thrown where it was most easily got rid of. All the 
burgesses took their turn in ' watching ' the town 
by night. Persons suffering from disease were sent 
to a hospital, or ' spittal,' outside the boundaries. 
A very common disease was leprosy, brought on 
by the eating of so much salt meat and fish. In- 
curable lepers were kept outside, but allowed to 
beg at the gates. The aged and the poor also had 
their hospitals. ' No burgh was complete without 
a hospital — no royal burgh without a castle.' 

8. The Friars. — Provision for helping the pooi 
was made also in the monasteries. The monks, 
however, had settled mostly in the country. A 
new order of ' religious ' now appeared in the towns. 
These were the Friars {i.e., ' brothers ') — followers 
of the rule of St. Dominic, Black Friars ; or of St. 
Francis, Grey Friars — so called from the colour of 
their gowns. The Black Friars were great preachers. 
The Grey Friars soon became famous for their 
learning, and the first great Scottish scholar, John 
the Scot, w^as a Franciscan. The Friars were expected 
to support themselves entirely by begging, so that 
they might be free from the temptations of the 




monks. But in time they ceased to observe this 
rule, and acquired much wealth. Their houses 
were built in the towns, and they worked among 
the poor, teaching the people cleanliness and 
simple rules of health. In fact, the Church, 
in its different branches, entered closely into all 

the operations of daily 
life. Its members not 
only did the special 
work of clergy, but 
were also the lawyers, 
doctors, teachers, 
artists, architects, and 
writers of the time. 
The Abbey of Dun- 
fermline had schools 
in Perth, and that of 
Kelso had schools in 
Roxburgh. ' Clerk ' 
is the same word as 
* cleric,' and, as a 
rule, only clerics were 
able to read or write, 
or thought it worth 
while to learn. Books 
were kept and copied in the monasteries, and the 
histories were written by monks. 

9. Justice and the Courts, — The chief business of 
the Scottish Kings in time of peace was the ad- 
ministration of justice. There were many kinds of 
courts and forms of trial. A man accused of an 
offence might defend himself by bringing a number 
of neighbours of good repute who swore that he 



was innocent. This was called Compurgation, or 
clearing oneself by the help of others. If he were 
unable to do this he might undergo the trial by 
ordeal. Blindfolded, he walked among red-hot 
ploughshares, or he dipped his hand in boiling 
water.* If he escaped injury, or if, after a few 
days, his burns were healed, he was declared inno- 
cent. Either way his chance of getting off was 
small, but to be without friends was a sign of a 
bad reputation. The ordeal was usually carried 
through in the presence of the clergy, as God was 
supposed to bring about the result. So when the 
Church came to disapprove of this method it passed 
out of use. Another form of appeal to the judgment 
of God was for the parties to fight a duel. The 
defeated one was adjudged guilty. This was 
' trial by combat/ or the ' wager of battle.' The 
parties had to be of equal rank. The greater 
and lesser barons might employ a ' champion ' 
to fight for them. This judicial duel was intro- 
duced by the Normans ; the burgesses preferred 
compurgation. From King David's time, however, 
the practice grew of having a case settled by the 
judgment of the ' good men ' of the district, or 
freeholders, as a sort of jury. To the great land- 
owners was given the right of holding courts with 
power of ' pit and gallows.' On the gallows men 
were hanged, in the ' pit ' women were drowned. 
Courts were held in the open on a ' moot,' or 

* There is no account in the Scottish records of any actua 1 
trial by ordeal, though the right to impose such a form of 
trial is found among the privileges granted by charter to 
the great monasteries. 



meeting-hill. Those having the right to hold courts 
were responsible for the ' peace ' of their district. 
But the ' King's peace ' and the King's courts 
tended to limit the power of the others. A new 
royal official took a leading place in the country — 
the Sheriff. His chief duties were as keeper of the 
royal castle in his sheriffdom, or shire, and receiver 
of the royal revenues. But he also held a court 
at fixed periods. Over all was the King himself, 
who did justice as he moved from place to place. 
To carry out the work in his name Justiciars were 
appointed, one for each of the old divisions of the 
kingdom — Lothian, Galloway, and beyond the 
Forth. In time there was one north and another 
south of the Mounth, or Grampians. The Justiciar 
held his court three times a year in the head burgh 
of the shire. The more serious offences came before 
him, such as murder or robbery. To certain sacred 
places was granted the privilege of ' sanctuary,' 
or protection to criminals, who might there take 
refuge, and be safe until their case was fairly tried, 
or they made satisfaction to the wronged person. 
There they were in ' the King's peace,' and to break 
that ' peace ' meant a fine of many cows. 

10. The Chief Officials and the Army. — The King 
was assisted in the government by the officers of 
State. The Chancellor kept the Great Seal, and 
through his hands passed all official documents. 
The Chamberlain received the royal revenues, and 
also looked after the burghs. The Steward managed 
the King's household. This office lost importance 
when the family which firstj^held it came to the 
throne. The Constable and the Earl Marshal 


directed military matters, the latter having specially 
to do with the mounted knights. Some of these 
offices pertained to particular families. The Keiths 
in Forfarshire were hereditary Earls Marshal, and 
the FitzAlans of Renfrewshire hereditary High 
Stewards. The army was partly provided by the 
feudal barons, who held their lands on condition 
of supplying knights or mounted men-at-arms. Thus 
for Annandale Bruce had to contribute ten knights. 
Bishops and abbots, as landholders, came under the 
same rule, and sometimes bishops themselves took 
the field. Each baron and prelate thus maintained 
a small army of his own, and they were able, when 
the country was unsettled, to carry on private wars. 
Besides the barons, the burgesses also had to supply 
soldiers, and under ' Scottish service ' the whole 
body of freemen might be brought into the field. 
Every man had to provide himself with weapons 
and armour suitable to his means. The period for 
which he could be compelled to serve was about 
six weeks, and when the time was up he could claim 
to go home. Campaigns were thus usually short. 

IL The Royal Revenue. — All the expenses of 
Government had to be paid by the King. The 
greater part of his income was made up by the rents 
of the Crown lands, which were very extensive, and 
were scattered up and down the country. In 
these were included the rents paid by the royal 
burghs. Then the King had the fines of the royal 
courts as well as the forfeited property of criminals. 
The barons had to make special payments on certain 
occasions, as when an heir succeeded to an estate. 
If the heir was under age the King took over the 



management of his property, paying for his mainte- 
nance and education while he was thus in ' ward/ 
Or* he might hand over or sell this privilege to one 
of his friends. If the estate came to an heiress, she 
could not marry without the King's consent, and 
if she did so had to pay a heavy fine. If the King 
was in special need of money, he might call upon 
his vassals to contribute an ' aid/ But the Scottish 
Kings of this time were rich men. The Alexanders 
had plenty of money for all purposes. Alexander III 
paid for the Hebrides out of his own pocket. The 
Kings were thus independent of the assistance of 
their feudal tenants, unlike the Kings of England. 
The country was engaged in no great wars to 
drain them of their wealth. Thus ihey needed to 
summon their Great Council of tenants-in-chief 
only for advice and support. This Council was as 
yet composed of the ' Two Estates ' — the barons 
and the clergy ; out of this body grew the Scottish 


JOHN BALLIOL (1292-1296) 

I. Rising of Bruce and his Party. — Margaret, ' the 
King's daughter of Norway/ was now by her grand- 
father's choice Queen of Scotland. Six guardians 
were appointed to carry on the government ; but 
to some at least of the nobles the prospect was not 
pleasing. In less than a fortnight after the death 
of Alexander, Robert Bruce of Annandale and his 


son, the elder Earl of Carrick, had begun a civil 
war. They seized the castles of Dumfries and 
Wigtown. Edinburgh Castle, with some others, 
was put into a state of defence against them. To- 
wards the end of the year the Bruces, the Comyns, 
James the Steward, Angus Macdonald of Islay, and 
other barons, bound themselves by a written bond 
to secure the succession to the throne according to 
the ' ancient customs ' of Scotland. It was not a 
' custom ' that a female should succeed. The 
Bruces, too, thought they had some right to move 
in the matter. In the reign of Alexander II, at a 
time when that King was as yet without children, 
Robert Bruce, of Annandale, the grandson of 
Alexander's uncle, David, had been chosen as next 
heir, and as such accepted by the Great Council. 
The birth of Alexander III put this arrangement 
aside. Bruce was now anxious to revive it. For 
two years a condition of war existed in southern 
Scotland, and then came to an end, we do not know 
how. Edward of England would seem to have 
interfered against the Bruces, as at this time we 
find him forbidding the Irish merchants to carry 
food to ' his enemies of Scotland.' Probably, too, 
the Comyns were not very anxious to make a way 
to the throne for a rival family. They were related 
to John Balliol of Galloway, also descended from 
Earl David, and him the Bruce faction was now 
treating as an opponent. 

2. The Treaty of Brigham and the Death of Mar- 
garet. — To Edward the Bruces were enemies because 
their success would spoil his plans. By careful 
scheming he secured an agreement that the young 


Queen should marry his son, Edward Prince of 
Wales ; which would mean the union of the king- 
doms. But the Scots were most careful as to the 
conditions under which this should be brought 
about. These, as laid down in the Treaty of 
Brigham, were that ' the rights, laws, liberties, and 
customs of Scotland should remain for ever entire 
and inviolable,' and ' that the kingdom of Scotland 
should remain separate and divided from England, 
free in itself and without subjection.' The plan 
dissolved when the news ' sounded through the 
people ' that the Maid of Norway, on her way to 
Scotland, had suddenly died in the Orkneys (1290). 

3. Appeals to Edward. — At once the parties of 
Bruce and Balliol were in activity again. Bruce 
turned up at Perth with a strong following. Eraser, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, and John Comyn, Lord of 
Badenoch, both Guardians, fell upon the lands of 
Bruce's friends in the North. They were acting in 
the interests of John Balliol. Eraser wrote -to 
Edward begging him to come to the Border and 
settle the dispute ; suggesting Balliol as the most 
suitable person to support. A body professing to 
represent the ' Seven Earls ' of ancient Pictland 
(see Chapter IV, § i), whose right it was to elect 
the King, laid before Edward the claims of Bruce. 
The situation was critical. Which claimant had the 
better right to succeed was ' a hard and knotty 
matter.' The Scottish nobles were divided, and 
the parties were equally matched. Only Edward 
seemed strong enough to give a decision which 
should be respected. The rivals, too, were his 
subjects for lands they held in England. But 


Edward, as it turned out, was bent on serving his 
own interests ; and the claimants, as the price of 
a crown, were prepared to bargain away the in- 
dependence of the kingdom. 

4. The Competitors : Edward's Decision. — Edward 
summoned the Scottish barons and clergy to meet 
him at Norham. At the same time he called on his 
lords in the northern countries to join him with 
their followers in arms. He had the cathedrals 
and monasteries rummaged for evidences from the 
chronicles kept there that Scotland was subject to 
the Crown of England. Then when the Scots 
gathered to meet him they were faced with a de- 
mand that, to begin with, they should recognize 
Edward as superior and overlord of their kingdom. 
No heed was given to the provisions of the recent 
Treaty of Brigham, which Edward himself had 
accepted. The King, indeed, under a show of legal 
right, was determined to bully the Scots into sub- 
mission. They asked for delay. Three weeks 
later they one and all tamely gave in to Edward's 
demands. Only from ' the community,' the body 
of freeholders or small proprietors, did a protest 
appear in writing. It was dismissed as ' nothing 
to the purpose.' As events turned out, the oppo- 
sition of this important part of the people was to 
show itself very much to the purpose. The case, 
however, now went into a long examination and 
discussion. There were in all thirteen ' com- 
petitors ' for the crown of Scotland. Only two 
claims, however, were considered as of serious 
weight. Direct heirs having failed, John Balliol 
claimed as great-grandson of William the Lion's 


brother, David, Earl of Hunting- 


don, by his eldest 
daughter ; Robert 
Bruce as grandson 
of the second 
daughter, and so, 
though of the 
younger line, a 
step nearer in 
relationship (see 
Chapter VI, § 4). 
A year after, fol- 
lowing on much 
debate around this 
nice point, Ed- 
ward pronounced 
his decision, in 

accordance with 
feudal law, in 
favour of Balliol. 
All other pleas 
had to give way 
to the fact that 
Balliol represented 
the elder branch 
of the family, 
Bruce the younger. 
The new King 
took the oath of 

fealty to Edward -^^-r- - 

as his overlord, great seal of john balliol— reverse. 

and was crowned 

at Scone on the last day of November, 1292 — 
St. Andrew's Day ! 


5. Balliol as a Vassal King. — Edward was not long 
in showing what he considered to be King John's 
true position. Any Scot who felt himself wronged 
might carry his case to the English Com't, and Balliol 
would be summoned to stand his trial. Macduff, 
whom King John had deprived of his Earldom of 
Fife, took his grievance to Edward's ears. Balliol, 
summoned to explain his conduct, at first refused to 
come, and, when he did appear, pleaded that he must 
consult his Great Council. He was answered by a 
threat of punishment for his conduct. A wine- 
merchant complained that the King would not settle 
a debt incurred by Alexander III. Edward sent the 
Sheriff of Northumberland with a summons to his 
' beloved and faithful ' King of Scotland to come to 
England and explain why he did not pay the bill. 
But Edward now found himself in similar trouble 
with the King of France, his own superior for lands 
in that country. He was ordered to appear before 
King Philip and answer in the matter of a sea-fight 
between his people and some Frenchmen ; but he 
would not hear of himself being treated as he treated 
King John. He replied by declaring war on France, 
and Balliol and the Scottish nobles were called 
upon to supply aid in men and money. 

6. Balliol Refuses Homage. — This was more than 
the Scottish barons could stand. A Council met at 
Scone, and it was determined that the lords who 
favoured England should be expelled, and their 
estates taken from them. Among others, the elder 
Robert Bruce, whose father, the Competitor, was 
now dead, was driven from Annandale, and his 
lands given to Comyn, Earl of Buchan. As Balliol 



had shown himself so feeble, a committee of, lords 
was selected to direct the affairs of the kingdom. 
An alliance was entered into with France, now 
Edward's enemy. Finally, Balliol declared he 
would no longer pay Edward the homage ' extorted 
from him by violence ' (1295). As Edward was in 
difficulties with his own subjects and with Wales, 
as well as France, the occasion seemed a good one 
for throwing off his authority. 

7. The Fall of Balliol. — This defiance was followed 
up by an invasion of England. A Scottish army 
under two of the Comyns appeared before Carlisle, 
which was successfully defended for Edward 
by the elder Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick. The 
Scots then traversed Tynedale, and are, as usual, 
accused of having done many barbarous things — 
among others, of having burned 200 ' little clerks,' 
or schoolboys, in their schools. But meantime 
Edward was assaulting Berwick by land and sea. 
The citizens made a brave defence, beating back 
the Englishmen and burning some of the English 
ships. They much annoyed the long-legged King 
by making a ' mocking rhyme ' about him, part of 
which ran thus : 

' What weens* King Edward with his long shanks 
To have won Berwick, all our unthanks ?'t 

When at last Edward won the town he took a 
ferocious revenge. About 7,000 people, old and 
young, men and women, were slain in a two-days' 
massacre, so that, we are told, blood ran down the 
streets like a mill-stream. Even after the English 

* Thinks. 

f Against our wishes. 


had entered the town some Flemish merchants con- 
tinued to hold out in their building known as ' the 
Red Hall/ In the evening the Hall was set on fire, 
and its thirty defenders perished with it. The castle 
soon yielded, and its governor. Sir William Douglas, 
was imprisoned ; but there was no slaughter of the 
garrison. Edward was, as yet, sparing to his well- 
born enemies, while merciless to humbler folk. Ber- 
wick never recovered from this savage handling. 
The wars were the ruin of her commercial greatness. 
A town in such an important position on the common 
border of two unfriendly countries, was no safe place 
for peaceful traders. It became a place of strength, 
to be fought over in every war, and to pass in blood 
and flame from hand to hand. The fall of Berwick 
was followed by the scattering of a Scottish army 
at Dunbar. The principal castles surrendered. 
There was no more resistance. The Scots had no 
single leader of sufficient ability or strength of 
purpose. The Braces and Comyns could not com- 
bine, and * the harmless rabble lay mangled far and 
wide over the land.' Balliol, chased into Forfarshire, 
gave himself up at Stracathro, and passed back to 
Edward the kingdom he had received at his hands 
(1296). He had been, as the Scots said, for three 
years and a half only a ' Toom Tabard,' an empt}^ 
coat of arms, not a real King. Retiring to his 
lands in Normandy, he lived long enough to see 
Scotland a free kingdom once more. 




1. Edward's Triumph. — Scotland was now at Ed- 
ward's feet. He marched, a conqueror, through 
the country as far as Elgin. Every one whose 
homage was worth having rushed to offer it. On 
his way home Edward lifted the ' Stone of Destiny ' 
from Scone, the Black Rood, or ' Black Cross of 
Scotland,' a relic of St. Margaret, and the national 
documents. The Great Seal of Scotland was broken 
up. Of the Stone of Destiny, an old prophecy said 
that wherever it was a King of Scottish race should 
reign. It now lies under the seat of the Coronation 
Chair in Westminster Abbey. The Black Rood was 
specially useful as a national holy relic upon which 
the Scots nobles and prelates should swear to be 
loyal to their new master ; but in those days oaths 
were readily taken and as readily broken. Edward 
himself, whose motto was ' Keep compact/ never, 
so far as Scotland was concerned, kept a compact 
longer than it suited his purpose. Meantime 2,000 
Scottish barons and clergy sealed their submission 
to England on the ' Ragman's Roll.' Young Robert 
Bruce received back the people of Annandale to 
' the King's peace,' and Edward also declared his 
' great esteem ' for ' the good service ' of the elder 
Earl of Carrick. The castles were 'stuffit all with 
English men.' English sheriffs were appointed. 
English ecclesiastics received posts in the Scottish 
Church. Even the Scottish nobles who supported 


Edward were kept out of the chief offices. Warenne, 
Earl of Surrey, was made Guardian, Cressingham 


Treasurer, and Ormesby Justiciar. It was now the 
autumn of 1296. 

2. Revolt. — Trouble began almost with the new 
year, A rising of some sort was then being arranged 



for, as Edward ordered that anyone found carrying 
letters in Scotland should be arrested. In 
the spring young William Wallace, son of 
Sir Malcolm Wallace of Elderslie, fell upon 
Lanark in the night-time, slew the English 
Sheriff, and set fire to the town. The people 
were being goaded into rebellion by the 
harsh doings of the English officials and 
their soldiers. Wallace next marched rapidly 
to Scone, and nearly captured the Justiciar. 
Certain of the nobles now took advantage 
of the popular revolt. The younger Bruce, 
James the Steward, Sir William Douglas, 
and Wishart, the Bishop of 
^^^p Glasgow, with their followers, 

burnt, slew, and plundered in 


FAUNS, KNOWN Galloway, drove away English 
AS THE ' WAL- ecclcsiastics, and settled down 


in a camp at Irvine ; but on 
the approach of an English army they 
submitted, and promised to make amends. 
Wallace, however, held out in 'the Forest,' 
which then stretched from Selkirk to Ayr- 
shire. Sir William Douglas, failing to keep 
faith, was imprisoned in Berwick Castle, 
where he continued ' very wild and very 
abusive.' He died a prisoner in the Tower 
of London, leaving a more famous son. 
Beyond the Spey Andrew Moray was out 
' with a great body of rogues.' To the 
high-placed Englishmen the Scottish com- 
mons all along were merely ' rogues ' and ' rabble'; 
but these were the men who fought the battles 


for independence. Cressingham, too, complained 
that ' not a penny ' could be got from the 
Scots, who had not been accustomed to English 
forms of taxation. But Edward was embarking an 
army to deal with France, and he took with him 
out of harm's way five of the Comyns, Sir Simon 
Eraser, and the Earl of AthoU. His officers in 
Scotland had to do the best they could of them- 
selves. Meantime Wallace marched north, rousing 
the people, and was joined by Andrew Moray with 
his ' rogues.' They set to work to besiege Dundee. 

3. Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297). — The 
English Guardian was now forced to take steps to 
suppress a flourishing rebellion. A force of 1,000 
mounted knights, with many English and Welsh 
footmen, was collected at Stirling, the key to the 
northern and north-eastern districts. There the 
Eorth was crossed by a narrow bridge. Wallace 
marched rapidly south, and took up a position 
beyond the bridge, on the wooded slope of the 
Abbey Craig. He had about 150 horsemen, but 
the mass of his army was spearmen. The feeble 
Guardian at first tried to persuade the Scots to 
submit. Two friars went to Wallace to say that 
all would be forgiven if he and his men would come 
into the King's peace. ' Tell your friends,' Wallace 
replied, ' that we have not come here to ask for 
peace, but prepared to fight for the freedom of our 
kingdom.' Against wiser counsels the aged and 
stupid Surrey determined to advance over the bridge, 
where only two horsemen could ride abreast. That 
' fat and foolish ' churchman, Cressingham the 
Treasurer, also insisted on attacking. He did not 



wish to ' drag out the war * and ' waste the King's 
treasure. It would have taken eleven hours for the 
whole body of English horse to cross the bridge ; but 
Wallace did not wait so long. One division had 
crossed, and was forming up on the bank, when he 
launched his men upon it. The bridge-head was 
seized. Those on the further side could bring no 
help to their fellows. One English knight by 
desperate fighting managed to cut his way back to 
the main body. The rest, consisting of about lOO 
horsemen and some thousands of foot, were either 
slain or flung into the river. Surrey left a small 
garrison in Stirling Castle, and hurried off with the 
remnant of his army to Berwick. The Castle fell 
to the Scots shortly afterwards ' from want of 
victuals.' Dundee was abandoned, and in a very 
short time there were no English garrisons in Scot- 
land save at Berwick and Roxburgh. How much 
Wallace had accomplished in a single campaign is 
shown in a letter which, as one of ' the Generals of the 
army of the realm of Scotland,' he sent at this time 
to the two chief trading towns of the Continent. The 
merchants were to be told ' that they can have safe 
access to all the ports of the realm of Scotland with 
their merchandise, for the realm of Scotland, thank 
God ! has been recovered by war from the power of 
the English.' The Scots had suffered in business as 
well as other ways from the insecure condition of 
the country, and it became part of the policy of 
Edward I and of his son after him to destroy their 
overseas trade. 

4. Wallace in England. — Wallace now carried the 
war across the border. Under the snows of Decem- 


ber the Scots harried the northern counties in the 
old merciless fashion. They plundered the convents 
and churches, so that ' the praise of God ceased in 
all the monasteries and churches of the whole pro- 
vince from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to Carlisle/ for 
' all the servants of the Lord had fled, with practi- 
cally the whole of the common folk, from the face 
of the Scots/ Wallace did his best to protect some 
of the churchmen and their goods, but it is certain 
that the invasion was marked by great ferocity. 
The raiders returned with much plunder, badly 
needed in southern Scotland, which the military 
operations of the year had reduced to a state of 
famine. Wallace was now knighted, and appears 
as ' Governor of Scotland ' on behalf of the absent 
King John. 

5. Edward in the Field, — The conquest of Scotland 
had thus all to be done over again. Edward called 
out his feudal array to the number of about 7,000 
knights and mounted men-at-arms. The footmen 
were twice as many — almost all Welsh and Irish 
volunteers who came for the sake of the plunder. 
Wallace assembled an army of which by much the 
greater part was spearmen, while the rest consisted 
of small bodies of horsemen and archers. Now the 
actual fighting in a battle of that time was done by 
the horsemen in armour. Each man wore a com- 
plete suit of mail or chain-armour, with a breast- 
plate and a closed helmet. His horse, too, moved 
under a covering of mail.* His chief weapons were 
a long lance and an iron club or a battle-axe. A 
man on foot was able to wear but little armour, even 

* See illustrations of seals on pp. 76 and 96. 


if he could afford it, and no one but a man of means 
could. Thus on a fair field infantry were next to 
useless ; for there was no standing against charges of 
armour-clad horsemen. Yet Wallace's army was 
almost entirely composed of infantry carrying the 
twelve-foot pike or spear so dear to the Scots in all 
their wars. Edward, too, in his campaigns against 
the Welsh, had learned the use of the long-bow. 
The Welsh and English archer drew the bow-string 


of a six-foot bow to his ear, and discharged a shaft 
a yard long with great force. The Scottish archers 
of Ettrick Forest used only the short bow, a much 
weaker weapon. Wallace seemed thus to be utterly 
outmatched : a fair stand-up fight would mean only 

6. Battle of Falkirk (1298). — Wallace, however, 
was too wise to take any risks he could avoid. 
Edward crossed the east Border in June, and after 


capturing some castles, reached the neighbourhood 
of Edinburgh. But Wallace and his army were not 
to be found. The English provision ships had not 
arrived. The little food there was in the country 
was soon used up. The army was starving ; the 
Welsh mutinied. Just when retreat seemed the 
only possible course two Scottish nobles, who 
favoured the English, arrived with the news that 
Wallace lay in the Torwood between Stirling and 
Falkirk. Edward at once hurried thither. There 
was now no avoiding a fight. But Wallace dis- 
posed his army in a way that was new to the art 
of war, and showed him as great a general as Edward 
himself. Against all usage the horsemen were kept 
in reserve, and the main fighting was thrown upon 
the men on foot. These were drawn up in four 
great masses, or ' schiltrons.' The front ranks 
knelt, and rested the butts of their spears on the 
ground. Those behind levelled their spears over 
their heads. In the centre of each schiltron was a 
group of mounted spearmen. The archers took up 
their position between the schiltrons and on either 
flank. The ground chosen was behind a broad 
morass, impassable for horsemen. This the English 
knights at once found to be the case when they 
tried to cross it. The warlike Beck, Bishop of Dur- 
ham, led his company round one end and then 
paused to see what could be done. ' Be off to your 
Mass, Bishop,' shouted the reckless knights ; ' don't 
try to teach us the art of war ;' and from both sides 
a charge was made on the Scottish foot. Wallace's 
cavalry immediately fled ; his archers were scat- 
tered ; but the schiltrons were hke rocks. There 


was no breaking through those level lines of spears. 
Edward now came up with his main battle. His 
archers were brought to the front. They poured 
their deadly shafts into the close-set masses of Scots. 
Nothing could be done to check them : the Scottish 
chivalry was gone ; the archers had been cut to 
pieces. Gaps appeared in the schiltrons ; their 
lines wavered and shrunk under that fatal shower. 
Again the cloud of horsemen burst upon them, and 
they broke. The rest was sheer massacre. Wallace 
and some others escaped into the woods or across 
the River Carron. The long-bow had won the day. 
But had Wallace been able to secure his wings as 
well as his front, and had his horsemen stayed to 
deal with the English archers, the result might have 
been different — how different was to be shown 
hereafter. Falkirk was lost, but the heroic and 
skilful example set by Wallace was not to be for- 
gotten. In London the victory was celebrated with 
great rejoicing. 

7. Comyns and Bruces again, — At this stage we 
lose sight of Wallace. He ceased to be Guardian. 
The Scottish nobles, indeed, did not favour that 
position being held by a man of inferior birth. 
Wallace's strength lay in his success, and now he was 
a beaten man. He seems to have gone to France 
to ask the help of its King for his unfortunate 
country, and to get the Pope to interfere. King 
Philip twice arranged with Edward a truce for the 
Scots. Meantime resistance was kept up, with its 
centre in Ettrick Forest. The chief Scottish nobles, 
forgetting their oaths, were again in the field ; 
but the old feud was still alive. It showed itself 


in the election of new Guardians. At a meeting 
in Ettrick Forest the Comyn or BaUiol party and 
that of Bruce nearly came to blows. Sir John 
Comyn ' the Red/ of Badenoch, took the young 
Bruce, grandson of the Competitor, by the throat. 
Daggers were out, but nothing worse happened. 
Bruce, Sir John Comyn, and Lamberton, Bishop of 
St. Andrews, were appointed joint Guardians. 

8. The Barons War, — Edward meanwhile was 
much hampered by difficulties with his barons over 
the question of taxation. He could not get money 
to pay his troops. The Pope called upon him to 
abandon Scotland, which, he declared, was his pro- 
perty as Head of the Church. He also commanded 
Edward to release the Scottish ecclesiastics whom 
he held in prison. Accordingly Wishart, Bishop of 
Glasgow, was set free, and on the Gospels and the 
Black Rood, as well as other sacred objects, he swore 
for the fourth time to be true to the King of Eng- 
land. But any further right of the Pope to interfere 
Edward, supported by his barons, refused to acknow- 
ledge. So the struggle went on, and every year now 
saw an English army in Scotland. The Guardians 
offered no resistance on a large scale, but resorted 
to irregular fighting. The English garrisons were 
kept in a state of constant alarm by bodies of Scots. 
Edward was begged to send horsemen ' to ride upon 
them/ Outside the castles the English had no 
footing in the country. In 1302 the Scots were 
joined by the gallant Sir Simon Eraser, and, led by 
Comyn, they surprised the main body of the in- 
vading army at Roslin, and inflicted upon it a severe 
defeat ; but this was the last glimmer of success. 


Next year Philip of France deserted the Scottish 
cause. The Pope had been won over by Edward. 
The elder Bruce was dead, and the young Earl of 
Carrick, anxious about his English estates, had 
turned again, and received posts in Scotland in the 
pay of Edward. That King and his barons had at 
last come to an agreement. The way was thus open 
for a united effort to crush Scotland. A fresh army 
was embarked, and, with portable bridges for the 
crossing of rivers and many powerful siege-engines, 
sailed northwards. Before such an array the 
Scottish leaders gave up hope. Comyn and his 
friends surrendered in the early spring of 1304. The 
country, indeed, was exhausted. Comyn 's men had 
' nothing to fry, or drink, or eat, nor power remain- 
ing wherewith to manage war and Comyn, though 
he had done his best, had not the military genius of 
a Wallace or a Bruce. Only Stirling Castle held out 
for some months longer, even against the battering 
of thirteen siege-engines throwing heavy missiles. 
To get lead for these, Edward had all the churches 
near stripped of their roofs. The Queen and the 
ladies of the Court watched the siege from a window 
specially built in their house. The Earl of Carrick 
was active in sending material for the machines ; 
and serving in the division of the Prince of Wales 
was his brother, Edward Bruce. 

9. The Fate of Wallace. — Edward did not treat 
his noble captives harshly : they were confined or 
held to ransom. But there was no security as long 
as Wallace was at large. Everybody was now being 
hounded on to hunt down the patriot. Comyn and 
Eraser were promised a shortening of their exile if 


they succeeded in taking him. Robert Bruce was 
employed in the same business. Ralph Haliburton, 
a Scottish prisoner from Stirling, was released on 
condition that he should ' help those Scots that were 
seeking to capture Sir William Wallace.' He was 
at last ' spied out ' in or near Glasgow, treacherously 
seized, and handed over to Edward's sheriff at Dum- 
barton, Sir John Menteith. Hurried off to London, 
he was, on August 23, 1305, brought up for trial 
in Westminster Hall. He was charged with a long 
series of crimes : he was a robber, a murderer, a 
destroyer of churches, and a traitor — that is, he 
had made war upon England, and stood for the 
independence of his country. Of every cruel act 
with which he was charged the Scots themselves, 
in their turn, accused Edward. But Wallace, of 
course, was convicted. As a robber he was hanged, 
as a murderer executed ; as an impious traitor he 
was mutilated, his head stuck on London Bridge 
and his body cut into four quarters, which were 
hung on gibbets at Newcastle, Berwick, Stirling, and 
Perth. English writers gloated over the shameful 
end of the man who had dared to oppose their 
masterful lord ; but for the Scots he became the 
popular hero of the great national struggle. The 
exploits of ' the Wallace wight ' were, 150 years 
afterwards, made the subject of a long poem 
by a wandering minstrel known as Blind Harry. 




1. Murder of the Red Comyn. — Once more Edward 
set about framing a constitution for the conquered 
kingdom. It provided a government made up of a 
committee of Englishmen, assisted by the Scottish 
members who now sat in the Enghsh Parliament. It 
showed a real desire to govern the country justly, 
with the help of the ' good men.' Grants were made 
for the repair of buildings injured during the war. 
But the well-laid scheme never got a full chance. 
Early in February, 1306, came the startling news 
that the Earl of Carrick had met John Comyn ' the 
Red,' Lord of Badenoch, in the Greyfriars' Church in 
Dumfries, and, with the help of some friends, slain 
him and his uncle. This was a blow from an un- 
expected quarter. The Earl of Carrick was high in 
the King's favour. He had seemed to think more 
of his wide lands in England than of his chances of 
becoming King of Scotland. He was not likely to 
be popular with the Scots. But all along he had 
been playing a double part. At the very time when 
he was helping in the siege of Stirling he had made 
a secret bond with his friend, Lamberton, Bishop 
of St. Andrews, binding them to mutual help 
' against all men ' in view of ' future dangers.' It 
is not hard to guess what this meant. As a grand- 
son of the Competitor, Bruce, an able and enter- 
prising man, had not forgotten the family claim on 
the vacant throne. John Comyn, son of King John's 


sister, was interested in the Balliol rights. Comyn, 
probably, would not make any bargain with his rival. 

EDWARD III (1312-I377). 

From a print in the British Museum. 

The two had already been at each other's throat 
in the Forest of Ettrick seven years before. Now 


Bruce struck, his followers rushed to ' mak siccar/ 
and for the third and final time the struggle for 
independence began. 

2. Battle of Methven — Bruce s Retreat. — Bruce at 
once hurried to Scone, where the Countess of Buchan 
crowned him with a circlet of gold. This was the 
privilege of the family to which she belonged, but 
her brother, to whom it should have fallen, was on 
the English side, and her husband, a Comyn, was 
the new King's deadly foe. The attendance at the 
coronation was small. It included two Earls, Atholl 
and Lennox ; two Bishops, St. Andrews and Glasgow ; 
the Abbot of Scone, Bruce's brothers, and his 
nephew, Thomas Randolph ; James Douglas ; Alex- 
ander Eraser, brother of Sir Simon ; Thomas Boyd 
of Kilmarnock ; and a few others. Edward, of 
course, was furious. He confiscated all Bruce's 
possessions both in England and Scotland. Old as 
he was, a man of sixty-eight, he at once made 
preparations for a fresh campaign. Meanwhile, at 
his order, the Earl of Pembroke, with a small force 
occupied Perth, the only town in Scotland having 
a wall. Pembroke's followers included Scots from 
his lands in Ettrick. Bruce, in the knightly fashion 
of the day, challenged the enemy to combat, and 
a fight was arranged for the morrow. Before dawn 
Pembroke surprised the King and his men as they 
rested in Methven Wood, and scattered them. 
Bruce, with the ladies and his chief officers, escaped 
to the hills. He was only ' a King of summer,' the 
English said. Randolph was captured, and saved 
his life by becoming Edward's man. The ladies 
were sent, under the care of Nigel Bruce and the 


Earl of Atholl, to Kildrummie Castle, in Aberdeen- 
shire, which Bruce was supposed to hold for Edward ; 
but the castle, with its inmates, was taken by the 
Prince of Wales. The ladies had fled for safety to 
the sanctuary of St. Duthac's Chapel at Tain. There 
was no ' sanctuary ' for traitors, and they were seized 
and handed over to the English. The Queen and 
her daughter Marjory were imprisoned. The 
Countess of Buchan and Mary Bruce were confined 
in wooden cages inside the castles of Berwick and 
Roxburgh. Handsome young Nigel Bruce and the 
Earl of Atholl were hanged. More captures fol- 
lowed. Sir Simon Eraser, ' traitor and fickle,' was 
dealt with as Wallace had been, to the delight of 
the English song- writers. Lambert on was im- 
prisoned, and the Bishop of Glasgow lay in fetters 
for nine years, when he was released, blind and 
ruined in health. Six times he had sworn fealty 
to Edward, and six times had broken his oath. 
Bruce did not forget the sufferings which ' the vener- 
able father ' had endured ' for the rights of the 
Church and our kingdom of Scotland.' Lesser men 
suffered in their degree. Knights, priests, and 
peasants mixed up in the rising were hanged with- 
out delay. 

3. Bruce in the West. — But Bruce and his small 
following, hungry and hard pressed, had now 
reached the borders of Argyll. There he was set 
upon by the Macdougalls, whose chief had married 
an aunt of the murdered Comyn, and who were thus 
his blood enemies. The fugitives, however, drove 
them off by hard fighting. Neil Campbell pro- 
cured some ships on the Clyde, in which the whole 



party passed over to Cantyre, where young Angus 
Macdonald gave them shelter in Dunaverty Castle. 
The castle was captured by the English, only to 
find the birds flown. Among those on the hunt 
for the King was Sir John Menteith, who had 
received custody of Wallace. By January, 1307, he 


Note the ' lion rampant' on shield and armour, as described on p. 85, § 5. 

was in command of a fleet engaged ' to put down 
Robert Bruce and destroy his retreat in the isles 
between Scotland and Ireland.' 

4. Bruce s Return — The Douglas Larder, — It is 
said that Bruce and his companions passed the 
winter in the island of Rathlin, off the Irish coast. 
This seems unlikely, seeing that Rathlin belonged 


to an Irish lord who was a friend of the Enghsh, 
while the sea was covered with English and Highland 
galleys searching for the King. It has been sug- 
gested that he may have gone as far away as 
Orkney. In any case, he appeared early in February, 
1307, on the coast of his own land of Carrick. 


There he learned bad news. His friends on the 
mainland had abandoned his cause. His two 
brothers, Thomas and Alexander, had made a 
descent upon Galloway with a band of Irishmen, 
only to be captured by the chief, Dougal Macdouall, 
or Macdougall, a Balliol and Comyn man, handed 
over to Edward at Carlisle, and hanged. Macdouall 




was rewarded with knighthood from the Prince of 
Wales. Percy, the EngHsh Earl of Carrick, held 
Bruce's castle of Turnberry. In the night Bruce 
fell upon the soldiers in the village, slew them, 
gathered provisions and arms, and retired into the 
hilly country of Galloway. Douglas, meantime, 
visited his estate in Lanarkshire. Collecting some 
of his friends, he suddenly attacked the garrison of 
the castle in church, and killed them or made them 
prisoners. They found the castle open, helped 
themselves to the dinner prepared for the soldiers, 
then piled up the fuel and food, beheaded the 
prisoners, threw their bodies on the heap, emptied 
the wine-casks over it, and set fire to the whole. 
This was the ' Douglas Larder,' 

' For meal and malt and blood and wine 
Ran all together in a mellyn (mixture).' 

Each time the English reoccupied the castle Douglas 
took it by some stratagem, so that it came to be 
known as the ' Castle Perilous.' 

5. Bruce in Galloway — Battle of Loudon Hill. — For 
about four months Bruce, with a few hundred men, 
found safe hiding among the moors and glens of 
Galloway. The whole district was surrounded and 
beset by English horse and foot. John of Lorn, with 
800 Highlanders, hunted the hills. Bloodhounds 
were used. Spies and traitors were bribed to 
slay the King ; and Edward lay with an army at 
Carlisle, fretting and fuming because the news did 
not come that ' King Hobbe ' — i.e., Bob — as he nick- 
named him, had at last been taken. But Bruce 
baffled his pursuers, and even defeated a party of 
them on the hill-side above Glen Trool; then, slipping 


through the ring of troops, he passed into Ayrshire, 
and was faced by his old foe Pembroke on the slope 
of Loudon Hill. Bruce chose a position where there 
was a bog on either side of him. In front he dug lines 
of deep trenches, leaving but one way of approach. 
Thus, when the horse charged up the hill, the Scots 
beat them off with their spears, and Pembroke had 
to withdraw. Another body of English Bruce drove 
into Ayr Castle, and then retreated again to Gallo- 
way. Edward himself was now on the move 
against him ; but on the shore of the Solway Firth 
the disappointed monarch, failing under age and 
illness, breathed his last, June 7, 1307. It was 
good news for Bruce. The English had sung : 

' Tprot Scot ! for thy strife 
Hang up thy hatchet and thy knife 
While him lasteth the Hfe 
With the long shanks.' 

The death of ' Long Shanks ' was really the turning- 
point in Bruce's fortune. His easy and unwarlike 
son made a fruitless march into Ayrshire, and then 
returned to the enjoyments of his new position in 

6. Bruce' s Supporters. — Every year now improved 
Bruce's position. It is true he had been cursed by 
the Pope for his murder of Comyn in a church, and 
for breaking his oath to Edward ; but this, though 
unpleasant, did not much trouble him or his faith- 
ful Scots. The native clergy were on his side, for 
they feared being made subject to an English Arch- 
bishop. The ' false preachers,' it was complained, 
stirred up the people to his support. Many, with 
good reason, bore an ill-will to the new judges, and 



preferred ' death to the laws of England/ Others, 
like James Douglas, had lost their lands. Thus the 
commons, who had given up the cause of Bruce after 
the disaster at Methven, now flocked back to his 
standard. The Comyns and their friends, indeed, 
held out against him to the end, but others of the 
Scottish nobles forsook the English cause. Even 
Sir John Menteith was won over by success. The 
oaths of these men, said a bitter English writer, 
were like ' frost in May,' wiped out by the rising 

7. Recovering the Country. — But the exposure and 
anxieties of these months had left their mark even 
upon the hardy frame of Bruce. During the winter 
following Loudon Hill he lay seriously ill at In- 
verury, in Aberdeenshire. Here he was in the un- 
friendly country of Comyn, Earl of Buchan, who 
made several attacks on his company. But in the 
early summer the King scattered Comyn's force and 
ravaged his lands. Fifty years afterwards the folk 
of the district still mourned the ' hership (wasting) 
of Buchan.' Douglas, too, was active. He re- 
covered Tweeddale, and there captured the King's 
nephew Randolph, who again took service with his 
uncle. Edward Bruce entered Galloway, routed a 
body of English on the march, and speedily reduced 
the whole province. As a soldier Edward was 
' outrageous hardy,' and careless of the odds against 
him. Bruce himself invaded Argyll and rid him- 
self of the Macdougall family, who fled to England. 
The English in Scotland could do little or nothing 
to check these proceedings. Edward H sent able 
oflicers against Bruce, but gave them no proper sup- 


port, and was constantly changing them. He was, 
indeed, on the worst terms with his own barons, and 
could not rely on their loyalty. When he led an 
army into Scotland, Bruce cleared the country of 
supplies, and the invaders had to retreat or starve. 
The Scottish King even crossed into England on 
several occasions. In contrast with former in- 
vaders, Bruce would not allow of the slaughtering 
of defenceless persons or the burning of houses. 
But the spoil from England was needed to keep his 
own army in the field. He made the people of the 
North pay him money to leave them in peace. The 
constant fighting had made southern Scotland very 

8. Clearing the Castles. — The country, however, 
could not be said to be won until the English gar- 
risons were cleared out. But the castles of the time 
were very strong places compared with the means 
of attacking them. Even with powerful siege 
engines, which Bruce could not afford, a long time 
might be wasted in their capture. Usually they 
could only be starved into surrender. The fortresses 
and towns were therefore taken by some trick or 
surprise ; ' some by battle, and some by fair speech 
and love.' Bruce himself led the way across the 
moat of Perth at midnight, with the water standing 
to his throat, to win that ' wretched hamlet/ as a 
French knight called it. The ' peel ' of Linlithgow, 
built by Edward I, was taken by a peasant, who 
concealed some soldiers under a load of hay, and 
stopped his cart in the gateway, so that it could not 
be closed. Douglas and a small band crept up the 
walls of Roxburgh in the dusk and surprised the 


garrison at a dance. Randolph, guided by a native 
soldier, climbed the steep face of Edinburgh Castle 
rock, and so made himself master of that important 
position. As soon as a castle was captured, Bruce 
had it ' tumbled ' down or destroyed. He could 
not afford to garrison castles, and the English could 
not keep the country without them. At last the 
only important place in the hands of the enemy was 
Stirling, which was being blockaded by Edward 
Bruce. Much to the King's disgust, Edward made 
an agreement with the garrison that they should 
surrender if not relieved before St. John's Day, 
June 24, 131 4. This was certain to bring about a 
pitched battle, the very thing Bruce wished to 
avoid ; for in the field every advantage lay with the 



1. The Preparations for Battle, — Both countries pre- 
pared for a decisive trial of arms. The English host 
assembled at Berwick early in June, 1314. It was 
an imposing gathering of levies from all parts of 
Edward's dominions — from France, Wales, and 
Ireland, as well as the home country. It num- 
bered between 60,000 and 70,000 men, of whom 
about 3,000 were knights in armour, horsed on 
steeds ' barded from counter to tail.' The archers, 
each with his long-bow and ' twenty-four Scots' 
lives ' under his belt, were nearly 20,000. Bruce 


gathered his army in the Torwood, south of Stir- 
Hng, as Wallace had done before Falkirk. He had, 
at the most, but one-third of the number of the 
enemy. His horsemen were only a handful and 
his archers few ; but he had chosen a strong posi- 
tion. He occupied the summit of a low ridge in 
the King's Park, overlooking the valley of the 
Bannock Burn. It was crossed by an old Roman 
road, along which the English advanced. Only 
about a mile of the burn was passable for mounted 
men. Bruce's right was protected by the wood ; 
on his left the Bannock spread out in shallow pools 
and marshes ere it entered the River Forth. In 
front, on each side of the road, was a bog, and 
the firm ground was also rendered unsafe by ' pots,' 
or hidden holes, which were dug all over its surface. 
The small body of cavalry, led by Keith, the Scottish 
Marshal, was placed in the wood. The spearmen 
were arranged in four great ' schiltrons,' or masses. 
One of these, composed of the men of Carrick and 
the Isles, was in reserve under the King. Edward 
Bruce, Randolph (now Earl of Moray), and Sir 
James Douglas commanded the other three. 

2. The Eve of Bannockburn. — On the afternoon of 
Sunday, June 23, the van of the English host 
appeared on the opposite ridge. The weather was 
intensely hot, the men were tired out with march- 
ing, and the order was to rest till the morrow. 
Bruce, however, not knowing this, rode up and 
down his front placing his men. Suddenly 
Sir Henry Bohun, whose uncle had received Bruce's 
lands in Annandale, rode out to attack him. 
Bruce, though mounted only on a light riding 


horse, advanced to meet the champion. Bohun 
missed the King, who, as the knight thundered 
past, clove his skull through the helmet with 
a blow from his battle-axe. There was a skirmish 
with the Welshmen who had followed De Bohun, 
and some were slain, among them De Bohun's 
squire. About the same time a band of 800 horse- 
men made a dash for Stirling Castle round the 


Scottish left. They turned aside to attack the 
spearmen, with whom Randolph had hurried up 
to stop them. But the massed spearmen with- 
stood their charge, and they retired. In the late 
evening the Earl of AthoU, serving on the English 
side, fell upon Bruce's provision train and slew 
many of the men on guard. 

3. The Battle of Bannockhurn. — Next day the 
fateful struggle began with some skirmishing be- 


tween the bowmen. Then the impatient Enghsh 
chivalry charged the ' schiltrons/ ' And when the 
two hosts so came together and the great steeds of 
the Enghsh dashed into the Scottish pikes as into 
a thick wood, there rose a great and horrible crash 
from rending lances and dying horses, and there they 


stood, locked together, for a space/ For, once over 
the passages between the bogs, the cramped crowd 
of men-at-arms found it impossible to open out and 
take room. The narrow front suited the smaller 
numbers of the Scots, while the masses of the 
English became their destruction. Those in front 
could not free themselves ; those behind could not 


get forward. Fallen men and horses soon lay in 
heaps along the edge of battle. In vain the English 
archers tried to reach the Scots over the heads 
of their friends. If they shot straight, they hit 
their own men in the back. Thereupon a great 
body of them moved out to the left, and began to 
loose their arrows on the division under Edward 
Bruce ; but the watchful King was prepared for 
this. Keith and his horsemen dashed upon the 

defenceless bowmen and dispersed them. The 
whole of the Scottish force had now been brought 
forward into the fighting - line. The cumbered 
English were hard pressed. Eagerly the front 
ranks fought it out ' without noise or cry.' Then 
those in the rear, finding any advance blocked, 
began slowly to retire. When this was discovered, 
a shout rose from the Scottish lines : ' On them ! 
on them ! they fail !' From a hill in Bruce's 


rear a considerable body of men was seen to de- 
scend, in orderly fashion and waving weapons and 
flags. These were the camp-followers and other 
attendants, from which the height came to be known 
as the ' Gillies' (servants) Hill/ The disheartened 
English took them for a fresh troop of reserves. 
They wavered, gave way, and broke to flight. 
The Scots followed fiercely. The banks of the Ban- 
nock were levelled up with the dead. The fugitives 
spread over the country-side, and the peasantry fell 
on and slew. Edward and a small band of knights 
fled to Berwick with scarce a halt, for Douglas 
and his men were hard at their heels. Never was 
a battle so disastrous to the English. Many thou- 
sands of them perished. Their camp, with its 
gorgeous equipment, its furniture, dress, weapons, 
and articles of value, was a national enrichment. 
Two centuries and a half later we read of stuff 
' from the fight at Bannockburn.' Many noble 
knights were captured, and their ransoms long 
poured in to fill the empty purses of the Scots. It 
was now their turn to sing of victory : 

' Maidens of England, sore may ye mourn, 
For that ye have lost your lovers at Bannockburn. 

With heave-alow. 
What thought the King of England 
To have gotten Scotland ? 

With rombylow.' 

4. Edward Tries to Isolate Scotland. — For fourteen 
years more the war dragged on in raids and sieges. 
Edward II, beaten in the field, tried other methods 
of injuring the Scots. He wrote to the Count of 
Flanders and to some of the. great towns of the 
Continent asking them to give up their commerce 


with the Scots. This the Count and some of the 
cities flatly refused to do. In return, a Scottish 
Parliament forbade all trade with England on pain 
of death. Edward also enlisted the aid of the Pope, 
who sent letters to Bruce ordering him to make peace 
with Edward, in order that a new crusade might 
be undertaken. As the letters were not addressed 
to him as ' King,' Bruce pleasantly said they must 
be for somebody else of the same name, and refused 
to receive them. Moreover, a protest was sent to 
the ' Holy Father ' on behalf of the whole ' com- 
munity ' of Scotland, in which it was declared : 
' While there exist a hundred of us, we will never 
submit to England,' Before long, however, the Pope 
and the excommunicated King and people were 

5. Attacks on England. — England had now to 
stand on the defensive. Edward Bruce crossed 
over to Ireland to attack the English garrison there, 
in which he was for a time helped by his royal 
brother. He was crowned King of Ireland, but 
fell in battle, after inflicting much loss on the English. 
The Scots crossed the English border again and 
again, in summer and in winter, plundering the 
country, and burning the towns which would not 
buy them off. In this way they made up for the 
heavy losses ^they had suffered. The town of Ber- 
wick was betrayed to them ; the castle was starved 
into surrender. On the other hand, when Edward 
led a force into Scotland he found his path a desert ; 
neither man nor beast was to be seen. He made a 
stubborn attempt to, recapture Berwick. The walls 
were low, and a tower of wood filled with men. 


called a ' sow/ was dragged on wheels close up to 
them ; but a Flemish engineer had made an engine, 
which threw a great stone upon the tower and 
smashed it. While Edward was thus occupied, 
Randolph and Douglas made a dash into England 
as far as Yorkshire. The Archbishop hastily 
gathered what men he could, but in the White Battle 
his little force was scattered. So many churchmen 
were slain that the Scots called it the ' Chapter of 
Mytton ' (1319) : a chapter being a meeting of clergy. 
Bruce himself fought his last battle in England, 
when, at By land Abbey, in Yorkshire, the English 
ran from him as the hare before the hounds (1322). 
A truce was now agreed to ; but when the incapable 
Edward II was deposed and murdered, fighting 
began again. The Scots ' burned the dales of Tyne.' 
As they were all horsed, the English could not over- 
take them. From strong positions they defied their 
pursuers, and then slipped away in the night, 
driving before them great herds of cattle. But 
England, too, was now exhausted. There was no 
money to pay its soldiers. The barons were 
quarrelling. The King was young, and anxious, 
besides, to make good his claim on the vacant 
throne of France. Accordingly, with the Treaty of 
Northampton, the long struggle came, in 1328, to 
an end. The independence of Scotland was clearly 
and fully admitted. King Robert's son David was 
to marry Joanna, Edward IITs sister — ' Jane Make- 
Peace ' the Scots afterwards called her. The Coro- 
nation Stone was to be returned to Scotland ; but 
this was never done. Certain lords holding lands 
in Scotland, who had fought for the English, were 



to have their estates restored. This, too, was not 
done. Bruce, indeed, had already divided the for- 
feited estates among his own supporters. It was the 
only way in which he could reward them, and these 
' disinherited lords ' suffered with the rest. But 
Neil Campbell, who married Mary. Bruce ; Douglas ; 
the Steward ; Randolph, Earl of Moray ; Angus 
Macdonald ; Sir Andrew Moray, son of Wallace's 
friend ; and many more, received the wide posses- 
sions of the Balliols, the Comyns, and others untrue 
to their country. A new race of Scottish nobles 
grew up, many of whom were in time to turn out no 
more faithful than those whose places they had 

6. Bruce s Parliaments, — During these last years 
the King had not been unmindful of the need 
of reorganizing his unsettled 
kingdom. The most necessary 
thing was to fit it for war. All 
lands were to be held for 
military service. Parliament 
decreed that every landowner 
should provide himself with 
suitable armour. Every man 
possessing a cow or its value 
was required to have a spear 
or a bow and arrows. The 
ambition of the English Kings 
candleSck from a had turned Scotland into a 
DUMFRIESSHIRE COTTAGE natlou vci arms. War became 


the occupation oi its nobles. 
Over the border was an enemy with whom no lasting 
friendship was possible. King Robert took an 


important step in summoning to his Parliament 
representatives of the royal burghs. He was in need 
of money, as the estates of the Crown had been so 
much impoverished by the war. Thus the royal 
tenants, among whom were the burghs, voted to 
him an income for life made up of the tenth penny 
of all rents. The Parliament now included the 
' three estates ' — lords, clergy, and commons, who 
held their property directly from the King. 

7. Death of Bruce. — Bruce did not long survive the 
completion of his work. His last days were spent 
at Cardross, near Dumbarton, where he was busy 
with schemes for raising a royal navy. Pirates in- 
fested the Scottish coasts and much hampered the 
reviving trade. Ships would also be necessary to 
keep the Isles in order. But ' the great sickness/ 
probably leprosy, the scourge of the Middle Ages, 
had laid its hand on the King, and on June, 1329, 
he died. He had made Douglas promise that after 
death he should have his heart removed from his 
body, and should carry it into battle against ' God's 
foes ' — the Mohammedans.* It weighed on his 
mind that he had not gone on a Crusade, as he 
had vowed to do if successful. After the royal 
burial in Dunfermline Abbey, Douglas, with a small 
company, set out. Landing in Spain, he joined the 
King of that country in his war against the Moors, 
bore the heart of Bruce into battle, and himself fell 
in carrying out his commission. The heart was 
brought back to Scotland and buried in Melrose 

* Edward I. had made a similar request to his son before 
setting out on his last campaign. 



DAVID II (1329-1371) 

\. The Disinherited Barons and the Battle of Dupplin 
Moor. — Unhappily for . Scotland, the successor of 
Bruce was his son David, only eight years old. 
He was the first King of Scotland to be anointed at 
his coronation, a privilege specially granted by the 
Pope. Anointing was the sign of an independent 
kingdom. But over the Border covetous eyes were 
again turned on Scotland. The barons whose 
estates had not been restored to them, as the Treaty 
of Northampton had provided, and others who, by 
taking the side of England, had lost their Scottish 
rights, made a sudden descent upon the country. 
The King of England gave them a leader in Edward 
Balliol, son of King John. The Scottish Regent, 
Randolph, Earl of Moray, died on the eve of in- 
vasion. At Dupplin Moor (1332), near Perth, the 
' disinherited barons ' fell in with the Scottish army. 
They fought on foot with their archers spread out 
on the wings. The Scots, having greater numbers, 
charged in a dense mass. Under the deadly volleys 
of the archers they shrank inwards upon each other 
and were crowded together in confusion. ' More 
fell by suffocation than by the sword.' More still 
feU before the clothyard shafts, ' so that the dead 
stood as high from the ground as the full length of 
a spear.' The Scots were almost entirely destroyed. 
Thus the English learned how to deal with a Scottish 
army foolish enough to neglect the wise advice of 
Bruce, which was to act always on the defensive, 

DAVID II (1329-1371) 

to choose strong natural positions, and to attack 

only at night or 
by ambush. 

2. Edward Bal- 
liol, King of Scot- 
land. — The war 
thus begun went 
on for the next 
ten years. On a 
:y smaller scale it 
was the War of 
Independence over 
again. Edward 
Balliol was 


and acknowledged 

Edward III of 
England as his 
superior. A few 
months later he 
was surprised by 
a body of Scots at 
Annan, and while 
his following was 
cut to pieces, he 
just managed to 
escape, half naked, 
across the Border. 
Edward III him- 
self now took the 



field and besieged 

Berwick. To relieve the town, the Scots fought 
another disastrous battle at Halidon Hill (1333). 



They attacked through a marsh and up a hill 
under the fire of the English bowmen. They 
never reached the Enghsh lines, and, when 
thoroughly broken, Edward scattered them with 
his horsemen. This battle the English regarded 
as a full vengeance for Bannockburn. Edward 
Balliol returned, and in his gratitude, with the 
consent of his Parliament, gave up to his superior 
the whole of the eastern half of the Lowlands. But 
the Scots of the national party still held out. The 
open country was theirs, while the party of Balliol 
was confined to the castles and other strong places, 
their head-quarters being Perth. The leaders on 
the national side were Sir Andrew Moray of Both- 
well, who was made Regent ; Sir Alexander Ramsay ; 
and Sir William Douglas, the Knight of Liddesdale. 
Presently the disinherited barons quarrelled among 
themselves. Edward III soon became embroiled 
in a war with France, to which country David and 
his Queen Joanna had been sent after Halidon Hill. 
Edward, without just right, claimed the crown of 
France, and Scotland was neglected for a fairer prize. 
On the death of Moray, Robert the Steward, after- 
wards King, became Regent. One by one the 
Scottish castles were recovered, with assistance from 
France. Edward Balliol left Scotland for the last 
time, and David returned from exile to find a realm 
' sore destroyed ' (1341). 

3. The Age of Chivalry, — David's French training 
had taught him little that could help him in dealing 
with the difficult position of his country. He had 
learned to love ease and luxury such as a country 
made poor by constant fighting could not afford him. 

DAVID II (132^-1371) 115 

Handsome and brave he was, but he lacked firmness 
of character and abiUty to rule. Yet these were 
the very things of which the King of Scotland had 
special need. The great nobles had become petty 
Kings, each a law unto himself. Government had 
become weakened by being passed from hand to 
hand for so many years. David was more concerned 
about practising the usages of chivalry than building 
up his kingdom and strengthening it against the 
enemy. Fighting had become with him, as with 
the knights of the time, a pastime to be followed for 
its own sake. When there was no serious fighting 
on hand the nobles held ' jousts ' or tournaments. 
Barricades were erected, and knights strove in feats 
of arms. They tried to unhorse each other with 
blunted lances, or strike on some vital part. Such 
combats sometimes ended in a serious accident. 
David himself took part in them, and the Scottish 
knights were not inferior to their fellows elsewhere. 
Battles became no longer events upon which the 
freedom of their country might depend, but oppor- 
tunities for single combat and feats of skill and 
bravery. But careful observance of the rules of 
honour and courtesy in battle or the tournament 
did not prevent treachery and ferocity at other 
times. The Knight of Liddesdale was called the 
' Flower of Chivalry.' But when David foolishly 
made Sir Alexander Ramsay Sheriff of Liddesdale 
in place of the knight, the latter seized Ramsay in 
Court, carried him off to his castle of Hermitage, 
shut him up in a dungeon, and left him to starve to 
death. Yet they had been comrades in resisting 
Balliol and England. The ' Flower/ too, was in- 



triguing with Edward III against his own country. 
David made no attempt to punish him, and his end 
was to be assassinated by his own godson, Sir 
WiUiam Douglas, nephew of the good Lord James. 
Such outrages became common. The Scottish 
nobiHty were quite beyond control. Feuds between 
rival houses broke out on all sides, and continued for 

4. Battle of Neville s Cross — David a Prisoner (1346). 
— To aid France in her difficulties with England, 
David invaded that country. The northern counties 
were pillaged. Near Durham he met an English 
army. The English were on the hill, and on foot, 
with archers on the wings. In spite of all they had 
suffered in this way the Scots attacked. The 
archers closed in upon them, and shot them down, 
David himself being wounded with two arrow^s. His 
army was scattered, and the King as well as four 
Earls and the Bishop of St. Andrews were captured. 
This Battle of Durham, or Neville s Cross, was a 
national disaster, and events in Scotland were for 
long dated from it. 

5. David's Ransom. — David remained a prisoner 
for eleven years, during which Robert the Steward 
acted as Regent. At last he was released on promising 
to pay a ransom of 100,000 marks, or about ;^90,ooo. 
This was a heavy burden for a country like Scotland. 
In addition to its other misfortunes it had been 
visited in 1350 by the pestilence, or plague, which 
the Scots called ' the foul death of the English.' 
Now it had to find during the next ten years sufificient 
money to pay for its King. Great efforts were 
made to clear off the debt. The Customs on exported 

DAVID II (1 329-1 37 1) 


goods were increased to three times their previous 
amount. All Crown property which had been given 
away was taken back. The coinage was debased — 
that is, by adding base metal, the pound of silver 
was coined into more than twenty pennies. Each 
penny was therefore really worth less, though passing 
under the old name. But the debt dragged on : 
David died before it was settled, and the balance 
was never paid. 

6. Edward Tries to Conciliate the Scots. — The King 
of England, still anxious to secure the northern 
kingdom, now tried new measures to that end. 
Edward Balliol had transferred to him his claim 
on the throne. The ignoble David had secretly 
declared himself willing to accept his overlordship. 
David felt himself more at home in richer England 
than in his own poor land. After his release he 
made frequent journeys south, and that, of course, 
meant the spending of more money. Meantime 
Edward did all he could to induce the Scottish 
nobles to visit his Court. He gave special privileges 
to the Scottish merchants. The young men of the 
upper classes were encouraged to attend the English 
Universities. With some of these went John Barbour, 
who, in his poem The Bruce, wrote the epic of the 
War of Independence. He let the Scots under- 
stand that if they parted with their independence 
he would not insist on the payment of the rest of 
David's ransom. At last David, seeing he had no 
children, proposed to the Estates that his successor 
should be a son of Edward. The heir to the throne 
was Robert the Steward, son of Marjory Bruce, 
but the King and he had never been on good terms. 


and David, indeed, detested him. But the Estates 
were firm in rejecting such a proposal ; ' they would 
never/ they said, ' have an Englishman to rule 
over them/ And the Scottish Parliament was now 
in a very strong position. David's weakness, his 
frequent absences, his extravagance, the need to 
get money to pay his ransom — all threw much power 
into the hands of the Estates. They controlled the 
King, and insisted that his commands should be 
within ' the common law ' of the country. David 
died in February, 1371. Chivalrous and thought- 
less to the last, he had purposed going on a Crusade ! 


ROBERT III (1390) 

1. Robert II. — David Bruce left no children. His 
successor, therefore, according to an Act of Parlia- 
ment, was his cousin Robert the Steward, who had 
already acted as Regent during David's captivity 
in England. He was now a man well on in years, 
and anxious for peace. But the Scottish barons 
were not of a peaceful disposition. They had been 
brought up in war. The English, too, still held 
large portions of southern Scotland with the castles, 
being the districts surrendered by Edward Balliol. 
Another De Bohun lorded it over Annandale of 
the Bruces. Thus, in spite of a truce for fourteen 
years carried over from the previous reign, fighting 
went on continually along the Border. The King 



could not stop it. 


The barons made war on their 
own account with- 
out considering 
his wishes. The 
King, indeed, they 
looked upon as 
simply one of 
themselves, who 
by a lucky chance 
had come to the 
throne. The 
Stewarts were 
not yet a royal 
race. And Robert, 
while he reigned, 
could not govern 

or hold in the 
Scottish lords. 
Bit by bit lands 
were recovered 
from the English. 
The Earl of 
Douglas took a 
leading part in 
these proceedings. 
He was Warden 
of the East March, 
and his chief 
opponent was the 
English Warden, 
Percy, Earl of 

Northumberland. The Border was divided into 
three parts or ' marches ' on both sides, each with its 



Guardian, or Warden.* The Wardens were supposed 
to keep the peace, and judge in all disputes. At 
present, however, they simply raided each other's 
lands. The war went on even at sea. A Berwick 
merchant with a large fleet plundered Scarborough. 
He was defeated and captured by a merchant of 
London. Scottish ships were fitted out and dis- 
patched against ' the pirates and thieves of England,' 
who in turn took similar measures against the Scots. 

2. The French in Scotland. — The expiry of the 
truce was the signal for a united effort against the 
English in Scotland. Annandale and Teviotdale 
were cleared of their presence. Help was asked 
from France, and the French Admiral came over 
with men, money, and suits of armour. They 
joined a Scottish army under Douglas, which 
raided England as far as Newcastle. When 
Richard H approached with a strong force, the 
Scots retired, much to the disgust of the French, 
who had come over for fighting. Richard crossed 
into Scotland, and burned Melrose Abbey and the 
towns of Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee. But he 
found the plain land laid waste, and was forced to 
retreat from lack of food. Meantime the Scots and 
French had burst into England on the west side. 
' The French said among themselves they had 
burned in the bishoprics of Durham and Carlisle 
more than the value of all the towns in the kingdom 
of Scotland.' 

* In Scotland the East March was Berwickshire ; the 
Middle March Selkirk, Peebles, Roxburgh, and Lauderdale ; 
the West March the dales of Esk, Ewes, Wauchope, Annan, 
and Nith, with Galloway. 



3. Departure of the French. — But the French were 
not hked in Scotland, nor did they themselves care 
for living in such a country. Their lodging was 
poor. They had to feed on simple fare. They 
could not, as in their own country, take from the 
peasants what they wished, by force. The Scots 
beat their servants if they tried to do so, and even 
slew them. If in their marches they destroyed the 
crops, they were forced to make good the damage. 
They had to pay heavily for horses, and then could 
not get harness. The Scots had to procure such 
things as horse-shoes and leather from Flanders ; 

and in their Enghsh raids they carried off iron when 
they could. The French, indeed, were regarded as 
a burden on the country. The Scots said that if 
the Enghsh came and burned their houses they 
could easily build them again with some beams and 
branches. But to support such a crowd of men- 
at-arms and servants was worse than an Enghsh 
invasion. Nor were the French allowed to return 
until they had arranged for the payment of all 

4. The Fight at Otterburn (1388). — The Scots con- 
tinued the war. England was distracted by trouble 



between King Richard and his lords. Unknown to 

King Robert an 
unusually large 
army was collected 
by the Scottish 
Earls, which 
crossed the Border 
m two divisions. 
One under Douglas 
swept through 
North umberland, 
and in a skirmish 
the pennon of 
Harry Percy, son 
of the Earl of 
North umberland , 


known to the Scots 
as ' Hotspur/ was 
captured. To re- 
cover it Hotspur 
attacked the Scots 
by night at Otter- 
burn. In the clear 
light of an August 
moon the armies 
fought the whole 
night through, on 
foot and hand to 
hand. Earl Doug- 
las fell, but the 
dead man won the 
fight, and Harry Percy was captured. This raid 
was followed by a truce. Thereupon Scottish 




knights flocked into England to carry on the 
rivalry in 'gentle and joyons ' feats of arms. Of 
these champions the most famous was Sir David 
Lindsay. For his success in the jousts he won 
prizes of a silver cup, a gilt ewer, and £100 in money. 
He then went off on the same sporting errand to 
France. The aged and tender-hearted Robert died, 
at least, in an hour of peace (1390). 

5. Robert III. — Robert II had been twice married, 
and his eldest son by the first marriage was John, 
Earl of Carrick. But it may be doubted whether 
this marriage was really legal. This doubt pre- 


served a lingering claim to the throne on the part 
of the second family, which was before long to cause 
mischief. The Scottish Parliament had settled the 
matter by selecting John. As this name, however, 
was an unlucky one in the royal annals of both 
England and Scotland,* the new King adopted 
that of Robert. He was a man of tall, kingly 
appearance, with a long white beard, but sickly and 
a cripple. He proved a weaker monarch even than 
his father. To strengthen his position he made 
bands with the leading nobles, bribing them with 
* As John ' Lackland ' and John BalHol. 


pensions from the royal revenues. A proof of his 
incapacity is that his younger brother, the Earl of 
Fife, was actually appointed Guardian of the 
Realm to carry on the business of Government. 
Fortunately there was peace with England. The 
chief troubles in the early part of the reign came 
from the Highlands, where the King's brother. 
Alexander Stewart, was the offender. He had a 
feud with the Bishop of Moray, and — 

' Burnt the kirk was of Elgin 
By wild, wicked Hieland-men.' 

For deeds of this sort he received the name of 
the ' Wolf of Badenoch.' His sons, too, raided the 
low country to the east with bands of Highland 
' caterans.' One of them married by force the 
Countess of Mar, and so became Earl. The most 
remarkable outcome of these Highland disturbances 
was a combat on the North Inch of Perth, a flat 
meadow beside the River Tay. Two clans who were 
at feud sent each thirty* men, who fought out the 
quarrel in the presence of the Court and a crowd 
of spectators. One, called the Clan Kay, was 
probably Mackintoshes, while the other was the 
Clan Quhele. This was a ' judicial combat ' on a 
big scale, and the North Inch was a favourite spot 
for such. Eleven wounded men of the former clan 
survived to one of their opponents. The dispute, 
whatever it may have been, seems thus to have 
been settled. But disorder was not confined to the 

In a famous fight of the sort forty years before, in 
France, between picked English and French knights there 
was the same number on each side. 



Highlands. We hear of ' horrible destructions, 
burnings, and slaughters commonly done through 
all the kingdom.' Thus the Estates were driven 
to complain to the King of ' the misgovernment 
of the realm, and defect of keeping of the common 
law/ A new arrangement was made. David, the 
King's son, became Guardian. He was one of the 
two first Scottish Dukes, with the title of Duke of 
Rothesay from the family possessions : his uncle 
was the other, taking his title from the ancient 
district of Alban as Duke of Albany. 

6. Rothesay's Government and Death. — The Duke 
of Rothesay was an able and high-spirited young 
man, but reckless and of a bad character. He 
involved the country in war with England. There a 
revolution had occurred, and Henry IV had sup- 
planted Richard H on the throne. He marched 
north with an army, and summoned the King and 
nobles of Scotland to assemble and do him homage. 
Such a claim was no longer taken seriously. Henry 
marched as far as Edinburgh, but had to retire on 
news of a rising in Wales. Unlike his predecessors, 
he had done little mischief, and he was the last 
King of England to invade Scotland in person. 
Rothesay's conduct, however, became unbearable. 
His leading supporters were dead. The King was 
persuaded to allow him to be confined by Albany 
in the Palace at Falkland. There he soon died, 
and in a violent age the rumour spread that he had 
been done to death by his jealous uncle. 

7. Battle of Homildon Hill (1402) — Capture of 
Prince James (1406). — Albany was now Governor 
again. To retaliate on English raids on the Border 


a Scottish army entered Northumberland. It was 
led by Albany's son Murdoch and Archibald, fourth 
Earl of Douglas. On their return they were over- 
taken by the Percies at Homildon Hill. Hotspur, 
of course, was eager to charge, but he was restrained 
while the English archers rained their arrows from 
a safe distance on the Scottish masses. The Scots 
in desperation broke their ranks and swept down 
the hill, only to be dispersed and pursued by the 
English horse. Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas, 
and Murdoch Stewart, with three other Earls, were 
among the prisoners. But a still more valuable 
prize was soon to come the way of England. King 
Robert, perhaps fearing the power and ambition of 
Albany, determined to send his son and heir James 
to France. The Prince was eleven years old, and 
in France he would be educated and grow up in 
safety. But off Flamborough Head the ship in 
which he sailed was seized by an English vessel, 
and the young Prince carried off to London. This 
was in the spring of 1406. The feeble and ailing 
King survived the blow but a few weeks, leaving 
a distracted kingdom in the hands of his masterful 


THE POET-KING : JAMES I (1406-1437) 

1. Albany Regent. — Once more a King of Scotland 
lay in an English prison. The office of Regent 
naturally fell to the Duke of Albany. He was now 
an old man, and under his easy rule nothing was 



done to check the lawlessness that filled the country. 
The great nobles did pretty much as they pleased, 
for Albany would not venture to quarrel with them. 
They refused to pay the Custom duties on goods 
which they exported, and even robbed the collectors. 
In these doings the Earl of Douglas, after his release, 
was the chief offender. Albany was very wealthy, 
and the needy Scots lords were always ready to enrich 
themselves by any means open to them. To some 
were given portions of the lands belonging to the 
Crown. Albany, indeed, had been the actual ruler 
of the country so long that he acted as a King 
rather than a Regent. He styled himself Governor 
' by the grace of God,' issued charters under his own 
name and seal, and referred to the Scots as his 
' subjects.' Between him and the throne was only 
the boy James, and him the English obstinately 
refused to give up. The King, however, seems to 
have thought that his uncle did not do all he might 
have done for his release. Albany's own son 
Murdoch was exchanged for young Percy. 

2. Heresy and the First Scottish University. — 
There were other causes of unrest in the country 
besides the oppression and greed of the nobles. 
Many of the followers of the English reformer 
Wycliffe had, on his death, fled to Scotland. They 
were known as Lollards. The churchmen were 
much disturbed by the presence and teaching of 
these ' cursit men, heretikis.' Albany himself was 
a ' constant Catholic ' who hated Lollards. One 
of these, an English priest, James Resby by name, 
was now arrested, tried, and with his writings 
burned at Perth. His worst offence was that he 


taught that the Pope was not the Vicar of Christ. 
To help in combating such opinions a University 
was founded at St. Andrews in 1414, and the students 
had to take an oath ' that they would resist all 
adherents of the sect of Lollards.' Scottish scholars 
had hitherto been in the habit of attending the 
English Universities, or, to a greater extent, that of 
Paris, where a ' Scots College ' had long been in 
existence. And that the Scottish Universities differ 
so much from those of England is due to the fact 
that they followed the French model. 

3. The Red Harlaw (1411). — The most stirring 
event of the Regency was the rising of Donald, 
Lord of the Isles. Donald's mother was a royal 
Stewart, a daughter of Robert IL He had been in 
England, and was on very friendly, terms with the 
English King. His position in the Hebrides was 
that of an independent Prince. He now claimed, 
through his wife, the vacant Earldom of Ross, 
which Albany had, however, secured for his own 
son. Donald therefore occupied Ross with a large 
army, defeated the Mackays from the North at 
Dingwall, and burned Inverness. Thence he 
marched into Aberdeenshire to seize lands there 
which went with the earldom. His followers were 
to be rewarded with the plunder of Aberdeen. But 
the gentry of the county — Forbeses, Keiths, Leslies, 
and the burgesses of the city — went ' out against 
the caterans.' They were led by the Earl of Mar, 
son of the Wolf of Badenoch, who had proved 
himself an able soldier in the Low Countries, and 
was the most powerful nobleman in the North. 
The armies met at Harlaw, eighteen miles out of 



Aberdeen, where a fierce and stubborn struggle went 
on till nightfall. There had been heavy losses on 
both sides. 

' Hieland and Lawland may mournful be 
For the sair field of Harlaw.' 

The disheartened Donald retreated, with Albany 
in pursuit. In the following summer he submitted. 
Certain ' captains ' or chiefs of Ross helped the 
Governor in restoring and preserving peace. 

4. The Scots in France. — With England it was a 
time of short wars and shorter truces. Peace there 
could not be so long as some of the strongest Border 
fortresses were in English hands — a legacy from 
the time of Edward Balliol. Jedburgh Castle was 
recovered by the men of Teviotdale and destroyed. 
But in the ' Fool Raid ' Albany failed before Rox- 
burgh Caj tie, and Douglas at Berwick. These 
strongholds were the bulwarks of the Border. An 
English fleet captured many Scottish trading v^essels 
in the Firth of Forth, and the western counties 
were 1 aided on both sides, i But the Scots found a 
way of striking a blow at the common enemy by 
sending help to France when almost prostrate at 
the feet of Henry V. ' A cursed people, the Scots/ 
said the Enghsh King ; ' wherever I go, I find them 
in my beard.' But in France they were not popular. 
They were nicknamed ' tugmuttons ' and ' wine- 
sacks.' They were noted for their excessive pride 
and their bitter hatred of the English. ' Proud as 
a Scot ' became a French proverb. But they turned 
the tide of French defeat in the brilliant victory of 
Beauge (1420). In a later battle the Scots companies 



were almost annihilated. Among the slain were 
the Earl of Buchan, who had been made Constable 
of France, and the Earl of Douglas, created Duke of 
Touraine. Scotsmen, however, followed the white 
banner of ' the Maid,' Jeanne D'Arc, who gave new 
life to the French resistance, and out of the survivors 
was formed the famous I ' Scots Guard ' of the 
French Kings.; 

5. Return of James, — Albany on his death was 
simply succeeded by his eldest son Murdoch, who 
acted as Regent for four years. He was a slack and 
feeble ruler. The English, however, tired of the 
profitless business of keeping James, now consented 
to his release. In 1424 James returned to his own 
country, having bound himself to pay what was 
for Scotland the very large sum of £40,000 English 
money as the ' costage ' of his education. He was 
now thirty years of age, of middle stature, and 
inclined to be stout. He had seen military service 
on the English side in France, and was well skilled 
in the use of arms. He was fond of music and 
devoted to literature, being himself the author of a 
remarkable and beautiful poem called The Kings 
Quair {i.e., book). In it he describes and reflects 
on his own career, and tells how he first saw his wife 
from his prison window as she walked in the garden 

' The fairest and the freshest younge flower 
That e'er I saw, methought, before that hour.' 

The lady was Jane Beaufort, a great-grand-daughter 
of Edward III. In consideration of this marriage 
the ransom money was reduced by ;£io,ooo as 





Lady Jane's dowry. To pay the rest there was 
raised a ' general yield ' of twelve pennies in the 
pound on the lands and rents of lords and goods 
and rents of burgesses, with varying amounts on 
com and cattle. This was a very unpopular step. 
Such taxes were always unwelcome to the Scots. 
It was not long continued, and the ransom was 
never fully paid. Many of the hostages, members 
of noble families, who were sent to England as 
pledges for its payment, died there in ward. 

6. James and the Nobles. — Fortunately for the 
country James, unlike the earlier Stewarts, proved 
to be an active and resolute King. His first task 
was to put down disorder, violence, and open 
robbery. ' If God gives me but a dog's life,' he 
said, ' I will make the key keep the castle and the 
bracken bush the cow.' He selected for his Council 
some of the lesser gentry, and to members of the 
same class he gave high offices of State. Such 
officials would be more faithful and more easih' 
dealt with than the masterful great lords. These 
it was needful to humble. Douglas was imprisoned 
for a short period. The Albanys were rooted out. 
Duke Murdoch, his two sons, and his father-in-law, 
the Earl of Lennox, were put on trial, and executed 
on the Heading Hill of Stirling. James next passed 
to Inverness, and summoned a meeting of the 
Highland chiefs (1427). Of these the most lawless 
were at once arrested and executed, and many 
others thrown into prison. Among the latter was 
Alexander, Lord of the Isles, now recognized as Earl 
of Ross. On his release Alexander, furious at the 
King's treachery, rose in arms and burned Inverness. 



James pursued him into Lochaber, where the 
Camerons and Clan Chattan deserted the island 
lord, and he was defeated. He appeared before the 
Court in the Church of Holyrood to make his 
submission. Stripped to his shirt, he surrendered 
his sword to the King, thus declaring in feudal form 
that life and lands were in the royal power. He 
was pardoned, but with the punishment of a short 
imprisonment in Tantallon Castle. 

7. James's Laws. — James did not stop at measures 
of repression. During his reign of thirteen years he 
held as many Parliaments, almost all at Perth. 
Fresh laws were made on all sorts of subjects — to 
check rebellion, to put a stop to begging by men 
able to work, and to encourage trade. Private 
wars were ordered to cease, with all leagues or 
' bands ' such as the nobles were in the habit of 
making among themselves. Great men were also 
forbidden to ride about the country or appear at 
courts of law with bodies of armed followers. 
\ Bands,' however, became one of the chief features 
of Scottish history. Justice long continued to be 
overruled by violence. Meantime persons were 
appointed to examine the older books of laws, and 
' mend the laws that need mendment ' or alteration. 
I A new court, known as the Session, was set up, and 
the laws ordered to be made known in every dis- 
trict, so that none might be ignorant of them. 
Moreover, as the smaller barons or freeholders 
found it expensive and troublesome to attend the 
meetings of Estates, and had given up doing so, it 
was arranged that they should send representatives, 
two for each sheriffdom., James was anxious to 



have their support against the greater lords. But 
it was long ere this arrangement was really put in 
force. A favourite project of the King was to have 
Scottish archers as good as those of England. I The 
power of the long-bow was written red in the his- 
tory of both Scotland and France. ' All men/ it 
was proclaimed, were to ' busk them to be archers 
from they be twelve years of age.' But the Scots 
never took to the long-bow. As gunpowder was 
/coming into use, James had 'bombards/ or long 
heavy guns, constructed. He was also anxious for 
a navy, and had, of course, ships of his own with 
which he traded./ 

8. James and the Church, — Like other Scottish 
Kings, James had his difficulties with the Pope. 
He was determined to be master within his own 
kingdom, even over the Church. He also issued a 
severe reproof to the members of great religious 
houses, declaring that they had ' abandoned re- 
ligious conduct.' At the same time, as a good 
Churchman, he would not suffer heretical teaching. 
Another burning took place — this time of Paul 
Crawar, a foreigner — and the bishops were ordered 
to hunt out all heretics. 

9. Assassination of the King. — But it was never 
easy for a King of Scots to carry out his good inten- 
tions. The Crown was usually too weak to govern 
the country against the will of the great barons. 
The royal power, too, had been much lessened by 
the gifting away of Crown property. James there- 
fore ordered an inquiry into the history of the royal 
estates since the death of Robert Bruce. Land- 
holders were warned that they might be called upon 



to show their charters to the lands they occupied. 
The wide estates of the Albanys and the Earl of 
Lennox had, of course, fallen to the Crown. Further 
to increase his wealth and power, James now, with 
very slight excuses, seized the lands of the Earldoms 
of Strathearn, March, and Mar. Such high-handed 
dealing, of course, raised strong feeling against him. 
He had already made an enemy of vSir Robert 
Graham, uncle of the young Earl of Strathearn, by 
imprisoning and banishing him because of his 
violent opposition to the royal reforms. ;The fiery 
Graham became the moving spirit of a conspiracy 
against the King's life. There was some idea of 
putting forward the Earl of AthoU as the rightful 
King. The Earl was the grandson of Robert II by 
his second wife, and some would hold that Robert's 
first marriage was not legal (see Chapter XIII, 
§ 5). James was a descendant of this first 
marriage. The conspirators found their oppor- 
tunity during the King's visit to Perth in the 
opening months of 1437. The Court occupied the 
Blackfriars Monastery. Late on a February night 
Graham, with a band of Highlanders, entered the 
building. The King's private chamberlain. Sir 
Robert Stewart, was a grandson of Atholl, and 
played the traitor. He had planks laid across the 
moat and removed the bars of the locks. Warned 
by the tumult, James sought hiding in a closet, or in 
some sort of underground passage. Stewart, how- 
ever, helped to his discovery, and he was mercilessly 
dirked to death. But nothing more was accom- 
plished than the death of the King. Within a 
month the chief conspirators had been arrested by 


the aid of some Highland chiefs. They were 
fiendishly tortured ere being put to death. Atholl 
stood his trial in a paper crown. He had taken no 
hand in the murder, but knew of the plot. His 
.head, wearing a crown of iron, was stuck on a spear. 
Graham stubbornly declared that he had slain a 
tyrant, but the popular voice took shape in the 
words : 

' Sir Robert Graham, 
That slew our King, 
God give him shame,' 

10. James and England. — James's long residence 
in England did not make him any more friendly to 
that country. A truce of seven years might have 
been extended if James would have given up his 
league with France ; but this he refused to do. 
One of his daughters — herself a poetess and a 
friend of poets, as were also her two sisters — 
married the Dauphin of France, afterwards the 
famous Louis XL In the last year of his reign 
James tried to recovei Roxburgh Castle, but the 
siege was suddenly abandoned. 


JAMES II (1437-1460) 

1. Rule of Crichton and Livingstone. — The scene of 
the King's murder being no safe place for his son, 
the Queen hurried with the young James to Edin- 
burgh Castle. l&For the first time a coronation took 
place at Holyrood Abbey instead of Scone.y The 

JAMES II (1437-1460) 


King was only seven, but it was the Scottish usage 
to crown a new King immediately, however young. 
No gifts of Crown lands, it was enacted, were to be 
made during the minority without the consent of 
the Three Estates. The Earl of Douglas was 
appointed Lieutenant-Governor, but, though he 
drew his salary, took nothing to do with the busi- 
ness of his office. Thus the actual management of 
affairs became the object of- a struggle between Sir 
William Crichton, Keeper of Edinburgh Castle and 
Master of the Royal Household, under whose pro- 
tection was the King, and Sir Alexander Living- 
stone, Keeper of Stirling Castle. These were two 
of the lesser barons whom James I, according to his 
policy, had placed in important positions. At first 
Crichton was supreme till the Queen, with her son, 
took refuge with Livingstone. Then the two agreed 
to a division of power. Livingstone was to keep the 
King, while Crichton was to be Chancellor. The 
great houses took no part in these proceedings. 
They had what they desired in being free of royal 

2. The ' Black Dinner ' of Earl Douglas (1440). — 
The Lieutenant-Governor was now dead, but his 
son was not appointed to succeed him. Though 
only seventeen, the young Earl was the most 
powerful man in the kingdom. Having vast 
estates in the Lowlands, from the Solway to the 
Forth, he could assemble a following of many thou- 
sands of relatives and retainers. He was also Duke 
of Touraine, with a fair lordship in France. Keeping 
proudly apart, he took no ^hare in public business. 
Feeling their position unsure in face of such a 


magnate, Crichton and Livingstone determined to 
get rid of him. The Earl and his brother, with 
their adviser and friend, Sir Malcolm Fleming, were 
invited to meet the King in Edinburgh Castle. One 
day at dinner the unsuspecting guests were seized 
and put through some sort of trial on a charge of 
treason. The two Douglases were at once exe- 
cuted, as Fleming also was four days later. The 
earldom was allowed to pass to the uncle of the 
murdered youths, James the Gross. The lordship 
of Galloway, however, with some other property, 
went to their sister, thus known as ' the Fair Maid 
of Galloway.' Three years later Earl James died, 
and his son William, by marrying his cousin, re- 
united the family estates. 

3. Disorder in the Country. — The new Earl was an 
active and ambitious man, like so many of his 
ancestors. Making friends with Livingstone, he 
secured the office of Lieutenant-General of the 
kingdom, and brought about the downfall of 
Crichton, who had been chiefly responsible for his 
cousin's death. The post of Chancellor was now 
filled by Bishop Kennedy of St. Andrews, an able 
and unselfish statesman. He at least thought first 
and always of what was best in the country's in- 
terests, and not of what might mean gain and 
advancement for himself. But for the time he was 
powerless as against Douglas. Between the con- 
tending parties the country sank into a state of 
anarchy. Crichton and Livingstone harried each 
other's lands. The Earl of Crawford fell on the 
estates of the Bishop, and was solemnly ' cursed ' 
by him. A year later he was mortally wounded in 

JAMES II (1437-1460) 


a skirmish. Other houses, too, were busy with 
their own rivalries and revenges. Laws against 
' bands ' and private wars went unheeded. Atholl 
Stewarts and Ruthvens did battle at Perth ; Lind- 
says and Ogilvies fought round the monastery of 
Arbroath ; Mackays and Murrays in the far North. 
In all this, of course, the weak and the poor were 
the chief sufferers. Influenced by Kennedy, James 
himself, at the age of nineteen, assumed the control 
of the kingdom. He married Mary, daughter of 
the French Duke of Guldres. 

4. James Slays the Earl of Douglas (1452). — But 
the power of the King was almost overshadowed 
by that of Douglas. That house was now stronger 
and more splendid than ever. The Earl's two 
brothers also were Earls — of Moray and Ormond. 
When he went abroad, his train of attendants was 
like that of a royal personage. As hereditary 
Warden of the Marches, he was Lord of the Border, 
and the family was popular because of its successes 
over the English. Their latest exploit had been a 
severe trouncing to an English invading party at 
Gretna on the Sark. A struggle with such a 
subject might easily become a civil war, and it was 
hard to say who would win. James was thus 
driven to desperate measures. He struck first at 
the Livingstones. Their possessions were confis- 
cated, and two of the sons executed. The old Sir 
Alexander was spared, and he took refuge with his 
son-in-law, the Lord of the Isles, whose power in 
the north rivalled that of Douglas in the south. 
Douglas now leagued himself with the Earl of Craw- 
ford. That ' Tiger Earl ' ' held all Angus in his 


band, and was richt inobedient to the King/ At 
this time, indeed, he was actually in rebellion. 
James tried to conciliate Douglas. He invited him 
to Stirling, and asked for his help against Crawford. 
Douglas refused to forsake his ally. As they talked 
the matter over alone after supper, and James saw 
that the Earl was not to be moved, he suddenly 
drew his dagger and stabbed his guest in the throat. 
Thus a second Douglas fell a victim to the royal 

5. The Douglases Destroyed. — James had now 
brought matters to a head. The new Earl, the 
murdered man's brother, defied the King, and 
sacked and burned Stirling. James in turn wasted 
Ettrick Forest, a Douglas district. Then came a 
short reconciliation ; each dreading the power of 
the other. But Douglas began to plot with Eng- 
land. Acting on his behalf, too, Donald Balloch 
of Islay, uncle of John, Lord of the Isles and Earl 
of Ross, descended on the islands in the Firth of 
Clyde, and carried off much booty. James seized 
some of Douglas's castles near the Forth. Lord 
Hamilton came over to the royal side, and the Earl 
fled to England. Another member of the Douglas 
stock, the Earl of Angus, commanded the royal 
army that scattered the forces of Moray and Ormond 
at Arkinholm* (1455). Moray was slain, Ormond 
executed. The Douglas estates were forfeited. Part 
was kept for the Crown, and part divided among 
the King's supporters, such as Angus and Lord 
Hamilton — the beginning of the power of these two 
great families. Crawford in the north had been 

* Now Langholm, on the Esk 

JAMES II (1437--1460) 


already crushed by the first Earl of Huntly, head 
of the rising House of Gordon. Thus the greatest 
of the noble houses that ever flourished in Scot- 
land was at last destroyed ; and thus on its ruins 
rose others to threaten and to fall in their turn. 
Meantime the Crown had added to its possessions, 
and was now wealthier than it had been since the 
time of Alexander III. 

0. Revival of the English Claims. — During the rest 
of his reign James had no trouble with his nobles. 
He had made himself undisputed master of the 
realm. A good part of one year he spent in the 
Highlands, where he came to a friendly under- 
standing with the shifty John of the Isles. Parlia- 
ment was kept busy, mainly at its usual work of 
encouraging agriculture and trade, and providing 
for justice being done to the poor. A new University 
had been founded in 1451 at Glasgow. A line of 
beacons was arranged between the Border and 
the capital to give timely warning of an English 
invasion. In England was Douglas, a pensioner at 
the Court of Edward IV, and ready to do all the 
harm he could to the country that had cast him 
out. Edward himself was disposed to revive the 
old claim of superiority over Scotland. That 
claim, indeed, had never been lost sight of. In the 
reign of James I an agent had been sent to gather 
evidence in support of it in Scotland. He returned 
with a bundle of forged documents for which he had 
paid a handsome sum. But England was divided 
by the War of the Roses, in which Lancastrians and 
Yorkists fought for the Crown. For the time the 
Yorkists had triumphed, and Edward IV was a 


King after the type of the earher Edwards. He 
addressed James in a scolding letter as one pretend- 
ing to be King over ' his rebels of Scotland/ James, 
who was on good terms with the Lancastrian 
Henry VI, replied by raiding the English Border. 
Roxburgh Castle was once more beset. The Lord 
of the Isles attended with a large body of High- 
landers. Cannon were employed in the siege. 
James II, ' that had the firemark in his face,' was 
a soldier's King, keenly interested in warfare, and a 
comrade to his men, mixing with them in camp, and 
partaking of their camp fare. ' More curious than 
became a King,' he stood watching his artillery at 
work, when ' ane misframed gun ' burst, and a 
piece struck and killed him (August 3, 1460). The 
Queen insisted on the siege going on, and a few days 
after Roxburgh Castle was once more quit of 
Englishmen. As such fortresses had proved of 
service only to the English, it was, with some diffi- 
culty owing to its tough m.asonry, at once destroyed. 


JAMES HI (1460-1488) 

1. The Old Lords and the Young Lords. — As in the 
case of his father, no time was lost in crowning the 
young King, nine years old. The ceremony took 
place in Kelso Abbey a week after the fatal accident 
at Roxburgh. No Regent was appointed ; the 
King and his two brothers remained in charge of 
their mother. For a short time she and Bishop 

JAMES III (1460-1488) 


Kennedy acted together in the Government and 
carried on the pohcy of the late King in favouring 
the cause of the Lancastrians in England, which 
had also the support of France. But the Queen- 
mother was a fickle woman, and was easily won 
over to the side of the ' White Rose ' of York. 
Kennedy was backed by the ' old lords,' of whom 
the Earl of Angus was the chief, while the ' young 
lords ' rallied round Mary. Feeling between the 
two parties was so strong as almost to bring about 
a civil war. But the feeble Henry VI and his 
brave Queen took refuge in Scotland, and paid for 
their entertainment with the gift of Berwick. 
Kennedy was thus able to send a large army into 
England to strike a blow for the ' Red Rose ' of 
Lancaster. At Carlisle it suffered defeat with 
heavy loss and the party of Lancaster thereupon 
went out of favour in Scotland. 

2. The Position of the Lord of the Isles. — But 
Edward found other means of making trouble for 
his Scottish enemies. In the Highlands the Lord 
of the Isles plaved the princely part which the 
Earl of Douglas had done in the Lowlands. He 
had even ampler possessions and fuller power. In 
the Hebrides he filled the place of the King, who 
to the people there was merely a name. Descended 
from their ancient hero Somerled, he was chief of the 
great clan Macdonald, and from him the other 
island chiefs held their lands. As Earl of Ross he 
was in a like position with respect to the clans of the 
Earldom. As hereditary Sheriff of Inverness, he 
exercised jurisdiction in the King's name over all 
Scotland north of the Spey. He was thus at once 


a great chief, a powerful feudal lord, and a royal 
official. Moreover, the language of his domain was 
Gaelic, and this still further marked it off from the 
rest of the country. It was, besides, a land most 
difficult to move about in — scattered islands and 
lonely glens hidden behind lofty mountains. 1 Even 
the few royal castles were in the Sheriff's keeping, 
for there was no standing army to garrison them for 
the King. Such a potentate was in a more favour- 
able position to assert independence than any 
other of the Scottish lords. And it was the Lord 
of the Isles whom Edward now secured for an ally. 

3. Treaty of Westminster. — John of the Isles, we 
have seen, had served at Roxburgh, and had been 
forward in offering to invade England with his 
Highlanders. On the King's death he sped back 
north again, and, expecting the usual troubles of a 
minority, had appropriated the revenues of the 
Crown lands. For this he was summoned before 
the Estates, and attended ' with all the lairds of 
the Isles ' to be admonished. Now, through 
Douglas, he entered into a treaty with the King of 
England. The three were to work together for the 
conquest of Scotland. In that event, according 
to this Treaty of Westminster (1462), John and his 
uncle Donald Balloch were to divide the country 
north of the Forth ; Douglas was to recover his 
estates in the Lowlands. All were to be ' subjects 
and liegemen of the King of England,' and in the 
meantime to be in his pay. John at once set 
himself up to be King, and ordered all Crown 
revenues to be paid to his son Angus, as his 
Lieutenant. Douglas tried to raise his old vassals 

JAMES III (1460-1488) 


on the Borders. Edward himself, it was reported, 
was about to take the field. The situation was so 
serious that even the aged Bishop Kennedy donned 
his armour for service. But the danger passed 
over. Douglas was driven off. The Lancastrian 
cause was clearly lost, and was given up by France. 
It was then abandoned by Kennedy and his friends. 
The Queen and Angus died about this time, and 
till the death of the good Bishop in 1465 the country 
had peace. For John of the Isles, who had been 
left in the lurch, a day of reckoning was to come. 

4. The Rise and Fall of the Boyds. — The dis- 
appearance of the leading figures in the government 
of the country left the way to high office open for 
some adventurous family. The King's instructor 
in the use of arms and Keeper of Edinburgh Castle 
was Sir Alexander Boyd, brother of Lord Boyd of 
Kilmarnock, He made a band with two other 
lords — Kennedy, a brother of the Bishop, and 
Fleming, son of the Sir Malcolm Fleming who had 
shared the Black Dinner with Earl Douglas. They 
were all western men, and were supported by the 
Border chiefs. Lord Hepburn of Hailes, and Kerr of 
Cessford. James was to be seized and given over 
to Boyd and Kennedy, who, having possession of 
the King, could act in his name. Fleming was to 
share in the spoils of office. James was accordingly 
carried off from a hunting-party at Linlithgow to 
Edinburgh Castle. A meeting of the Estates was 
held in the same place. The Estates were always 
ready to do the bidding of the party in power : 
no one would dare to offer any opposition, as it 
might result in his losing his life, or, at least, his 



property. Accordingly, the Estates approved of 
the doings of the banded lords. The Boyds had 
things all their own way. Lord Boyd was made 
Governor, Chancellor, and Justiciary. His eldest 
son. Sir Thomas Boyd, married the King's eldest 
sister Mary, was created Earl of Arran, and loaded 
with estates. Less than four years later the Boyds 
were stripped of all their sudden splendour. A 
marriage was being arranged between James and the 
Princess Margaret, daughter of Christian, King of 
Denmark, Norway, and Sweden ; and Arran brought 
over the twelve-years-old Queen. His wife met 
him on board ship with the news that James ' had 
conceived great hatred against him.' He returned 
to Denmark. The Estates now condemned the 
whole family for treason, and their lands became 
the property of the Crown. Lord Boyd escaped to 
England, but Sir Alexander Boyd was executed. 
The Princess Mary, Arran's wife, afterwards married 
Lord Hamilton, and the Hamiltons thus took a 
place next to the royal family. 

5. The Orkney and Shetland Isles added to Scotland 
(1469). — James, by his marriage, cleared himself of 
a debt and added to his dominions. \ Since the 
days of Alexander HI Scotland had held the Western 
Isles for a yearly rent of 100 marks. But this 
* Norway Annual ' was never regularly paid. No 
payment had been m.ade since the reign of James L 
The Annual itself and all arrears were now remitted 
as part of Queen Margaret's dowry, and in addition 
there was to be a sum of 60,000 florins. But as King 
Christian could raise at present only a small part 
■ of this sum, the Orkney and the Shetland Islands, 

JAMES III (1460-1488) 


still in possession of the Danish Crown, were handed 
over as a pledge for payment. . The marriage took 
place in July, 1469. Three years later the Earldom 
of Orkney was acquired for the Crown. In later 
times offers were frequently made to redeem the 
islands, but the Scottish Kings would have nothing 
to do with any such transaction. 

6. The Lord of the Isles loses the Earldom of Ross 
(1476). — A treaty of peace with England gave an 
opportunity of dealing with the rebellious Lord of 
the Isles. What had been the course of affairs in 
the North during the twelve years since he had 
assumed royal power is not known. The Earl of 
Huntly seems to have kept him in check. He was 
now summoned to appear before Parliament, and 
answer for his treasonable behaviour. When he 
did not appear, a fleet and an army were assembled 
under the Earls of Argyll, Huntly, and Crawford, 
to carry out a sentence of forfeiture. John yielded, 
and the Queen used her influence on his behalf. 
He had to give up his earldom, which was added 
to the royal domain, and his position as Sheriff. 
He retained the title and the greater part of the 
lands of his lordship. Wroth at such weakness, 
Angus, his son and heir, took up arms against both 
King and father. Overrunning Ross, he defeated 
the Mackenzies, who were on the royal side. The 
northern Earls drove him back to his islands. 
There he maintained a civil war, being supported 
by his own clan against John and the Macleans and 
Macleods of the North Isles. He scattered their 
galleys in the battle of Bloody Bay, near Tobermory, 
in Mull. But shortly after he made a sorry end at 

10 — 2 


Inverness, where he was slain by an Irish harper 
' in his own chamber/ 

7. James and his Favourites. — Meantime James 
himself was not in a comfortable position. By a 
large section of the nobles his manner of life was 
keenly disliked. He was clever, as all the Stewarts 
were. But he was not a soldier-King like his father, 
nor an able administrator like his grandfather, j He 
had the artistic tastes of the poet-King. He was 
much interested, too, in the science of the time 
— in astrology and chemistry. Dark-haired and 
of an olive complexion, he had a foreign look. 
On the other hand, his brothers, the Dukes of 
Albany and Mar, were of the true native stock. 
Albany was a big-limbed, generous, and masterful 
man of whom the nobles stood in fear. Mar was 
a sportsman and lover of horses. They lived the 
open-air life of hunting and soldiering, which was 
the only sort of life the Scottish nobles understood. 
James ' loved solitude, and desired never to hear 
of war, but delighted more in music and policy and 
building, nor he did in the government of the realm 
... in the playing of instruments, nor in the defence 
of the borders and administration of justice.' His 
close friends were men of like tastes with him- 
self — Thomas Cochrane, an architect, Rogers, a 
musician, and others ; even the royal tailor received 
favours. No doubt these were men of special 
talent in their own hues, but to the Scottish nobles 
they were merely ' masons, fiddlers,' etc. Feeling 
became so strained that James, in self-defence, 
had to put his brothers in ward. Mar died in a 
fever in the Canongate of Edinburgh. Albany 

JAMES III (1460-1488) 


B^om the picture by Van der Goes at Holyrood. 


escaped from Edinburgh Castle, and went to 

8. Bad Times in the Country. — -Beyond doubt 
James, having so many other interests, was slack 
in the business of government. He could be firm 
enough on occasions, but he did not keep it up. 
He was ready to forgive, and wished for peace. 
Parliament met regularly, usually at Edinburgh. 
J But it was becoming the custom for Parliament to 
work through a committee formed from the three 
Estates, and known as the Lords of the Articles. 


Motto on reverse to right : ' Let God arise and let His enemies 
be scattered.' 

This committee, while it lasted, had all the power of 
Parliament. The country, as a whole, was in a 
most unsettled state. To the war dragging on in 
the North were added feuds between great families 
elsewhere, from Angus to the Borders. Because of 
the frequent slaughters Parliament had already 
decreed that ' forethought murder ' should not have 
benefit of sanctuary. Pestilence, too, had visited 
the people. Then came a famine and a war with 
England, and the price of food rose high. These 
misfortunes ' caused both hunger and dearth, and 
many poor folk died of hunger/ For the hardness 
of the times and the high prices people blamed the 

JAMES III (1460-1488) 

black money/ which had been in circulation since 
the beginning of the reign. It was made of a 
mixture of silver and copper, known as billon. One 
piece, known as the ' plack,'* was supposed to be 
worth threepence, which was now the value of 
the ordinary silver ' sterling.' People would not 
give as much for the bad coin as for the good one, 
so the plack fell to twopence. Cochrane was believed 
to make a profit from the coining. He had also got 
from the King the revenues of the Earldom of Mar. 
Of all the royal favourites he was the most detested. 

9. The Favourites are Hanged at Lauder (1482). — 
Both James and Edward IV had shown themselves 
desirous of peace between their countries. In 1472 
the Pope had made St. Andrews an archbishopric, 
with rule over all the Scottish Bishops. This 
closed the claim of the Archbishop of York to be 
supreme over the Scottish Church. : The usual 
way of bringing two countries close together in 
those days was by marriages between the royal 
families. / Various schemes of this sort had been 
suggested by James to Edward, but none was ever 
carried out. Now James made war to please 
Louis XI of France. The Earl of Angus crossed 
the Border to waste the northern counties and fulfil 
the old Scottish boast of having lain for three 
nights on English ground. An English fleet did 
much mischief in the Firth of Forth before it was 
beaten off by Sir Andrew Wood, the most famous 
of Scottish seamen. Then Edward had Albany 
brought over from France. The exiled Duke 
accepted the offer of his brother's crown as ' Alex- 

* French plaque : a medal or metal plate. 


ander, King of Scotland, by the gift of the King 
of England/ He was to marry an English lady, 
break off the alliance with France, and do homage 
for his kingdom This was the Treaty of Fotherin- 
gay. Like the Treaty of Westminster, it was 
Edward's way of checking the movement of the 
Scots against him. An English army now marched 
to the Border. James led a large force to meet 
them, making for the Tweed by the shortest road, 
down Lauderdale. But as they lay at Lauder 
the Scottish Earls, led by Angus — on this account 
known as ' Bell-the-Cat ' — Huntly, and Lennox, 
arrested the King, and seized and hanged all his 
favourites, with one exception, over Lauder Bridge 
(1482). They then came to terms with the English, 
who dispersed after making themselves masters of 
Berwick, never again a Scottish town. Albany 
joined the revolted Earls, who were now masters of 
the kingdom. 

10. Albany and James, — These events left Albany 
supreme. He was restored to his former estates 
and honours ; Parliament added to them, and made 
him Lieutenant-General of the realm. James was 
confined for a few months in Edinburgh Castle, but 
Albany brought about his release, and the brothers 
even lived together. Albany, however, was not 
satisfied. He took up again his secret scheming 
with the King of England, and the discovery of this 
put him in James's power. The Scots had suffered 
too much for their independence to allow it to be 
bartered away in such a fashion. Albany was 
forced to give up his high office. In the end he 
departed again to England, having first introduced 

JAMES III (•1460-1488) 


an English garrison into his castle of Dunbar. 
Thereupon the Estates condemned him for treason, 
and forfeited all his lands. A year after more than 
thirty of his supporters were similarly punished. 
Albany and Douglas made one more effort for the 
overthrow of the Scottish King. They appeared 
with a body of horse at Lochmaben Fair, expecting 
to be joined by friends on the Border. Instead, 
they were attacked and driven away. Albany 
escaped on a swift horse, and afterwards retired to 
France, where he died within a year from an accident 
at a tournament. Douglas, on whose traitorous 
head the Estates had put a price, was allowed to 
shut himself up in the Abbey of Lindores. ' He that 
may not better be must be a monk,' was his remark. 

11. Conspiracy against the King. — But James had 
rid himself of one set of rebels only to find himself 
faced by another. He still ignored and kept aloof 
from the nobles. ' Placks ' were still being forced 
on traders for lack of gold and silver. The Earl of 
Angus, ' Bell-the-Cat,' had some reason to fear, for 
his own position, as he had been Albany's agent 
in his dealings with England. On the other hand, 
James had given deep offence to the House of 
Hume, whose close friends were the Hepburns, a 
notorious Border family. They had both been allies 
of the Boyds, who had suffered so heavily at the 
royal hands. James had presented the revenues of 
Coldingham Priory to his Chapel Royal at Stirling, 
where he maintained a large choir of singers and 
musicians. Lord Hume claimed that the priory 
was in the gift of his family, but James, through 
Parliament, dared anyone to oppose him in this. 


Resentment against the King and his new group of 
advisers took shape in a network of conspiracy that 
spread over the Borders. It included the Earls of 
Angus and Argyll, the Bishop of Glasgow, and 
Lords Hume and Hailes (Hepburn). They secured 
possession of the heir to the throne, Prince James, 
sixteen years old, and put him at their head. The 
King withdrew to Aberdeen, where he found the 
northern Earls and barons loyal to himself. He 
was joined by the Bishop, and by the Earls of 
Huntly, AthoU, Crawford, Sutherland, etc. The 
kingdom was thus roughly divided — South against 
North. ' The burgesses, merchants, and unlanded 
men ' stood for the King. A short truce was brought 
about by the Pacification of Blackness, and James 
promised to select his advisers from those entitled 
to that position — that is, the nobles and prelates. 
Still the rebel lords did not lay down their arms, 
and both parties appealed to Henry VH of England 
for assistance. The armies drew together on the 
field of Sauchiehurn, south of Bannockburn (1488). 
James had girt on the sword of Robert Bruce. 
But early in the fight he disappeared on a restive 
horse, leaving behind him a losing cause. For some 
days it was not known what had become of the 
King. It was even thought that he had taken refuge 
with his devoted friend Sir Andrew Wood, whose 
ships lay in the Forth, not far from Sauchieburn. 
At last his dead body was discovered some distance 
from the battlefield. How or at whose hands he 
had ' happened to be slain ' was never known. 
The commons viewed the event with horror and 
long regret for their gentle and cultivated King. 

JAMES IV (1488-1513) 


Four years latei ' the heavy voice and murmur 
of the people ' was still so great that a reward 
was publicly offered for the discovery of the King's 
murderers, but without any result. 


JAMES IV (1488-1513) 

I. The New Government. -4] ^mes IV ascended the 
throne with an uneasy conscience. He had taken 
arms against his father, and, in a sense, had brought 
about his death. This he never forgot. As a self- 
imposed penance he wore next his skin a belt of iron 
padded with worsted, the weight ol which he increased 
every year. He was attentive to all the services of 
the Church, and at times, when remorse sat heavy on 
his mind, he would go on pilgrimage to some distant 
shrine, such as the Church of St. Duthae at Tain or 
the sepulchre of St. Ninian at Whithorn. The nobles 
bore their blame more lightly. What had happened, 
they said, was all due to the late King and ' his 
perverse council,' who had broken faith and arranged 
for the ' inbringing of Englishmen to the perpetual 
subjection of the realm.' Yet they themselves had 
asked for English help. An explanation on these 
lines was, however, drawn up by the Parliament 
and sent to the chief Courts of Europe and to the 
Pope. But while they excused themselves abroad, 
the successful nobles made the most of their chances 
at home. They secured offices and lands. Argyll 
became Chancellor ; Angus was guardian of the King. 


The Humes and Hepburns were loaded with profit- 
able posts, and Lord Hailes (Hepburn) received the 
title and lands of the Earldom of Bothwell. Lesser 
members of these families and others of the Border 
lairds got their share of Government salaries and 
forfeited lands. It was some time, however, before 
order was restored. Two years later James, in a 
letter to the Pope, said : ' Since assuming the crown 
I have exerted myself much to quell the disturbances 
prevailing in my kingdom, and to reduce it to peace 
and unity. . . . Our old enemies of England have 
also harassed my subjects, whom I have protected 
against the inroads of their adversaries by my 
assiduous exertions.' 

2. James and Foreign Powers. — The trouble with 
England began at sea. Sir Andrew Wood with 
the Flower and the Yellow Carvel had defeated a 
squadron of English ships which lay in wait for 
merchantmen entering the Firth of Forth. Three 
ships sent by Henry VH to punish him for this he 
beat in a two days' fight behind the Isle of May, 
and captured with their commander and crews. But 
Henry was not anxious for war. His own throne 
was not yet firmly placed. He was allied, too, with 
Ferdinand of Spain, whose daughter was to marry 
his son. The rival of the Spanish monarch for the 
first place in Europe was France, and it was the 
aim of both Spain and England to prevent James 
renewing the ancient alliance with that country. 
James found himself and his country of European 
importance. But Henry preferred to work by 
underhand means. He had Scottish spies in his 
pay. Another Douglas was ready to betray his 

JAMES IV (1488-15 13) 


country. The Earl of Angus made a secret treaty 
with the Enghsh King that in the event of war he 
would place his castle of Hermitage in Henry's 
hands, and thus leave Liddesdale open to the 
English. The plot was discovered, and Angus was 
relieved of castle and dale, which were entrusted to 
the Earl of Bothwell. The alliance was concluded 
with France ; James binding himself to attack the 
King of England should he make war on that 

3. James and the Church, — The opposition of the 
Scottish Kings and Estates to any increase of the 
Pope's power in Scotland, had always been very 
marked. Even in the reign of a devout churchman 
like James it was clearly shown. That a man 
should go to Rome and purchase from the Pope an 
appointn^ent in the Church, was forbidden as 
treason. ' Those who carried law cases to the Papal 
Court for judgmen^t were ordered to bring them 
home and submit them to the proper judges there. 
Such abuses were not only inroads on the royal 
power, but took money out of the realm. Then, to 
prevent the head of the Church in Scotland from 
becoming too strong, James pressed the Pope to 
erect Glasgow into an archbishopric, which was 
..done, in spite of the bitter opposition of St. Andrews 
(1492). The new Archbishop showed his zeal by 
reviving the persecution of heretics. In Ayrshire 
were still many of the sect of Lollards. Forty of 
these, including some women, were sum.moned before 
the King and his Great Council. As most of them 
came from the district of Kyle, they are known as 
the Lollards of Kyle. The chief of the many charges 


against them were that they refused to reverence 
images and saints ; declared that the Pope was not 
the successor of Peter, and had no power to forgive 
sins ; that there was no miracle in the Mass ; that 
priests might have wives ; and that ' the principals 
in the Church/ from the Pope downwards, were 
thieves and murderers. But at the trial the leader 
of the Lollards showed himself a man of ready wit, 
and so answered the Bishops ' that the greatest part 
of the accusation was turned to laughter/ Nothing 
was done to the Lollards, and * ane spunk of light ' 
continued to burn on in Ayrshire, to help later in 
lighting the fire of the Reformation. 

4. End of the Lordship of the Isles (1493). — To 
the ' peace and unity ' which James desired for his 
kingdom the Lordship of the Isles was still the chief 
obstacle. It was the storm-cloud of the West 
Highlands. Macdonald continued to hanker after 
the lost Earldom of Ross. Lord John himself was a 
timid man, but his nephew and heir, Alexander 
Macdonald of Lochalsh, on his suggestion, once 
again attempted the recovery of the province by 
force. Inverness was taken and plundered, and 
the lands of the Black Isle wasted. But the clan 
Mackenzie fell on the retiring Macdonalds and de- 
feated them. The Lordship of the Isles was for- 
feited. John surrendered, and died a royal pen- 
sioner — the last of the island lords. The King 
visited the Hebrides in person on several occasions 
to receive the submission of the chiefs. He showed 
himself ready to conciliate them, and granted them 
fresh charters of their lands. Each chief was made 
responsible for the serving of summonses upon 

JAMES IV (1488-15 1 3) 


clansmen who had broken the law. If the man 
did not appear, the chief would have to take his 
place. But the island clans continued restless. 
Again Alexander of Lochalsh invaded Ross, but 
was again defeated by the Mackenzies. The King, 
in consequence of such troubles, recalled all the 
charters he had given the western chiefs, who were 
thus left legally landless. The old vassals were to 
be removed with all ' broken men ' — that is, the 
general population— and the lands of the lordship 
were to be rented to ' true men.' This was an im- 
possible undertaking, and it at once provoked a 
rising. The royal power was supported by the 
Campbells, the Stewarts of Appin, the Macians of 
Ardnamurchan, the Mackenzies and the Mackays. 
The Macdonalds, Macleans, Macleods, and Camerons 
rallied round a son of Angus son of John, the last 
lord, named Donald Dubh (' the black This 
rising was a most serious one, and took two years 
to suppress. The military forces of the whole 
kingdom were called out. The King operated 
against the rebel Highlanders from the South, while 
the Earl of Huntly led the royal army in the North. 
Sir Andrew Wood and Robert Barton beset the isles 
with their armed ships. Donald was captured and 
imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. The Highlands and 
Islands were now placed under the control of the 
Earl of Huntly and the Earl of Argyll. Arrange- 
ments were made for the holding of sheriff-courts 
at convenient centres. The Campbells of Argyll 
and the Gordons of Huntly came to fill the place of 
the old Lords of the Isles. Like these, too, they 
used their position to advance the interests of their 


families. The chiefs who had formerly looked to 
Macdonald as their superior, now held their lands of 
these noblemen or of the King. Thus the clans 
became more sharply distinguished, and feuds over 
their possessions continually broke out. No royal 
official could have the influence over them which 
the Macdonald chiefs had exercised, through the 
numicrous branches of their family and the ancient 
standing of a house that had ruled for so many cen- 
turies in the Hebrides. For the rest of the reign, 
however, the North and West gave no further 

5. James and Education, — James was a fairly 
well educated man who had a good library and 
showed much interest in the scientific ideas of the 
time. More important still he was awake to the 
need of educating his people. [ In 1495 he joined with 
the good Bishop Elphinstone in founding the ' King's 
College ' at Aberdeen to be a centre of instruction 
for the north country, where even for the Church 
' fit men were not to be foimd.' An Act was 
also passed in 1496 ordering all barons and free- 
holders to send their eldest sons to the grammar 
schools, and afterwards to the schools of law, so 
that the)( might be able to act as judges in their own 
districts. The proper administration of the law 
was the most crying need of the kingdom, and 
James himself set a good example by his activity 
in presiding from time to time at ' Ayres,' or cir- 
cuit courts. He ' executed the law without respect 
to rich or poor.' 

6. James supports an English Pretender (1495-7). 
— The expiry of the truce with England found 

JAMES IV (1488-15 1 3) 


James ready to support a pretender to the English 
throne. This was Perkin Warbeck, who claimed to 
be the Duke of York, younger son of Edward IV, 
and to have escaped from the Tower of London 
when the princes were murdered by order of 
Richard III. Warbeck was encouraged by the 
enemies of Henry VII, and James received him 
with enthusiasm. He gave him a pension, and had 
him married to the beautiful daughter of the Earl 
of Huntly. Warbeck promised to give James 
Berwick in return for help in placing him on the 
English throne. A Scottish army harried North- 
umberland, but James and the pretender quarrelled. 
On their return Warbeck was quietly shipped out of 
the kingdom, to fall later into Henry's hands. James, 
however, again invaded England, but retired before 
the advance of the Earl of Surrey. Surrey crossed 
into Scotland to find no foe, but ' continual wind 
and unmeasurable rain.' A seven years' truce was 
secured by the efforts of the Spanish ambassador, 
still seeking to win over Scotland from France, 
Henry was in difficulties with some of his subjects, 
while James was in sore need of money, having had 
to coin his own plate and his ' great chain ' to raise 
funds for the war. 

7. Marriage of James with Margaret Tudor (1503). 
-i~Henry, anxious to prolong the peace, next pressed 
upon the Scottish King a match with his eldest 
daughter, Margaret. After long negotiation this 
was accepted, and amid much pomp and gallantry 
and rejoicing the union was carried through. 
Edinburgh gave the young English Queen a noble 
reception. The houses were hung with tapestry, 



the streets and windows were crowded with spec- 
tators, a band ' played merrily/ ' bells rang for 
mirth/ and a fountain flowed with wine for all to 
drink. The Scottish poet William Dunbar cele- 
brated the occasion in a poem called ' The Thistle 
and the Rose/ It was a most important event in 
the history of both countries. One hundred years 
later it brought a Scottish King to the throne of 
England, and so peacefully united two kingdoms 
which force could never have made into one. 

8. James and the Borders. — James, having brought 
the Highlands into ' strict subjection,' showed him- 
self equally active in curbing the lawlessness in 
the other end of the kingdom. The constant 
fighting with England had bred on the Borders a 
warlike people among whom neither life nor pro- 
perty was secure. Frequently robbed by raiding 
parties, they raided and robbed in turn, if not the 
English, then each other. The country was dotted 
with square towers or ' peels,' which gave refuge to 
the spoilers. To suppress these practices James 
held frequent courts at the principal towns. Theft 
was the common offence, but theft led also to 
fighting and slaughters. Thus, on the last of these 
' Ayres ' the King rode from Edinburgh to Jedburgh, 
and ' took divers broken men, of whom some were 
justified (executed), and the principals of the 
troubles came in linen clothes, with naked swords 
in their hands, and halters about their necks, and 
put them in the King's will ; who were sent to 
divers castles in ward, with sundry others of that 
country men also ; whereat the Borders were in 
greater quietness thereafter.' 

JAMES IV (1488-1513) 


9. Character of the King. — James IV had thus, to 
a greater extent than any of his family before him, 
Vnade the power of the central government felt in 
every corner of the kingdom. As a writer of the 
time says : ' He protected the people from injury 
by the nobles ; and he kept the nobles in harmonious 
peace, partly by his moderation and liberality, and 
partly by the fear of punishment/ , In Scotland 
the King stood between the nobles and the people. 
The nobles would have lived in constant strife. 
The people were not well enough organized to pro- 
tect themselves and their belongings against them ; 
hence they supported the King. And the Stewarts 
had popular instincts. James IV would travel 
alone and in disguise through the country and con- 
verse with poor men in order to learn their feelings 
towards himself. He had a good appearance and 
an agreeable manner. His reddish hair and beard 
he usually wore long. Like his father, he interested 
himself in literature and in the arts. In his reign 
the first printed books were produced in Scotland, 
in Edinburgh. 'He went to much expense in im- 
proving the royal palaces and filling them with 
costly furniture. Fine building was the master-art 
of the age. ' He was fond of music, kept ' lutars and 
harpers,' and when he held a criminal court at 
Dumfries, was entertained by English singers and 
minstrels. On the same occasion he played at cards 
for money with the English warden, as he was in 
the habit of doing with his friends. In other ways 
his conduct was less worthy, and he had favourites 
about him to whom he made gifts which he could 
ill afford. To all who served him he was most 

II — 2 


generous. But he was by nature impulsive and 
rash, so that an Enghsh poet speaks of him as a 
' bull and he was given to ' cracks and boasts/ 

His personal courage was in the end his undoing. 
' He is not a good captain/ says one who knew him, 
' because he begins to fight before he has given his 

JAMES IV (1488-1513) 

10. A Royal Navy and Royal Artillery. — All his 
reign James worked at increasing the fighting power 
of his kingdom. Following the example of James I 
and James II, he, too, tried to force the practice of 
archery on the people ; and football and golf, as 
' unprofitable sports,' were forbidden. Four times 
a year there were to be ' wappinschawings ' (weapon- 
showings) in each district, when every man able to 
bear arms had to appear with such ' harness ' and 
weapons as his station could afford. Tournaments, 
too, were a favourite pastime, where knights fought 
with wooden clubs for battle-axes. But James's 
great achievement was his navy. The naval suc- 
cess of Wood and the Bartons — Andrew, John, and 
Robert — against the English and the Dutch, had 
been made in armed merchantmen, hired for the 
purpose. James desired regular ships of war. His 
total fleet came to number about two dozen vessels, 
great and small, of which the largest was the Great 
Michael surpassing in size and armament any ship 
afloat. This desire for size was shown also in the 
guns of the period, of which ' Mons Meg ' in Edin- 
burgh Castle is an example. Guns of iron and brass 
were made for the King in Stirling and Edinburgh, 
and the Scottish arsenals were famous. For the 
skilled work of shipbuilding and gun-making work- 
men had to be brought from Germany and Flanders. 

11. Scotland and the Holy League. — In 1509 
Henry VII died, and was succeeded by Henry VIIL 
Married to a Spanish princess, and ambitious of re- 
covering the lost English dominions in France, the 
young Henry joined the ' Holy League ' formed by 
the warrior Pope, Julius II, against that country. 


It included Spain, England, and the German or 
' Holy Roman ' Empire. These Powers made every 
effort to detach Scotland, her only ally, from France. 
Two years before the Pope had sent to James a 
purple hat and a richly mounted sword ; and pro- 
claimed him ' Protector of the Christian Religion.' 
Louis XII appealed strongly to James to stand by 
the old alliance, so that Henry, from fear of a 
northern invasion, might be kept at home. James 
resolved to hold by France, urging that ' if France 
were conquered, Scotland would be attacked by 
those folts ' — that is, the English. Later events 
showed that James was right in this belief. More- 
over, he had his own quarrels with Henry VIII. 
The English had not strictly observed the truce. 
Sir Robert Ker, the Scottish Warden of the Middle 
March, had been set on and slain at a peaceful 
Border meeting. Andrew Barton with two ships 
had been attacked by an English squadron off the 
Downs, on the grounds that he was a pirate. Barton 
was killed and his ships added to the English navy. 
Besides, Henry kept possession of the money and 
jewels which had been left to Queen Margaret by 
their father. All these matters, however, James 
insisted, might be arranged should Henry refrain 
from attacking France. Disasters had befallen the 
French at the hands of the Holy League, and Henry 
now got ready for a fresh invasion of their territory. 
Thereupon James called out the whole array of his 
kingdom. During the summer of 1513 Scotland 
rang with military and naval preparations. The 
Great Michael was being fitted out even by candle- 
light. Henry was now in France. The Scottish 

JAMES IV (1488-1513) 

host assembled on the Borough Muir, near Edin- 
burgh. Every corner of the kingdom furnished its 
soldiers. Ettrick sent her ' flowers o' the Forest 
from the West came the ' wild Scots/ with their 
claymores and bows ; and the men of Caithness, in 
uniform of green, followed their fighting Bishop. 
Early in August the best-equipped army that ever 
gathered in Scotland marched to the Tweed. With 
it went seventeen guns drawn by oxen ; the balls 
of stone and the barrels of gunpowder being carried 
in baskets on horses or in carts. 

12. Battle of Flodden, September 9, 1513. — James, 
having thrown down some ' peels ' and captured 
Norham Castle, took up a strong position on Flodden 
Hill. On one side were the Cheviots, and on the other 
was the flooded river Till. There the Earl of Surrey 
found the Scots housed in huts under the wet, 
stormy September w^eather, while his own army 
lacked food and shelter. James refused a challenge 
to come down and fight on the plain, and Surrey, 
therefore, marched north on the east bank of the 
Till. Crossing by a bridge and ford, he came up 
on the Scottish rear. The Scots, setting fire to 
their camp, moved down through the smoke to the 
slope of Branxton Hill. The battle was begun 
by the artillery, but the better-served Enghsh 
batteries soon silenced the Scottish guns. Then, 
at four in the afternoon, the forces ' came to 
handstrokes,' the Scots attacking ' after the German 
manner, without speaking of any word.' Their 
left, under Huntly and Home, broke through 
the English wing, but Home's Borderers at once 
started to plunder, and the English recovered. The 



right was composed of Highlanders, who failed 
before the spears of Sir Edward Stanley. But 
Stanley's men also ' left the chase and fell a-spoiling/ 
To the Borderers on both sides this was the chief 
business of the day. In the Scottish centre was the 
King, encircled by his choicest troops. All fought 
on foot, and the Scots even removed their shoes 


to get better standing on the slippery grass. It 
was here that the fight raged. The Scots were so 
well armoured that ' shot of arrows did them no 
harm.' /But the Enghsh ' bills ' — long-bladed axes 
— lopped off the heads of their eighteen-foot spears, 
and beat down their swords, though the Scots were 
' so mighty, large, strong, and great men that they 
would not fall when four or five bills struck on one 

JAMES IV (1488-15 13) 169 




of them at once/ The Enghsh gave no quartei, 
but * rid all that came to hand/ Thus, when nigh; 
at last ended the fierce struggle, the slaughtei 
among the unyielding Scots had been great. Around, 
their dead King lay the bodies of thirteen Earls and 
three Bishops, and of gentlemen and commoners 
beyond number. Not a family of note in the 
country but mourned the loss of some member. 
Lowland lairds and Highland chiefs were mingled 
in the slain — Maxwells and Elliots with Campbells 
and Maclan and MacLean. The poet Lindsay 
wrote later : 

' I never read in tragedy nor story, 
At one journey* so many nobles slain, 
For the defence and love of their Soverane/ 

The beautiful Scottish guns became the prize of 
the victors. The fleet had been sent to France, 
where a few ships were bought and whence but few 
of the rest returned. The clumsy Great Michael 
rotted uselessly in a French harbour. The dead 
King, having been excommunicated by the Pope 
for opposing the Holy Alliance, could not receive 
Christian burial. Where lies the dust of the 
brilliant James IV no one knows. 



I. Scotland's Politics. — The main interest of Scot- 
land during the fourteenth century is its struggle 
against England for national independence ; during 
* French word, ' day.' 


the fifteenth, the struggle for mastery within the 
country between King and baronsi James I and 
James III had both been the victims of conspiracies 
among the nobles. But rebel houses had from 
time to time been destroyed or crushed, and by the 
end of the century the Crown was richer and stronger 
than it had been at the beginning. England, mean- 
while, was fully occupied with civil war. Her Kings 
were chiefly anxious to guard against Scottish attacks, 
as their own position was insecure. The two countries, 
however, were held to be at war as long as there was 
no actual truce. One cause of this was the alliance of 
Scotland with France, another the English possession 
of Berwick, and, for a time, of Roxburgh. James II 
and James IV, two of Scotland's ablest monarchs, 
fell in war upon England. Hatred of the English 
became part of the Scottish character. Englishman 
called the Scots born traitors, while the Scots said 
the English were cunning cowards. Yet some of the 
best minds in Scotland were already beginning to 
deplore all this, and to think of a time when by 
peaceful union such bitter feelings and cruel strifes 
should have an end. 

2. The Land and the Peasantry. — For the country 
as a whole, however, the century was one of steady 
advance in wealth and comfort. In the reign of 
James IV it was said that ' there is as great a differ- 
ence between the Scotland of old time and the Scot- 
land of to-day as there is between bad and good.' 
j'The chief industry was still agriculture, and the 
greater part of the population was engaged on the 
land. Farmers and labourers were pressed by laws 
to spread the cultivation of the soil. Much of the 


tilled land was on the hillsides, for the lower levels 
were usually filled with lochans or marshes. The 
most fertile districts were Nithsdale, the Lothians, 
Fife, and Moray. The peasantry of Scotland, like 
those of England, were rather better off than their 
fellows in France or Germany. Their houses, indeed, 
were poor. The best were built of stone without 
lime, and roofed with turf or heather, with an ox- 
hide, often, for a door. But if a bad season some- 
times caused a bread famine, there was no lack of 
flesh and fish. The Scots were great eaters of mutton ; 
horned sheep were very plentiful, but on the high 
moorlands they had still to be protected from wolves. 
The better farming folk were as yet the backbone of 
Scottish life. They were the fittest soldiers, and 
carried themselves very independently. The laws 
made it a serious offence to ride through the un- 
fenced crops. Every man went armed to church and 
market. If he was struck by one of liigher degree, 
he at once struck back. It was noted of the 
people of Scotland that ' Every man speaks w^hat he 
will, without blame. The man hath more words 
than the master.' On the Continent a peasant was 
at his m.aster's mercy. The Scottish farmers would 
fight for any powerful lord to his death, ' if only 
they have a liking for him.' This gave the nobles 
their great power for mischief. On the other hand, 
they looked carefully to their own interests, and 
thus they would support a good Government. 
There were no peasant risings in Scotland such as 
were now flaming out in the heart of Europe. But 
the poorest class were still serfs, who had to labour 
for their lords during the week, and so could work 


at their own little fields only on Sundays. ' The 
poorer farmers, too, who could not afford the time 
to attend markets, went to church to make their 
purchases. There, during the service, they bought 
from travelling pedlars girdles, purses, shoes, and 
fruits. What struck visitors from other countries 
was the absence of trees and hedges in the Low- 
lands.; The building of the Great Michael ' wasted 
all the woods of Fife, except Falkland, which were 
oak wood.' Much timber had gone for fuel, but 
coal was now being used. In the reign of James I 
the ' black stones ' were given to the poor as alms 
at the church door. Orchards were to be found by 
the great monasteries as at Haddington, which was 
famous for its fruits. Roads were bad, and the 
quickest way of travelling was on horseback. Not 
even the King kept a carriage. Yet the King and 
the nobles moved about a great deal. Inns were 
few, for the monasteries and abbeys took in 
travellers, and the Scots were a hospitable people. 

3. The Towns. — By the end of the century Edin- 
burgh was, beyond doubt, the principal town of the 
kingdom. It was the chief royal residence. There 
all important State meetings were held. It was 
surrounded by country-seats of the gentry. But 
Perth was still the only walled town. The raising 
and upkeep of city walls was too expensive a burden 
for Scottish citizens. Usually a town was closed 
in by low stone dikes joining the back walls of the 
gardens, and so making it necessary to enter by 
the proper ' ports ' or gates. The streets were made 
unsightly and unpleasant by the heaps of refuse 
cast from the houses. When James IV and 


Margaret visited Aberdeen the swine, which had 
the run of Scottish towns, were ordered to be cleared 
off the main street for a whole fortnight. Cripples 
and noisy beggars pestered the passers-by ; and 
with the shopmen in their wooden ' booths ' or 
sheds in front of the houses, kept up a constant 
din. The lower parts of the houses were now 
usually built of stone, the upper of wood. Across 
the front of most houses was a wooden gallery. A 
stone stair led to the first floor. Glass windows 
were found only in the best houses, and they were 
carried from one to another when the family shifted 
residence.,^ Elsewhere were only wooden shutters 
with holes. Tapestry or cloth, brown or green, was 
hung on the roughly plastered walls, and that, too, 
was taken down when the house was not occupied. 
Floors were strewn with stiff grass or rushes mixed 
with sweet-smelling herbs. The narrow, unpaved 
streets were shadowed by the projecting wooden 
fronts, galleries and ' fore-stairs ' of the houses. In 
the towns some form of deadly disease or ' pest ' 
always lingered. Lepers clamoured for alm.s about 
the gates. Frequently the country was swept by 
some special plague, such as the ' pestilence, but 
(without) mercy ' of 1439, which killed in twenty- 
four hours, and from which no one recovered. 

4. Trade and Commerce. — Still, the poorer country 
folk had already begun to crowd into the towns, 
where a labourer could earn is. a day, and a skilled 
workman 3s. to 5s. This was good wages, as an 
ox could be bought for £1 to £2, and fish was very 
cheap. To each burgh was attached a wide dis- 
trict of country, and in the burgh only could things 


be bought and sold. The countryman had to carry 
his produce to the town market. At the gate he 
paid a small tax or ' petty custom.' The prices of 
all goods were fixed by the burgh officers. Only the 
royal burghs could export goods or deal with mer- 
chants from abroad. Thus, Edinburgh did a 
foreign trade, but not Leith, though it was a sea- 
port. Scotland's exports were mainly coarse cloth, 
salt manufactured from sea-water, and the hides of 
animals. These went mostly to Flanders and 
France. The burgesses of one burgh could trade 
with those of another only at the yearly fair. The 
merchants were still the wealthiest and most power- 
ful class in the towns, but the craftsmen, the 
weavers, brewers, smiths, glovers, tailors, and such- 
like, were the more numerous, and were raising 
themselves to be equal with the merchants and to 
secure a share in the government of the burgh. 
The rivalry between the merchants and the crafts- 
men was the main part of the politics of the 
towns. And while the rich stores of iron in the 
country were untouched, the Kings gave much 
attention to working the scanty gold and silver to 
be found in the Lead Hills. One reason of this 
was the great scarcity of coined money. To make 
it more plentiful the precious metals were largely 
mixed with copper, so that the Scottish coins were 
worth only one-fourth of those of England, and 
continued to fall in value. 

5. The Highlands and the Borders. — Markedly 
different from the rest of the population in lan- 
guage and dress were the people of the Highlands. 
: Mountains and pathless moors kept them out of 


touch with their southern neighbours. Divided 
glens and islands kept up divisions among them- 

selves. They were known as the ' Irishry/ or the 
' Wild Scots the Gaels and their language being 
in origin Irish. Though corn was grown, the High- 


landers supported themselves mainly from their 
small cattle and sheep and horses. Their drovers 
brought to the markets of Dundee or Perth herds of 
hardy little ponies. In the Highlands, too, wide 
forests were still to be found, and the cut timber 
was floated down the lochs and streams to Perth and 
Inverness. There was always a good deal of trade 
going on between Highlands and Lowlands. Clan 
quarrels were, of course, a serious obstacle. Lord 
Lovat, chief of the Frasers, would not allow the 
Glengarry Macdonalds to float their timber through 
his lands to Inverness. The Borders, again, by 
the stirrings and destructions of the frequent 
English wars, were as unsettled as the Highlands. 
Thus, in the year after Flodden the English Warden 
swept over the Marches with fire and sword. Corn 
was burned, and the English drove the sheep and 
cattle before them, while the Border clans gathered 
and dogged their march. In Eskdale they destroyed 
thirty-four townships. So, ' whereas there were, in 
all times past, four hundred ploughs and above,' 
these townships of the West March ' are now clearly 
wasted, and no man living in any of them at this 
day, save only in the towers Annan, Stepill, and 
Wauchope.' To such treatment the Borderers were 
accustomed, and they retaliated in like manner. 
Suffering in addition from clan strifes among them- 
selves, they had little encouragement to persist in 
industry and the arts of peace. 

6. Dress and Manners. — Dress in Scotland was 
much like that in other European countries, and 
during the fifteenth century it was everywhere fan- 
tastic. The chief articles were the close-fitting hose, 



the doublet, and a long cloak or gown over all. A 
flat blue bonnet was the common Scots headwear, but 
the bonnet might also be of scarlet, or its place might 
be taken by a beaver hat with gold buttons and 
feathers. It was fashionable to have the hose of 
different colours — crimson on one leg, black on the 
other, or red with green. ^ Women were dressed in 
a long kirtle, a velvet ' stomacher,' and a richly lined 
cloak. The head-dress was high, with two ' horns ' 
from which hung a kerchief or veil. The poorer 
women covered head and kirtle with a long plaid. 
Expensive materials were too common, and many 
laws were passed to restrict the use of rich silks and 
furs to the wealthier class. The Scots, it was said, 
'spend all they have to keep up appearances'; 
also, that they were vain, boasted high birth, were 
not industrious, given to war, but brave and strong. 
|The Highlanders had, of course, a dress of their 
own, a ' loose plaid and a shirt saffron (yellow) - 
dyed,' and went uncovered ' from the mid-leg to 
the foot.' In war the Scots donned a padded 
woollen tunic or ' jack,' with a ' knapsack ' or steel 
bonnet. Knights were now encased in armour of 
jointed plates. The Highlanders had their quilted 
coats, daubed with wax or pitch, or a garment of 
deerskin. The chiefs could afford only the old 
' hauberk,' or long coat of steel rings. Every 
man, burgess or peasant, had to be ready to take 
the field with his own weapons and food-supply for 
a period which rarely went beyond three weeks or 
a month. But gunpowder was bringing about a 
change in the whole art of war, and the knight in 
armour was losing his warlike importance. 


7. Holidays and Amusements. — Sundays and 
saints' days were holidays, but the chief ones were 
Yule — Christmas and New Year — and Easter. The 
great amusements were the plays or the processions 
showing religious or historical characters. The 
plays were usually on religious subjects. The 
favourite show, however, was that of Robin Hood 
and Little John, on May Day. It led to so much 
riot and drunkenness that efforts were made from 
time to time to put it down. 

8. Scottish Literature. — The fifteenth century is a 
brilliant period in the history of Scottish literature, 
and especially the reign of James IV. Many poets 
had arisen since the days of the poet-King James I. 
|0f these the most important were Robert Henryson 
of Dunfermline, who wrote fables in verse ; Walter 
Kennedy of Carrick ; and, above all, William 
Dunbar, who had a pension at the Court of James IV. 
He is the greatest Scottish poet before Burns. 
Gavin Douglas, son of Archibald Bell-the-Cat, 
made the first translation in ' English ' of the Latin 
poem the ' iEneid.' Sir David Lyndsay, who comes 
next to Dunbar, takes us into the next century. 
So do Hector Boece and John Major, who were 
scholars and historians. They show in Scotland 
the effect of the new spirit which was awakening 
in the literature and politics of Europe. The old 
feudalism was weakening when John Major could 
write that ' the free people first gives power to the 
King,' and that ' the people can expel a King and 
his house for their misdeeds.' Such teaching was 
soon to bring the people of Scotland into direct 
conflict with their royal house, and actually to end 


in the ' auld Stewarts ' being driven from the throne. 
It was taken up and apphed by the leaders of the 
Reformation, when at last that movement spread 
from the Continent and England into Scotland. 


JAMES V (1513-1542) 

1. A Troubled Minority. — The disaster of Flodden 
plunged Scotland once again into the stormy waters 
of a minority. The old, unhappy tale repeated 
itself. An infant Prince was crowned at Stirling 
as James V. The noble houses squabbled fiercely 
over the distribution of the benefices in the Church, 
vacant through the losses among Bishops and 
Abbots in the battle. Such appointments in Scot- 
land were kept in the hands of the King, and 
usually fell to younger members of the leading 
families. Within a year, too. Queen Margaret 
took as her second husband the young Earl of 
Angus. This step led to fresh jealousies. The 
opponents of Angus brought over from France the 
Duke of Albany, son of the traitor brother of 
James III. In all but name — in speech, manners, 
and tastes — he was a Frenchman. But he was 
gratefully received in a distracted country and 
appointed Regent and Governor of the King. He 
soothed the nobles by a fair division of the benefices. 
At the same time he showed himself both able and 
ready to put down any resistance to his rule. But 
his coming gave deep offence in another quarter. 

JAMES V (1 5 1 3-1 542) 


Henry VIII considered that he had a good right to 
interfere in Scotland on behalf of his nephew. 
It was just possible, too, that James might yet be 
his heir. The friendship of Scotland was all-im- 
portant to him in his foreign politics, and to secure 
control over the kingdom he would stick at nothing. 
He had his spies at the Court. He sent presents 
to his sister and to the young King. Many of the 
Scottish nobles were in his pay — Arran, head of the 
Hamiltons and grandson of James II, Angus, 
Lennox, and others. They readily took bribes, for, 
as an EngUsh agent wrote, with the exception of 

coin: ducat or 'bonnet-piece' of james v. 
The earliest dated Scottish coin : made of native gold. 

the Earl of Arran, ' they are all poor and of little 
substance in goods.' When such measures failed, 
Henry's way was to send a force to ravage the 
Borders. There was to be no peace for Scotland 
so long as Albany and his Frenchmen were in it. 
For Albany's aim was to maintain the alliance with 
France as a weapon against England. 

2. \ Cleanse the Causeway' (1520). — The Regent, 
having established order, hastened back to France 
on a holiday, which lasted four years. He had 
caused the execution of the doubtful Earl of Home 
and his brother, supporters of the English party. 


The Earl's post of Warden of the East March he had 
given to a French lord, De la Bastie. This was a 
double outrage on the Homes. As soon as the Duke 
was gone they laid a trap for his friend. De la 
Bastie was caught and murdered, and Sir David 
Home rode off with the head of the Warden knitted 
by its golden locks to his horse's mane. For this 
another member of the family went to the scaffold. 
The Douglases and Hamiltons now had the field to 
themselves. The Hamiltons provoked a quarrel on 
the High Street of Edinburgh, and the Douglases 
' cleansed the causeway ' of their rivals by driving 
them into the closes, and thence out of the town. 
This was a triumph for the faction of England. 
But Margaret quarrelled with her husband, and 
worked against him and her brother. Albany came 
back to Scotland. Angus withdrew to France. 
Henry was furious. 

3. ' Erection ' of the King. — Albany would now 
have invaded England in the interests of France, 
but Lord Dacre, the English Warden, so managed 
the Scots lords as to stop the advance at Annan and 
bring about a truce. On this failure the Duke again 
retired to France. But as the Scots would not yet 
fall in with Henry's plans, the Duke of Norfolk, son 
of the victor of Flodden, was sent to ravage the East 
March. He came to be known as ' the scourge of 
the Scots.' On the first occasion he left ' neither 
house, fortress, village, tree, cattle, corn, nor other 
succour for man.' Then, when he returned in the 
autumn he burnt Jedburgh, abbey and town, 
but had to retreat for lack of food. Albany was 
now back, with French and German soldiers, and 

JAMES V (1513-1542) 


led a great army to the Border. But again the 
Scots would not pass beyond their own country. 
Disgusted, the Regent abandoned the stubborn 
kingdom, never to return. The English party, 
acting on the advice of Wolsey, Henry's chief 
Minister, now carried through an * erection ' of the 
King, giving him all the powers of his office at 
twelve years of age. This was opposed by Arch- 
bishop Beaton, on behalf of France, and thereupon 
Henry laid a scheme to kidnap him. But Beaton 
lay close in his strong ' sea-tower ' at St. Andrews. 

4. The Douglases in Power, — The result of the 
new arrangement was to bring the King under the 
domination of the Douglases. He became their 
prisoner, and in his name they filled posts in 
Church and State with their friends. Angus him- 
self was bold, but of no great ability. The brains 
of the family were in his brother Sir George. Once 
more Scotland was at the feet of this unscrupulous 
family. They were strengthened by bands with 
many lords, especially on the Border. ' None 
durst strive with a Douglas, nor yet with a Douglas's 
man.' Twice an attempt was made to free the King 
from their custody, but each time it failed. Sir 
George Douglas told James he would rather see him 
torn to pieces among them than lose him. The 
royal boy learned to detest the very name of 
Douglas. In this he was encouraged by his mother, 
who had divorced Angus and married again. At 
the end of two years James managed to slip out of 
Edinburgh Castle and rode to Stirling. The 
Douglases were forfeited and banished from the 
Court, but Angus, in his stronghold of Tantallon, 


for a time defied the King. But this could not go 
on, and the Douglases soon took their place as 
disinherited pensioners at the English Court. 

5. James and the Highlands. — Among the sup- 
porters of the Douglases had been Sir Alexander 
Macdonald of Islay. Provoked by his treatment 
at the hands of the royal Lieutenant, the Earl of 
Argyll, he raised his people in arms. He was 
joined by the Macleans. But when a powerful 
force was got ready to deal with the rising, Mac- 
donald and Hector Maclean came to Stirling and 
submitted. This did not suit the new Earl who 
succeeded his father as Lieutenant in the West, or 
the Earl of Moray, who was Lieutenant in the North. 
They wished the King to act through them, so that 
they might extend their power and their posses- 
sions in the Isles. Argyll made serious charges 
against Macdonald. But that chief was able to 
show the King that they were false, and that Arg3dl, 
in his own interest, was trying to stir up fresh 
trouble in the West. The Earl was thereupon de- 
prived of his office and sent to prison. In the 
north, Donald Gorme, chief of the Skye Mac- 
donalds, made a bid for the lost Lordship and the 
Earldom of Ross. He died of a wound received in 
besieging a castle of the Mackenzies, and the rising 
collapsed. James then visited the northern parts 
of his kingdom and the islands with an imposing 
fleet (1540). He brought back with him the most 
restless chiefs, some of whom were sent to prison. 
He followed the wise course of his father in deal- 
ing directly with the chiefs. By his fairness and 
firmness he won their confidence. The grasping 

JAMES V (1513-1542) 


royal Lieutenants they could not trust. James 
even had a Highland costume made for himself, 
hose or trews and jacket of tartan, and a yellow 
tunic. But if he had gained with the Highlanders, 
he had lost the good-will of both his Lieutenants, 
the Earls of Argyll and Moray. 

6. James Suppresses the Armstrongs. — On the 
Borders the English raids had made the condition 
of things worse than ever. James, however, was 
determined to do his share in preserving order. As 
the great Border lords, Bothwell, Maxwell, Scott of 
Buccleuch and the rest, ' winked at the villanies ' 
of the dalesmen, they were all committed to ward. 
James then proceeded to deal with the disorderly 
districts in person. Chief am_ong the offenders 
were the Armstrongs of the ' Debatable Land,' 
neither England nor Scotland, which lay between 
the Esk and the Sark. ' Johnnie Armstrong ' 
boasted himself careless of both James and Henry, 
and robbed in Scotland and England alike. Sum- 
moned with other chiefs to appear before the King, 
he rode into his camp with a handsome following. 
' What wants yon knave that a King should have V 
burst out the passionate monarch. Armstrong 
begged for grace ' from a graceless face,' and he 
and thirty-one of his rieving clan were hanged on 
trees at Carlanrig Chapel, on the road to Langholm. 
This sharp lesson and the punishment of other 
promJnent men frightened the dalesmen into 
peace. But the imprisoned lords had been mortally 
offended. The Earl of Bothwell in his anger 
offered to Henry VIII, with the help of the 
other discontented ' noble hearts ' — Angus, Argyll, 


cn ri.iNb: of sccvrnsH iiisroKV 

Crawford, Moray, and Lord Maxwell — ' to crown your 
grace in the town ot luiinbnrgh within brief time/ 

7. Jii))ics\^ M(irn\ii^c\- — The chief cjnestion of 
State was nmv the marriage of the King. The 
C\nn'ts of luu'ope were searched iov a snitable bride. 
Henry \'lll had repeatedly otYered a marriage with 
his danghter Mary. Hnt Henry himself, by his 
bullying conduct, had ]nit such a match out of the 
question. Janu^s preferred the sickly daughter of 
the King oi b^*ance. and asked Henry's permission 
to bring his bride Ikmuc thrcnigh Kngland. Henry 
refused on the lofty ground that * no Scottish King 
had ever entered bhigland ixwcefuHy except as a 
vassal.' He was. indeed, working up the old claim 
of overlordship. But the young Oueen lived only 
a few months. A year later James married 
the lady who was to play a leading part in later 
history — Mary of Lorraine, a member c^f the princely 
French family of Ciuise (1538)./ 

8. Protcst(i)itis}ii in Scotland. — As the House of 
' Guise was strongly Catholic, James 1n' this marriage 

seemed to have taken his side in the great struggle 
now going on between the Church and the Re- 
formers. \w Germany ■Martin Luther had led a 
revolt from the rule of Rome, and his example was 
being followed in other countries. The one Church 
of Western Christendom was breaking up. The 
writings of the German reformers, and especially an 
English translation of the New Testament, were 
being smuggled into Scotland through all the 
ports, and eagerly read. This indicates a good deal 
of education in the country. Parliament, of course, 
tried to keep out and suppress such literature, 


but to little effect. The minds of the middle class 
in town and country were being powerfully in- 
fluenced by the new teaching. In 1528 suffered the 
first martyr of Scottish birth, Patrick Hamilton, a 
man of good family. He had been to Germany, and 
returned to Scotland to attack the corruptions of 
the Church, and ' to show the errors crept into the 
Christian religion.' He soon had a great following, 
so that the clergy became alarmed. He was 
arrested and condemned as a heretic, and suffered 
a lingering and painful death by burning at 
St. Andrews. When David Beaton succeeded his 
uncle as Archbishop of St. Andrews, persecution 
became more active. Five men were burned in 
one year. The victims included both clergy and 
laymen. Many friars became heretics. Others 
began by resisting the heavy payments they were 
forced to make to the Church. Not a few Scottish 
Protestants escaped to England, where Henry had 
broken with the Pope, and English Catholics in 
turn fled from Henry's burnings to Scotland. 
Among the Acts passed by the Estates in 1541 
to check the new movement were one forbidding 
the holding of ' conventicles ' to discuss the Scrip- 
tures, and another threatening with death and loss 
of goods any who spoke against the authority of 
the Pope. Still James did something towards re- 
form by trying to restrain the greed of the clergy. 
But much more was needed. The Scottish Church 
was filled mainly with worldly, ignorant, and vicious 
men. There were exceptions, but these, again, 
admitted the need of reform. A revolting picture 
of the condition of things is given by Sir David 

JAMES V (1 5 1 3-1 542) 

Lyndsay in his play, A Satire of the Three Estates, 
which was acted before the King and his Court. 
There we see the wealthy and careless Bishop, 
the Abbot living in luxury, the Parson devoting 
himself to amusement, the Vicar robbing the poor 
with heavy charges, the idle Friar, and the Pardoner 
with his sham relics selling sham pardons. ; These 
things were notorious, but James's principle was, 
' The good may be suffered, and the evil must be 
reformed.' Only he would not abandon the beliefs 
of his fathers. It then seemed, even to many 
excellent men, a most wicked thing to divide the 
Christian Church. James himself, too, was not a 
well-educated man, and being at odds with his 
barons, he had to rely upon the great Churchmen 
for support and advice. 

9. Rout of Solway Moss and Death of the King 
(1542). — Meantime Henry VIII had renounced the 
authority of the Pope, made himself head of the 
Church in England, and seized the property of the 
monasteries, which he closed. On this account he 
feared an attack from the Catholic Powers of Europe. 
Thus, he was more than ever anxious to secure the 
friendship of Scotland. If James would but follow 
his example, all would be well on that side. He 
represented to the Scottish King the errors and vices 
of the Church, and suggested that he could make 
money in a more kingly way than selling wool by 
helping himself to some of its vast wealth. He 
invited James to come and meet him and talk things 
over. But Henry, with good reason, was thoroughly 
distrusted in Scotland. Beaton and the clergy 
used all their influence to keep James from going to 


England. A meeting was, nevertheless, arranged to 
take place at York, but James did not turn up. 
Henry then put forward the old claim of over- 
lordship as an excuse for war. He even proposed to 
his Council a plan to kidnap the Scottish King, 
which his wiser advisers would not accept. An 
English force, including the Douglases, crossed the 
Border, but was beaten by the Earl of Huntly at 
Haddon Rig. James himself led an army as far 
as Fala Moor, but when it was learned that the 
English had retreated, his lords would go no further. 
Later in the year another army was mustered, and 
entered England on the west. While James him- 
self stopped at Annan, Cumberland was overrun. 
But a compact English column of horse and spear- 
men pressed back the raiders in confusion. At 
the ford of the Esk, beyond which was the Sol way 
Moss, they charged the leaderless and disordered 
Scots. A few were slain, more drowned, and 1,200, 
including many nobles, taken prisoners. The news 
crushed the spirit of the proud, high-strung King. 
He had other sorrows : his two sons, his only chil- 
dren, had died. Possibly some illness had kept 
him behind his army. He retired to Falkland 
Palace, his favourite residence, a dying man. There 
news was brought to him of the birth of a daughter. 
It seemed to him to leave him the last of the royal 
Stewarts. ' It cam with ane lass,* and it will pass 
with ane lass,' was his sorrowing remark. Three 
weeks after the rout of Solway Moss the heartbroken 
King was dead. Like his father, he had been a 

* Marjory Bruce, who had married Walter, the High 
Stev/ard (see Chapter XII, § 6). 

QUEEN MARY— PAEIT I ( i 542-1 558) 191 

' King of the Commons/ He, too, went out among 
the people in disguise. But his nobles were untrust- 
worthy and unfriendly. The prelates were utterly 
selfish. France and England both would have used 
Scotland as a tool to further their own ambitions. 
And James, with the best intentions, was unable 
to hold his own against such forces. 


QUEEN MARY— PART I (1542-1558) 

1. Henry VIII and the ' Assured Scots.' — The unex- 
pected death of the King, and the succession of a 
child Queen, gave Henry VHI an opening of which 
he was quick to make use. The Douglases were 
hurried back to Scotland. With them went the noble 
prisoners of Solway Moss, the Earls Marischal, 
Glencairn, Cassilis, Lord Maxwell, and others. All 
were under pledge to do their utmost to serve the 
King, who in addition made them presents of 
money. Henry's desire was that ' the child,' 
Cardinal Beaton his enemy, and the principal 
fortresses should be placed in his hands. Mary 
he proposed to marry to his son Edward, afterwards 
Edward VI, but Henry's real purpose was to make 
good the claim to overlordship. Meantime the 
Earl of Arran, third Lord Hamilton, as heir to the 
throne, was appointed Regent. Beaton had done 
his best to keep him out of this office, and so he was 
led to associate himself with Henry's ' assured 
Scots,' or ' the English lords,' as they were called. 


The Cardinal was seized and confined. A Parlia- 
ment met which restored the Douglases to their 
estates and honours, and permitted the reading of 
the English Bible, while it forbad ' disputes ' about 


Fro77i a portrait in Blair 5 College, Aberdee?i» 

its contents. Ambassadors were appointed to treat 
for the English marriage. But Mary was not to 
be sent to England till she was ten years of age, and 
Scotland was to remain a separate kingdom. These 
conditions were not to Henry's liking. He secretly 

QUEEN MARY— PART I (1542- 1558) 193 

urged on his supporters that they should carry out 
the first arrangement. But this it was impossible f(jr 
them to do. The EngHsh Ambassador wrote of the 
' assured Scots ' that, wilhng as they might be to let 
Henry have ' the superiority of the realm, yet there 
is not one of them that hath two servants or friends 
that is of the same mind, or that would take their 
parts in their behalf.' Henry had therefore to be 
content with the Treaty of Greenwich, which provided 
for the marriage on the above conditions (1543). 

2. The ' Revolt ' of Arran, — But the proposed 
marriage was not popular. To the Scots it meant 
an English King. To the clergy it meant Protes- 
tantism. The ' English lords ' found that feeling 
was running strong against them, and began to 
waver. Church services ceased throughout the 
country till Beaton was allowed to go free. Backing 
Beaton were the Earls of Argyll, Huntly, Moray, 
and Bothwell. French gold poured in to counteract 
Henry's bribery. The Earl of Lennox, an able 
soldier, arrived in Scotland from France. He, too, 
was a grandson of James HFs sister, and Beaton 
secured his support by a promise of the Regency. 
The weak and unstable Arran was being influenced 
by his brother, the Abbot of Paisley. He con- 
firmed the Treaty of Greenwich, which was ratified 
also by the Estates, though not by Henry. Then 
Arran ' revolted.' He joined the Cardinal, and did 
penance for his Protestantism. The impatient 
Henry seized some Scottish merchant-ships, and 
the Estates took this as excuse for renouncing the 
treaty. They renewed the alliance with France, 
again at war with England. Beaton was made 



Chancellor, and strict laws were passed against 
heresy. The French alliance and the old faith 
were still identified with national independence. 
England and Protestantism, by Henry's double 
dealing, had come to signify subjection. Angus 
Lennox, Glencairn, and Cassilis rose in arms, but 
found themselves powerless in face of their trium- 
phant opponents. Lennox, disappointed of the 
Regency, married a daughter of Angus, Henry's 
niece, and became the most active agent on the 
English side. 

3. Punishment of Heretics — Hertford's Raids. — - 
During Arran's brief term of Protestantism there 
had been attacks on the religious houses in Dundee 
and Edinburgh. Beaton now went to Perth, 
where four men were hanged for discussing the 
Scriptures, and a woman was drowned for refusing 
to pray to the Virgin when in pain. In the 
spring of the same year, 1544, an Englishi fleet 
landed at Leith a force under the Earl of Hert- 
ford, which sacked that place and made ' a jolly 
fire ' of Edinburgh. ' Woe worth (be to) the 
Cardinal !' cried ' the women and poor miserable 
creatures of the town.' The country was laid waste 
for miles around, and the invaders marched home- 
wards, slaying and burning at large. At the same 
time another fleet on the West, under the Earl of 
Lennox, harried the islands and coast of the Firth 
of Clyde. In the Isles Donald Dubh, son of Angus 
and grandson of the last Lord of the Isles, was at 
last free after his life-long imprisonment of nearly 
sixty years (see Chapter XVII, § 4). He with the 
island chiefs took Henry's side, received his money> 

QUEEN MARY— PART I (1542-1558) 195 

and swore allegiance to him as directed by Lennox. 
Similarly, the incessant raids on the Border had 
led the men of Teviotdale to don the red cross 
of St. George. But the Douglases, threatened 
with forfeiture for treason, had now to take 
their part in the defence of the country. Angus, 
made Lieutenant of the Border, joined with 
Arran and Scott of Buccleuch to inflict a severe 
defeat on the English at Ancrum Moor (1545). 
Among the slain was the English leader, the 
Warden, Sir Ralph Eure, ' a fell cruel man and 
over cruel.' Succour arrived from France, where 
Henry VIII was again making a vain effort at con- 
quest. A combined march on England, however, 
came to nothing, for the Douglases, ' falsely true,' 
succeeded in having the army withdrawn. In the 
autumn, when the standing corn was just ripe, 
Hertford once more let loose the furies of a 
Border war. A host of hirelings of all nations — 
Irish, French, Germans, Spaniards, Italians, and 
Greeks — were the fitting tools of Henry's savage 
policy. The beautiful abbeys of Melrose, Kelso, 
Dryburgh, and Roxburgh were wrecked. Lord 
Maxwell placed the strongest castles of the West 
March in English hands. But the Islesmen quar- 
relled over the dividing of Henry's money. Donald 
Dubh died of a fever in Ireland, and the rebellion 
dissolved. Lennox and Glencairn failed in their 
attempts to get possession of Dumbarton Castle, 
' the fetters of Scotland.' The Border strongholds 
were recovered. Hertford's rough * wooing ' had not 
broken the spirit of the Scots. Beaton was still 
master of the situation, though his cruel persecu- 



tions and the sore losses from the English raids 
had much weakened his popularity. 

4. Martyrdom of Wishart — Murder of the Car- 
dinal (1546). — The Cardinal had saved the kingdom 
from the hands of Henry, but in his other great 
concern he was less successful. Heretics, the Estates 
complained, ' mair and mair rises and spreads within 
this realm.' Of these the most prominent was 
George Wishart, who now preached in Ayrshire 
and the towns of the East. In Lothian he made a 
disciple of a priest-notary acting as tutor to the sons 
ol a country gentleman. His name was John Knox, 
then thirty years old — a short, dark-complexioned, 
stern-looking man.* He steps into history bearing 
a two - handed sword, ' which commonly was 
carried with the samie Master George.' Wishart 
was arrested by the Earl of Bothwell, and handed 
over to the Cardinal to be tried for heresy. His fate 
was to be hanged on a gibbet in front of the Castle 
of St. Andrews, and burnt to powder. Three 
months later the ' careful Cardinal ' had followed 
his victim. Various proposals had been made to 
Henry VIH for his assassination, and only the 
terms could not be agreed upon. But on a May 
morning a band of conspirators led by Norman 
Leslie, son of the Earl of Rothes, and William 
Kirkcaldy of* Grange, both personal enemies of 
Beaton, slipped into the castle. They found the 
Cardinal in his chamber. Some in their hate 
buffeted him, but James Melven, a friend of the 
martyred Wishart, put the rest aside, and struck 

* There can now, I think, be no doubt that Knox was 
born in 1513 or 1515, and not in 1505. 

QUEEN MARY— PART T (1542-1558) 197 

him through twice or thrice with his sword, first 
declaring that he had no personal feeling against 


him, but was there to punish him as a persecutor 
and obstinate enemy to religion. The Cardinal 

[q8 outline of SCOTTISH HISTORY 

was a proud prelate. He was over-rich. His house- 
hold was such ' as was never holden in vScotland 
under a King.' But he was not a learned man or 
a pious, and what he cared for in the Church was 
its wealth and its power. He was unyielding and 
cruel towards those who sought its reform. Alliance 
with England he would not have had on any terms, 
because he was a favoured friend of France and a 
prince of ' Holy Kirk and England was the enemy 
of both. He had baffled the unscrupulous scheming 
of Henry Vn I, but there his service to his country 
ended. Yet, as a contemporary verse puts it, 

' Although the loon was well away, 
The deed was foully done.' 

The conspirators and their friends held the strong 
castle for more than a year. The Governor was 
unable to take it. But they were forced to yield 
when plague broke out in the garrison and French 
artillery battered its walls. Among the captives 
was John Knox, who as a sought-after heretic had 
taken refuge with the ' Castilians.' He was now an 
elected Protestant preacher. The defenders were 
conveyed to France, where the noble members were 
imprisoned, while the others, including Knox, were 
sent to row with the slaves in galleys. In less than 
two years all had either escaped or been set free. 
Abbot Hamilton was now Archbishop of St. 

T). The ' Black Saturday ' at Pinkie Cleuch^ {Sep- 
tember c), 1547). — Early in the next year died 
Henry VIII. The ' assured lords,' among whom^ 
was now the Earl of Bothwell, were again offering 
* A cleuch is a steep, narrow ravine. 


assistance to the English Government. Hertford, 
created Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector of 
England, continued his late master's policy. Scotland 
was to be chastised into union. In the autumn he, 
for the last time, invaded the country by the coast 
road to Edinburgh. The Scots blocked his advance 
at the water of Esk. Arran, Angus, and Huntly 
had sunk their differences to meet the common 
enemy. But the Scots, three times the number 
of the English, rashly crossed the Esk to cut off 
Somerset from his fleet in the Forth. The result 
was to place them, between the fire from the ships 
and from the English guns on the hill to their right. 
The spearmen of Angus stood ^ as even as a wall,' 
but the Highlanders shrank before the unaccus- 
tomed roar of the cannon. Batteries and bowmen 
played on the Scottish masses, and repeated cavalry 
charges broke them up. The ' red earth/ rising in 
clouds from the battle-field ' so great that never 
ane of them might see ane other,' completed the 
confusion. The Scots scattered over the country- 
side, and the slaughter ran to many thousands. 
The English followed up the victory by seizing 
several strong positions, including Broughty Castle 
on the Firth of Tay, and, later, Haddington, the 
most important position between Edinburgh and 
the Border. In the south-west, Dumfriesshire and 
Kirkcudbright were already in their occupation. 
But there was no giving in. The little Queen was 
hurried off to an island priory in the Lake of 
Menteith until the danger passed. France was 
appealed to for help. It was readily given on con- 
dition that Mary should be sent to that country 

QUEEN MARY- PART I (1542-1558) 201 

with a view to marrying the Dauphin, the heir to 
the French throne. This proposal was accepted, 
and in the summer after Pinkie she sailed from 
Dumbarton to France. ' France and Scotland are 
now one country,' said the French King, Henry II, 
when her arrival was announced. As had always 
been the case, English violence and impatience had 
brought the two countries more closely together. 
The Scots with their French allies succeeded in 
recovering the lost ground. But it was a bitter 
struggle. Somerset gave no quarter to the Scots 
on the ground that they were mere rebels to their 
' superior and sovereign lord,' Edward VI. The 
Scots bought English captives from the French for 
the pleasure of hacking them to pieces. As usual, 
however, the French roused the popular hatred by 
helping themselves to what they required without 
payment or leave. The Scots were glad to see the 
last of them as well as of the English. In 1550 the 
Treaty of Nor ham settled peace between the three 

6. Mary of Guise becomes Regent. — The govern- 
ment of France was now practically in the hands of 
the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine, 
brothers to the Queen-mother. The Queen of Scots 
was their niece and under their tuition. It was 
intended that their sister Mary should be in 
Scotland what they were in France. In this way 
Scotland would be made a part of France, and 
preserved to the Catholic faith. Arran had been 
flattered by the gift of the Duchy of Chatelherault, 
and his son was appointed Captain of the Scottish 
Guard of the French King. The Scottish Protestant 


nobles were won over by Mary's unwillingness to 
persecute, and her opposition to Archbishop Hamil- 
ton. Arran was quietly displaced, and the Queen- 
mother secured the Regency. It was an unheard- 
of thing for a woman to fill such an office in 
Scotland. She now neglected the native nobles 
and surrounded herself with Frenchmen, to some 
of whom she gave high positions. Her principal 
adviser was the French Ambassador D'Oysel. As 
the Earl of Huntly had involved himself in trouble 
in the North, and failed to keep order there, he was 
deprived of the Earldoms of Mar and Moray, and 
his duties as Chancellor were performed by a 
Frenchman. Dunbar Castle was filled with a 
French garrison under a French Governor. Vacant 
Church benefices were given to Frenchmen. But 
when the Regent proposed that a standing army 
should be raised and maintained by a tax, the 
Scottish nobles revolted. It was their business, 
they declared, to provide for the defence of the 
country, since ' the King has been called at all 
times King of Scots — that is, rather in respect of 
men, not of money and substance of the country.' 
Further, when she urged upon them to reopen the 
war with England in order to aid France against 
Spain, whose King, Philip II, was husband of the 
Catholic Mary of England, they flatly refused. 
The Regent had now made herself exceedingly 
unpopular, and tongues were busy in free-spoken 
Scotland denouncing her and her Frenchmen and 
the new danger to the national independence. 

7. The Marriage of Queen Mary (1558). — In these 
circumstances the marriage of the Queen of Scots 

QUEEN MARY— PART I (1542-1558) 203 

with the Dauphin was completed (April 18, 1558). 
The Scottish Commissioners made it a condition 
that, should there be no children, the Crown of 
Scotland should pass to the next of line, the Hamil- 
tons. But though this condition was accepted, 
Mary had already made a secret agreement with the 
French King of a different character. In spite of 
any other understanding, should Mary die childless, 
/her Kingdom of Scotland and her rights in that of 
England were to pass to the family of her husband. 
^/Towards the end of the same year Mary of England 
died, and was succeeded by her sister Elizabeth./ 
England was once again under a Protestant monarch. 
What part Scotland was to take in the religious con- 
flict and, as a consequence, in her foreign relations, 
now became the question of the hour. France and 
Spain were untiring rivals for supremacy in Europe, 
and the possession of Scotland and England by 
either was certain to decide the struggle. And 
Mary w^as not only heiress to Elizabeth, but in the 
eyes of strict Catholics the rightful Queen of England.^- 



1. The Catholic Church in Scotland. — Scotland was 
divided ecclesiastically into thirteen Bishoprics, 
two of which were Archbishoprics, ah possessing 
wide estates and other property. There were 
besides many religious houses of monks, friars, or 


nuns, as well as charitable institutions for the aged 
and infirm, and all these, too, were richly endowed. 
Half the total wealth of Scotland was in the hands 
of the Church. Bishops and certain abbots sat in 
Parliament, where they formed the ' spiritual estate.' 

JOHN KNOX (1515-I572). 

Froin the poj'trait by Hondiiis in ' PraestantUan aliquot Theologoriim 
Effigies quibiis addita Elogia,' by Jacobus Verheiden [The Hague, 

Many prelates had held high office in the realm. 
They supplied the President and half the judges 
of the Court of Session. There were ' fighting 
bishops ' too, and bishops and abbots had fallen 
with James IV at Flodden. Thus in wealth, in 
style, and in power there was little to distinguish 



them from the nobles. ' Lords of rehgion, they go 
hke seculars/ To their purely ecclesiastical duties 
they gave little heed. Preaching they left to the 
more devout friars. The Bishoprics were further 
divided into parishes, which, as a rule, were 
too large, but so provided rich livings. In the 
country parishes people had ceased to attend 
churches which were often miles away, and in which 
they heard only Latin chants and prayers which 
they did not understand. The buildings were 
being allowed to go to ruin. The parish priests 
were generally ignorant and untaught men : ' The 
curate his creed he could not read.' But they were 
hard in enforcing payment of their teind, or the 
tenth part of all produce. Presents which it had 
been the custom to give at Easter or on occasion 
of death they seized as a right. For each who 
died, however poor, they took the ' Kirk cow,' 
with ' the grey cloak that haps the bed.' This 
was a sore grievance which James V had tried 
to end. And disputes over such mattejs, or 
concerning a marriage or a will, had to be taken 
to the Church courts, which were corrupt, expensive, 
and given to long delays. Moreover, men were 
appointed to Church livings who were not clergy 
at all. They employed others to do the work 
cheaply for them while they drew the rents. Lord 
James Stewart, half-brother of Queen Mary, who 
became the chief instrument of the Reformation, 
was Prior of St. Andrews and of Pittenweem, 
and yet not in Holy Orders. James IV gave such 
positions freely to his ' familiars.' James V did 
the same, choosing members of the lesser noble 


families in order to balance the power of the great 
houses. Benefices were conferred even on children : 
Archbishop Hamilton had become Abbot of Paisley 
at the age of twelve. More than one might be held 
at once : Archbishop Beaton, uncle of the famous 
Cardinal, had also been abbot of three monasteries. 
They might even go to foreigners — the Regent gave 
her brother Cardinal Lorraine the Abbeys of Kelso 
and Melrose. Even hospitals and charities were 
used up in this way. The poor and the helpless saw 
what was theirs stolen from them. The Pope, too, 
in distant Rome, had his share of the Scottish 
revenues. As Head of the Church he could make 
his power felt in Scotland, though the Kings usually 
fesented such interference. Thus the clergy, as a 
whole, lived idle, easy lives, while many of them 
from the highest to the lowest were notorious for 
their vices. 

2. Attempts at Reform within the Church, — There 
were, of course, good men in the Church who saw 
the need for thorough reform of such abuses. Many 
of the Kings, too, beginning with James I, had tried 
to force the clergy to amend their lives. In spite 
of all such efforts the condition of things had only 
grown worse. Now, in face of the growth of Protes- 
tant opinion, and of what had taken place in Germany 
and England, fresh attempts at reform were made. 
Church Councils bade the clergy lead better lives, 
attend to their duties, preach regularly, and instruct 
themselves and their people in the Catholic faith. 
Archbishop Hamilton, unlike Beaton, did his best 
to improve matters. It all came too late. Many of 
the clergy resented such * sharp statutes,' and 



refused to obey them. Moreover, the Protestants 
were not to be satisfied with a mere reform of 
conduct. They demanded a reform of Church 
doctrine, and this the governing clergy would not 

3. Spread of Protestantism, — Thus what began as 
a movement for reform ended in revolt. Protestants 
/refused to accept the Pope as head of the Church, 
or the traditions and customs of the Church as what 
they should believe. They would be bound only 
by the Bible. They declared the service of the 
Mass and prayers to saints represented by images, 
to be idolatry. They wished to have the services 
in their own tongue, with more preaching and less 
ceremony. Protestant writings, but especially the 
English Bible, were widely read. Plays and songs 
were made denouncing the Churchmen and their 
teaching, and these helped greatly in affecting 
popular feeling. Parliament passed an Act to 
suppress the printing of such * ballads, songs, 
blasphemous rhymes.' Meantime the poor Scottish 
nobles, who had been ready to take wages from 
England or France, looked with envious eyes on 
the broad acres of the prelates. They knew how 
their fellows in England had enriched themselves 
from the confiscated wealth of the Church. And 
Protestant England was no longer the national 
enemy ; it was Catholic France. Thus the cause of 
the Reformers was fast winning recruits, while the 
Regent, needing their support, for the time held her 
hand. John Knox had, since his release from the 
galleys, acted as a Protestant preacher in England. 
Thence he went to be minister to an English con- 


gregation in Geneva, where John Calvin, a French 
Protestant, was absolute ruler of the city. When 
Knox visited Scotland during the winter of 1555- 
1556 he found that great progress had been made. 
He preached in various parts of the country, defied 
the bishops, and went back to Geneva. Other 
Scotsmen returned to their own country to carry on 
the work. Chief of these were John Willock, who 
had been a friar, and William Harlaw, an Edinburgh 
tailor, both of whom had lived and preached for a 
time in England. 

4. The Lords of the Congregation. — Towards the 
close of 1557 a definite step was taken on the old 
Scottish lines. The leading Protestant nobles, such 
as the Earls of Argyll, Glencairn, Morton, son of 
that ' f ox ' Sir George Douglas, and others formed 
fa ' band,' which, being for a religious purpose, was 
called a Covenant. All who signed bound themselves 
to work for the overthrow of the Catholic Church 
and the setting up of Protestantism^ From their 
description of themselves as a ' Congregation ' they 
came to be known as the ' Lords of the Congrega- 
tion,' or Protestant party. These now in their own 
, districts insisted upon the English Prayer Book 
being read in the churches, and held private meetings 
for the reading and explaining of the Scriptures. 
The Archbishop, pressed by the Regent, arrested an 
unprotected old heretic priest named Walter Myln, 
and had him burnt at St. Andrews. He was the 
last martyr in Scotland, and, as in the case of the 
others, the foolishly cruel deed only sharpened 
popular feeling against the persecutors. The 
preachers became more active and open in their 



work. The ' face of a Church ' on the new Hnes 
showed itself in Scotland. The great Protes- 
tant centre was Dundee. Leading preachers were 
summoned for trial, but they either disregarded 
the summons or were attended by such powerful 
supporters that proceedings against them were 
given up. Tumults occurred ; images were stolen 
away and destroyed. The image of St. Giles in 
Edinburgh was burned. A smaller one, ' young 
St. Giles,' was procured for the saint's annual 
procession through the city. A riot occurred, and 
the ' idol ' was destroyed by ' dadding his head to 
the calsey.'* The lords appealed to the Regent 
for reforms, who replied as usual that she w^ould 
' put good order ' in the matters complained of. 
Her chief concern for the present was not to dis- 
please them. She was about to request the Estates 
to declare Mary's husband, the Dauphin, King of 
Scotland. To this the Hamiltons, including the 
Archbishop, who led the prelates, were opposed. 
If she offended the Protestant lords she would fail 
in her purpose. She therefore kept on good terms 
with them, and so secured for the Dauphin the 
' crown matrimonial,' though only ' during the 

5. The Regent and the Preachers. — But the final 
struggle could not be delayed much longer. On the 
first day of January, 1559, there was found posted 
up on the gates of all religious houses a remarkable 
document known as ' The Beggar's Summons.' 
In it ' the blind, crooked, lame, widows, orphans, 

^ I.e,, ' causeway,' the High Street paved with round 



and all other poor/ called upon the ' flocks of friars ' 
to remove out of the hospitals they had 'stolen/ 
and threatened that if they did not do so by a certain 
date they would be ejected. The country had been 
suffering from a dearth of food, and this, of course, 
chiefly affected the poor. But what followed was 
a proclamation by the Regent that none should 
interfere with Church services, or strike or threaten 
priests, or eat flesh during Lent under pain of death. 
The preachers were also summoned to trial before 
her at Stirling on May lo. Before that date they, 
with a great gathering of sympathizers, assembled 
at Perth. There they were joined by John Knox, 
who had finally returned, to take a memorable share 
in the coming conflict. On the day appointed the 
preachers did not appear, and w^re outlawed. 
Therefore Knox preached a sermon in which he 
was ' vehement against idolatry/ The excited 
populace broke into riot. The Church of St. John 
was stripped of its images and other furniture. 
The rich monasteries were attacked and pillaged, 
and in a few days nothing of them was left but the 
bare walls. 

6. The War of the Congregation. — The appeal now 
was to arms. Argyll and Lord James took their 
place as leaders of the Congregation. What had 
happened at Perth was repeated at St. Andrews, 
and up and down the country. The churches were 
' cleansed.' The monastic houses were specially 
disliked, and eagerly plundered. ' Every man, for 
the most part, that could get anything pertaining 
to any kirkman thought the same as well-won 
gear.' Meantime the Regent with her French 


21 I 

troops made head against the rising from the castle 
of Dunbar. The troops of the Congregation twice 
occupied Edinburgh, but each time had to retire. 
The ' country fellows ' were of little good against 
the disciplined French. The hired men mutinied 
because there was no money to pay them. The 
Regent denounced the Congregation as rebels ; 
they deposed her from office for misrule. She sent 
to France for reinforcements ; they appealed for 
help to England. The Lords had now been joined 
by Chatelherault the heir-apparent, and his son 
Arran ; by Huntly ; by Kirkcaldy of Grange, an 
able soldier ; and by the clever politician, William 
Maitland, younger, of Lethington, who had been 
the Queen-Regent's Secretary of State. What had 
begun as a war of religion had now become a 
struggle against French m^astery. Still the people 
generally held aloof. The Regent could get but 
few Scots to take service with her. For the Con- 
gregation they ' had no will to hazard ' anything. 
Fresh troops arrived from France, more were to 
come, and unless England sent substantial aid the 
cause, it seemed, was lost, and the French were 
again triumphant in Scotland. 

7. Elizabeth Aids the Congregation. — Such a result 
was, of course, not to the interests of England. But 
the Scots were in revolt against authority, and of 
this Elizabeth did not approve. Many of her own 
people were still Catholics, and in the eyes of all good 
Catholics not she, but Mary of Scotland, was the 
rightful Queen of England. Mary and her husband, 
jFrancis II, were now Queen and King of France, 
iand had also assumed the arms of England. 

14 — 2 



Elizabeth, therefore, had sent money and advice 
to the Congregation ; but to take their part openly 
might bring a French attack upon herself, and en- 
courage her own discontented subjects to rebel. But 
her chief minister, Cecil, and Maitland for the Con- 
gregation, were both enthusiastic for the union of 
the two countries. To help to this it was even pro- 
posed that the young Earl of Arran should marry 
Elizabeth. In these circumstances a treaty was 
at last concluded at Berwick between the English 
Queen and the Congregation as representing the 
' second person in the kingdom,' the Duke of 
Chatelherault. By this treaty Elizabeth took 
Scotland under her ' protection,' and was to assist 
in expelling the French, who, it was alleged, w^re 
seeking to conquer the country. Nothing w^as said 
of rehgion. 

8. The Siege of Leith and Treaty of Edinburgh 
(1560). — An English fleet was already in the Forth. 
The French had, as usual, committed great excesses. 
No help could now come from France, where, too, 
there was a Protestant rising. They therefore 
retired to Leith, which they strongly fortified. 
An English army joined the troops of the Congrega- 
tion in the siege. But the assaults failed, and the 
siege became a blockade. The Regent, who had 
been the soul of the resistance, now died in Edin- 
burgh Castle. The Leith garrison were starved 
into surrender ; they had been reduced to horse-pie 
and roasted rats. A treaty was agreed upon at 
Edinburgh between England, France, and the 
Congregation. Francis and Mary were to give up 
using the arms of England. Both English and 



French troops were to be withdrawn. There was 
to be a pardon for all engaged in the rising. No 
Frenchmen or clergy were to receive high office. 
A Parliament was to be summoned, but on what 
terms and for what purpose was left vague. Then 
both parties withdrew to leave the Scots to their 
own business. For once English statesmen had 
dealt wisely with Scotland. No spoil was taken, 
no town occupied, no mention made of the hateful 
claim of overlordship. In effect the Treaty of 
Edinburgh signed away the ' auld alliance ' and the 
Catholic Church in Scotland. The Siege of Leith 
was the greatest fact in our history since Ban- 

9. The Catholic Church Overthrown (1560). — A 
Parliament or, as it was not summoned by the 
monarch, a Convention met in August. It was 
crowded with the inferior barons or lairds who, 
with the burgesses, were really ' the Congrega- 
tion/ These asserted their right of attending the 
Estates, a right which they had long suffered to fall 
into disuse. The ministers were bidden to submit a 
' Confession ' of the Faith * professed and believed 
by the Protestants within the realm of Scotland.' 
It was accepted by the Estates almost unanimously. 
A week later the Lords of the Articles presented 
to Parliament a num.ber of Acts which completed 
the overthrow of the ancient Church. Their burden 
was as follows : The Pope was to have ' no juris- 
jdiction nor authority within this realm ' ; and no one 
was to ' say Mass, nor yet hear Mass, nor be present 
thereat ' under pain of personal punishment and 
loss of goods ' for the first fault,' banishment for the 


second, and death for the third. But to this last 
it did not come. A Cathohc historian of the time 
praises the ' clemency ' of the Protestant nobles, 
insomuch as ' they exiled few Catholics on the 
score of religion, imprisoned fewer, and put none to 
death.' The reformed clergy, indeed, pressed for 
a severer carrying out of the law, and this became 
one cause of disagreement with the lay leaders. 
On the other hand, many priests and monks became 
preachers of the new light. Others went to France ; 
a few remained, moving about the country in dis- 
guise, especially in the Highlands. There, in the 
' rough bounds ' of the West and in the smaller 
isles, the old faith remained undisturbed, and has 
done so to this day. The towns which had possessed 
large establishments of cathedral clergy, or of monks 
or friars, suffered a good deal from their loss. In 
Glasgow, a Bishop's burgh, the quarter surrounding 
the cathedral and convents fell into poverty and 

10. The New Church and the First Book of Dis- 
cipline. — It was now needful to organize the Pro- 
testant Church and provide for its ministers. 
Hitherto they had been supported by the benevo- 
lence of their friends. Naturally they expected 
that the new Church should inherit the possessions 
of that which it supplanted. The Protestant 
ministers drew up a constitution for their Church, 
which is known as the First Book of Discipline. 
The Scottish Church was framed on the lines of that 
of Geneva and the French Protestants who fol- 
lowed John Calvin, not of Lutheran Germany or 
England. No mention was made of bishops. Each 



congregation was to choose its own minister. The 
Church as a whole was to be governed by a General 
Assembly, which now began to meet. Like the 
old Church, but on a greater scale, it was to maintain 
schools and colleges, and provide for the poor. 
By its ' discipline ' it was to pursue and punish evil 
conduct and promote good living. For this purpose 
it was to have the final penalty of excommunication, 
which cut an offender off from intercourse with all 
save his or her own family. All these points were 
yet to become matters of serious conflict between 
Church and State. Meantime it was made clear 
that the Reformed Kirk was not to have the pro- 
perty. Such a measure would deprive men like 
Lord James of what they already possessed. Much 
of it too was, since before the Reformation, in the 
hands of other lords, to whom it had been disposed 
of by the prelates, who foresaw what w^as coming. 
All looked for a further share. The First Book of 
Discipline, therefore, was never accepted by the 
Estates. The arrangement actually made was that 
two-thirds of the ecclesiastical property was to be 
used to pension off the Catholic clergy till their 
death. The remaining third was to be divided 
between the Crown and the Protestant Kirk. But 
before this was settled things had taken a new turn. 
Francis II had died. The Guises had lost power 
in France. Mary had returned to her own kingdom, 
welcomed by an enthusiastic Edinburgh with 
bonfires and music (August, 1561). 



QUEEN MARY— PART III '(1561 1567) 

1. Mary in France and in Scotland. — Mary was a 
widow in her nineteenth year. For a few brave 
months she had been Queen of France, and if she 
ruled her sickly husband, she herself did all under 
the direction of her uncles. Now she had to act for 
herself in circumstances strange and perplexing. 
But Mary never lacked courage, and she was besides 
a woman of much ability. She had lived in France 
since the age of six. Her education had been 
carefully directed, and she was no mean scholar. 
Like her mother, she was very tall. Her pale 
beauty, her frank and charming manner, and her 
many accomplishments were sung by French poets. 
The French Court was gay, and devoted to amuse- 
ment. Mary was fond of music, dancing, plays, and 
fine dresses. This did not make her any the more 
likeable to the sterner Protestants of Scotland. 
From time to time the preachers, Knox especially, 
thundered against the balls and * banquetings ' 
that filled Holyrood with revelry. The change to 
Scotland was indeed a great one for the much- 
flattered Queen. It was a poor country. The 
Scots were accounted an ' unruly ' and ' inconstant ' 
people. It was a Protestant kingdom, where the 
Catholic service was a crime ; and Mary was a 
Catholic. No doubt she would have restored the 
old Church, as the Pope desired her to do, had 
she found it possible. But it was as much as she 
could manage to get permission for herself and her 

QUEEN MARY— PART III (i 561-1567) 217 

household to have a Cathohc service in the Chapel 
Royal. Even this led to rioting and protests 
against ' idolatry ' from the preachers. The future 
of the reformed religion was still uncertain. Mary 
would not, and never did, ratify the proceedings oi 



From a picture in the collection of the Earl of Lauderdale 
at Thirlestanc Castle. 

the Parliam.ent of 1560. Meantime, however, it 
was proclaimed that no charge was to be made in 
the form of religion found standing on her arrival. 

2. Mary Acts against the Catholic Party. — The 
Queen's chief advisers were the Protestant leaders, 
her half-brother Lord James, and Maitland the 


secretary. The year after her arrival she broke the 
power of the strongest Cathohc nobleman in the 
kingdom, the Earl of Huntly. He was ' Cock o' 
the North/ wished to bend Mary to his will, and 
had given ' manifest tokens of disobedience/ The 
Queen herself went north with the force that defeated 
Huntly and his kinsman, the Earl of Sutherland, 
at Corrichie. Huntly died suddenly after being 
captured. Both families were forfeited, and for a 
time lost their estates. The Earldom of Moray was 
given to Lord James, whom the Gordons ever after- 
wards looked upon as their family enemy. The 
Earl of Morton, another Protestant, received 
Huntly's post as Chancellor. To satisfy the 
preachers the Queen even consented to the imprison- 
mnent of Archbishop Hamilton and other priests for 
celebrating Mass. 

3. Mary and Elizabeth. — Mary's chief concern at 
.present was that Queen Elizabeth should recognise 
iher as her successor. Henry VHI in his will had 
barred her claim.- In this she had the active support 
of Moray and Lethington, who both ardently desired 
the union of the two kingdoms. But Elizabeth was 
not at all anxious to take this step. It was enough 
for her to make her own position secure. Jealous 
of her fascinating cousin, she wished no rival near 
her throne. Her subjects would be led to look to 
Mary as a future Queen. To appoint a successor 
would be to have her ' winding-sheet ' before her 
eyes. A strong effort was made to bring about a 
meeting between the two sovereigns. Good 
Catholics feared that if Mary met her cousin in 
England she would ' return no true Christian 

QUEEN MARY— PART III (1561-1567) 219 

Spooncr Co. 


From the painting by Gerard at Biwleigh House, 


woman/ The preachers went ' wild ' at the idea 
that she might adopt the mild Protestantism 
of Elizabeth . But neither that Queen nor her 
Council really desired the meeting. The Guises had 
now recovered their power in France, and Elizabeth 
aided the French Protestants in the religious war 
that followed. The plan of a conference therefore 
dropped. In the end Elizabeth flatly refused to 
make any arrangement as to her successor. 

4. Marys Marriage. — Meantime a wide breach 
had opened in the Protestant ranks. The preachers 
led by Knox were furious with the Protestant nobles 
for acting with Mary and tolerating her Catholicism. 
They would have forced her to conform, or removed 
her from the throne. Moray and Knox were not 
even on speaking terms. But the Queen was 
personally popular. She had some of her father's 
frolicsome ways. At one time she was lodging in a 
merchant's house in St. Andrews, and protesting to 
the English Ambassador that she did not know 
where the Queen was ! At another she and her 
ladies, dressed as ' burgess- wives,' walked through 
the streets of Edinburgh taking contributions for a 
banquet, which w^as held in public. She cculd also 
write a letter to plead for a poor farmer who was in 
danger of being evicted from his farm. The absorb- 
ing question now was, who was to be her husband ? 
The fate of the Church seemed to depend on whether 
he should be Protestant or Catholic. Shie herself 
inclined towards Don Carlos, the heir of Philip II, 
but her French friends discouraged an alliance 
with the national rival. In any case the Don was 
found to be impossible. Elizabeth also was in 

QUEEN MARY— PART III (1561--1567) 221 


From an engraving in the British Museum. 


dread of Spain, and proposed a marriage with her 
disreputable favourite, the Earl of Leicester. This 
would have suited Knox and his friends, but was 
most unlikely. Then Elizabeth sent down to 
Scotland the Earl of Lennox and his son, Henry 
Stewart, Lord Darnley. Darnley, through his 
mother (see Chapter XX, § 2), was also a descendant 
of Margaret Tudor, and so Mary's cousin, and next to 
her in the English line. Lennox, who had been an 
exile since he had aided Henry VHI, was restored 
to his honours and estates. He and his handsome 
son passed for Catholics, but seemed ' indifferent ' 
in religion. Darnley was a ' long lad,' ' beardless 
and lady-faced,' only nineteen years old. Mary fell 
in love with him, and though Elizabeth opposed the 
match, it was carried through in 1565. The ' dis- 
pensation ' of the Pope to allow of a marriage 
between cousins did not arrive till some time after. 

5. The Chaseabout Raid. — While Lethington agreed 
to the marriage, Moray did not, and was now at one 
with Knox. Protestantism, it was feared, was 
undone : there would be no firm establishment of 
religion. Personal jealousies, too, were at work. 
Moray, no longer in power, brought to his side the 
old and feeble Duke of Chatelherault, representing 
the Hamilton interest. The Duke had hoped that 
his son, the Earl of Arran, would marry the Queen. 
But Arran became insane. Argyll, too, was a 
personal enemy of Lennox. These lords were the 
leaders in the foohsh rebellion that now took place, 
and was encouraged by EHzabeth. The excuse 
put forward was that Mary had proclaimed Darnley 
King without consent of the Estates. But the 

QUEEN MARY— PART TTI (i 561-1567) 223 

Queen had the support of the Cathohc nobles, and 
of Protestants such as Morton and Lord Lindsay. 
Lord Gordon was released from imprisonment, to be 
restored presently to the lands and titles of Huntly, 
and the Earl of Bothwell returned from exile in 
France — both mortal enemies of Moray. The rebels 
retreated before the royal forces from Glasgow to 
Paisley, and from Paisley to Hamilton. Thence they 
made a dash on Edinburgh, but found no support. 
They fled to Dumfries, and finally into England, 
where the astonished Moray was soundly scolded 
by Elizabeth for daring to rebel against his 
sovereign ! 

6. Mary and David Riccio. — Mary had shattered 
the Protestant party. Its only dangerous leaders 
were in exile. Protestant support had not suc- 
ceeded in bringing her any nearer the English 
crown ; she would therefore try what might be 
done with Catholic assistance. Her husband was 
the favourite of the English Catholics. But she 
soon found that he could be of no service to her 
design. He was vain, spiteful, foolish, and a 
drunkard. He was not the man to be trusted with 
the work she had on hand. She was in corre- 
spondence with the Pope and Philip, asking ' the 
aid of one of the great Princes of Christianity ' in 
resisting ' the establishment of wretched errors,' 
securing her position in Scotland, and making good 
her claim to the throne of England. In all this her 
chief confidant and agent was her secretary, a 
' stranger Italian,' a musician at Court, named 
David Riccio. Thus she had fallen into the fatal 
Stewart error of ignoring her nobles and high 


officials, and preferring a favourite of humble 
birth. As the first step in her new scheme, a 
Parliament was summoned for March, 1566, at which 
the forfeiture of the exiled lords was to be made 
complete, and something done ' anent restoring the 
auld religion/ She had previously proclaimed that 
in religion every man was ' to live according to his 
conscience/ But such toleration w^as, in the cir- 
cumstances, impossible. The danger to Protestan- 
tism and jealousy of Riccio thus gave rise to a fresh 

7. Murder of Riccio [March 8, 1566). — To Darnley 
'Riccio was specially hateful. His desire was to 
secure the ' Crown matrimonial, and so be King 
as much as Mary was Queen, and not in name only.' 
For Mary's refusal to meet his wishes he blamed the 
artful Italian. This feeling the friends of the 
exiles worked on for their ow^n ends. A bargain was 
struck in a ' band ' between Darnley on the one 
part, and the Earls of Moray, Argyll, Glencairn, 
Rothes, ' and their complices ' on the other, Darnley 
was to secure their pardon and their restoration to 
their estates. They were to get for him the ' crown 
matrimonial.' The established religion was to be 
maintained. Riccio was to be ' tarie away.' Ac- 
cordingly, in the dusk of a March evening, during 
the sitting of the Parliament, the ' complices ' in 
Scotland, the Earl of Morton and the Lords Ruthven 
and Lindsay, proceeded to fulfil their share. While 
Morton with his Douglas friends held the approaches 
to Holyrood, Ruthven and his son and Lindsay 
followed Darnley into the Queen's apartments. 
They were followed thither by the others. Riccio was 

QUEEN MARY— PART III (i 561-1567) 225 

seized, with some rough usage to the Queen, and 
dragged out to ' the fore-door in the outer chamber/ 
There his captors fell furiously upon him with their 
daggers. The dead body of the secretary was 
thrown down the stair, and left with the King's 
own dagger, which George Douglas had borrowed, 
sticking in his breast. Next day Moray and his 
companions rode into Edinburgh. 

8. Mary, Darnley, and Bothwell. — The Protestant 
lords now had Mary in their power, a prisoner in 
Holyrood. But Darnley proved the traitor. He 
had ever a ' heart of wax.' Won over by the 
Queen, he escaped with her by night to Dunbar 
Castle, the seat of the Earl of Bothwell, whom 
Mary had made Warden of the Marches. The 
principal Catholic Earls joined them, and with a 
numerous band of followers, the party returned to 
the capital. The Riccio murderers dispersed, and 
their leaders, Morton, Lindsay, and the Ruthvens, 
withdrew to England. To divide her opponents 
Mary received the exiled lords back to favour. The 
murder of her secretary had ended her scheme for 
the overthrow of Elizabeth. Her own royal seat was 
now insecure. In her difficulty she leaned more 
and more upon Bothwell. James Hepburn was an 
accomplished man, but masterful, boastful, and 
bold. He took the leading place at Court. Mary 
was much with him. Darnley found himself slighted 
and disliked, and he even threatened to leave 
the country. The birth of a young Prince, James, 
made things no better, and was sad news for 
Elizabeth. But at his baptism in Stirling Castle 
Bothwell, and not Darnley, was the active figure. 



The King, indeed, by his weakness and folly, was 
now without a friend. Mary wished to be rid of him. 
Moray and Lethington, as well as Bothwell, were 
willing to help in a ' divorcement/ But such a 
measure had serious difficulties. 

9. Murder of Darnley (1567). — Meantime Darnley 
had fallen ill of small-pox in Glasgow. There Mary 
joined him. When fairly recovering and fit to travel, 
she had him conveyed in a litter to Edinburgh. 
He was lodged in a solitary and ruinous house 
known as Kirk o' Field, hard by the city wall. 
The house belonged to a friend of Bothwell. Such 
a strange choice of residence could have but one 
explanation : a plot to dispose of Darnley was in 
the air. The murderers of Riccio had been allowed 
to return from England. The Earl of Morton had 
been approached to take a hand in the business, 
but refused ; he did not wish to get into new 
trouble. Lethington and others knew what was 
afoot, but no one would risk anything to save the 
slippery King. In Kirk o' Field Mary herself had 
a room where she sometimes passed the night. A 
masked ball at Holyrood took her early away on the 
night of Sunday, February 9. As she mounted her 
horse she caught sight of one of Bothwell's atten- 
dants. ' Jesu, Paris,' she remarked, ' how begrimed 
you are !' He was blackened with the powder which 
he had been helping to place in the cellars of 
Kirk o' Field. Early in the following morning the 
city was startled by a terrific explosion. Kirk o' 
Field had been blown up. The bodies of Darnley 
and his servant were found in the grounds un- 
touched by fire. The common report was that they 

QUEEN MARY— PART III (1561-1567) 227 

had been strangled. The bodies of the others in 
the house lay in the ruins. 

10. Mary Marries Bothwell. — No one was likely to 
grieve for Darnley, or be much concerned about his 
loss. Gunpowder was, of course, a clumsy thing to 
use. But the idea was to suggest that the life of 
the Queen herself was aimed at, and that only the 
lucky chance of being absent at Holyrood saved her. 
This might divert blame from the proper quarter, 
Bothwell. Mary, too, offered a reward for the dis- 
covery of the murderers. Thereupon voices were 
heard in the streets and placards were fixed up on 
walls, accusing Bothwell and his friends. Darnley's 
father demanded a trial of these suspected persons. 
This was granted, but Lennox was forbidden to 
attend the Court with more than six followers, 
while Bothwell, on the day of trial, filled the 
Edinburgh streets with his horsemen. Lennox, 
aware of the risk he would run, did not appear, 
and Bothwell secured from friendly or overawed 
judges a verdict of ' not guilty.' He was now 
the most powerful man in the country. The 
Protestant nobles found that they had gained 
nothing by Darnley's removal. The Queen's prefer- 
ence for the bold Earl was open. The suspicion 
hardened that she herself had been concerned in 
her husband's murder. The precise Moray left for 
a tour on the Continent. Next, Bothwell with a 
body of horse met the Queen as she rode from 
vStirling to Edinburgh, and carried her off to Dunbar 
Castle. The Earl was securing a divorce from his 
wife. As this was being completed he returned 
with his willing captive to Edinburgh. He was 



created Duke of Orkney, and on May 15, 1567, 
little more than three months after Darnley's death, 
Mary married the man who had made her a widow. 
The ceremony was a Protestant one ; Bothwell 
having always professed himself a Protestant, and 
Mary being willing to sacrifice anything and every- 
thing, for her unscrupulous lover. 

11. Mary is Forced to Abdicate. — But by this step 
she ruined herself. Public feeling turned against 
her. The leading nobles, both Protestant and 
Catholic, made a ' band ' for her separation from 
the Earl. Not for this had they winked at the 
removal of Darnley. While Mary and Bothwell 
were in Borthwick Castle, Lord Hume made a hurried 
march and surrounded it. But the Earl escaped, 
and Mary quickly joined him. The lords then 
occupied Edinburgh, and when the Queen and her 
husband marched against them, met their force of 
Borderers at Carberry Hill, near Musselburgh. 
There was no fighting : the Queen's troops were not 
to be trusted. After some negotiation she agreed 
to surrender. Bothwell was given time to ride 
away. Her supporters, she insisted, were not to be 
molested ; Mary was always true to her friends. 
Then, alone, she faced the rebel lords and the insult- 
ing cries of their soldiers. In her rage she ' talked of 
nothing but hanging and crucifying them all.' 
From Edinburgh she was quietly transferred to the 
Castle of Lochleven, on a little island in the loch. 
The people and the preachers clamoured for her 
execution as the murderess of her husband. The 
Hamiltons, too, suggested it. There would then 
be but a weakly child between them and the prize 

QUEEN MARY— PART III (1561-1567) 229 

of royalty. But Mar}^ was induced to give up her 
throne in favour of her son, with the Earl of Moray 
as Regent; and James was accordingly crowned at 
(Scone amid much public rejoicing. Moray shortly 
after returned from France. The lords declared 
they had letters in the Queen's hand proving her 
connection with the murder of Darnley. 

12. The Queen s Party. — This result did not please 
all. The Hamiltons resented the leading position 
being given to Moray. Many of the nobles had been 
anxious only for the separation of the Queen and 
Bothwell. This had been accomplished. The 
desperate Earl had retired to his northern duchy, 
where he collected ships for a career of piracy. 
Kirkcaldy of Grange, in hot pursuit, forced him 
to make for the coast of Norway. His vessel 
was arrested by a Danish ship ; he was recog- 
nized as a pirate, and committed to prison, where, 
ten years later, he died, ' mad and miserable for 
filth/ Meantime Scotland was rid of him. The 
Queen's surrender had placed the Protestants in 
power, and the Parliament which met towards the 
end of the year renewed the reforming Statutes of 
;i56o. No one could hold public office who was not 
a Protestant. All magistrates were to take an oath 
to ' root out heretics.' This, of course, drove the 
Catholic nobles, such as AthoU, back to Mary's side. 

13. Mary Escapes and Flies to England (1568). — 
Early in May of the following year Mary was helped to 
escape from. Loch] even. She had made useful friends 
of Lady Douglas of Lochleven, the ' pretty George 
Douglas,' and a young page. A troop of horsemen 
received her on the shore, and with them she rode 


to Hamilton, where a strong body of supporters soon 
gathered. Their intention was to hold Dumbarton 
Castle as an open door for France. But Moray 




0 4 ^ I 1 2 


From ' The Battle of Langside,' by A. M. Scott {Hopkins), 

promptly assembled a force at Glasgow. He stopped 
the advance of the Queen's more numerous army by 
seizing the village of Langside. Argyll, the Queen's 
general, was no soldier. Kirkcaldy, by a flank charge 


of pikemen, threw his troops into disorder. Mary, 
seeing that the day was lost, tried to make for Dum- 
barton. But she was too late. She feared to give 
herself up. She therefore turned south, and with 
six attendants rode all the way to the shore of 
the Solway. There, however, she refused to stop, 
though in the country of her supporter, Lord Herries. 
Crossing the firth she, with her small company, 
proceeded to Carlisle. It was her vain hope that 
Elizabeth would protect and aid her. But Elizabeth 
had her own interests to serve, and the instructions 
of the English Council to the Governor of Carlisle 
sounded Mary's doom : ' Let none of them escape !' 



1. The Casket Letters. — Mary in England put Eliza- 
beth in a difficult position. The cause of the fugi- 
tive was the cause of all Kings and Queens — that 
rebellion should not be suffered. In this she had 
Elizabeth's sympathy. On the other hand, the Pro- 
testant lords were the friends of England. Their 
defeat would mean a revival of Catholicism, and 
the recovery of French influence in Scotland. Eliza- 
beth, therefore, induced both sides to agree to an 
inquiry. Mary accused Moray and his friends of 
being rebels. They replied that she had been guilty 
of misgovernment, and had given up her crown at 
Lochleven. Commissioners appointed by the three 
parties to go into the matter sat first at York, after- 
wards at London. When no settlement seemed 



likely, Moray reluctantly made an ' eik/ or additional 
charge — ^that the Queen had actually been guilty 
with Bothwell of her husband's murder. The direct 
proof put forward was contained in one ' horrible 
and long letter ' from Glasgow, out of eight which 
were alleged to have been written by Mary to Both- 
well.* These, with certain other documents, had 


Fi'om the picture at Holy^'ood. 

been found in a silver casket left by the Earl in 
Edinburgh Castle, and taken from the servant who 
had been sent to bring it away. Mary affirmed 
that they were forged, and demanded that they 
should be shown to her. This was most unfairly 
refused. It would not be to the interest of any of 
* The originals disappeared after i 584 


the parties that the whole truth should be told ; 
so the Commissioners reported that nothing had been 
proved against Moray and his friends ' that might 
impair their honour and allegiance/ and nothing 
against Mary that could lead the Queen of England 
to ' take any evil opinion of her good sister/ Mary, 
nevertheless, remained a prisoner, while Mora}^ went 
back to Scotland to resume the regency. 

2. The Good Regent. — In Scotland he found the 
Queen's party again active, moved mainly by per- 
sonal jealousies. The Duke of Chatelherault had 
arrived from France to receive a commission as 
Marj^'s ' deputy,' but Moray and Morton had no 
hard task in breaking up this fresh combination. 
The Hamiltons, ' for all their brag,' did just nothing. 
Argyll, abandoned by the Duke, submitted. Huntly 
raided in the north till Moray paid him a visit, when 
he and ' the chief of the clans ' gave pledges for 
future obedience. In both Highlands and Borders 
the Regent promptly suppressed the outbreaks of 
disorder and robbery. The country seemed likely 
to settle down quietly under his firm rule ; but 
Lethington, who, since the flight of his enemy Both- 
well, had clung secretly to the Queen's cause, w^as 
now working in her favour. A communication from 
Elizabeth was submitted to the Estates suggesting, 
on certain terms, Mary's restoration to at least a 
share in the Government. At the same time Mary 
asked to have her marriage with Both well dissolved. 
A divorce was presently granted by the Pope ; but 
the Estates would not hear of Mary resuming power 
in any degree. To get Maitland out of the way, 
Moray had him accused of a share in devising Darn- 


ley's murder ; but Lethington was soon safe with 
his friend Kirkcaldy of Grange, Captain of Edin- 
burgh Castle. Towards the close of January, 1570, 
the Regent, as he passed through the crowded street 
of Linlithgow, was mortally wounded by the musket 
of James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, who himself 
carried the glad news to his friends at Hamilton. 

3. Civil War. — The death of ' the good Regent ' 
was the signal for an uprising. Mary's supporters 
were the majority of the nobles, and Kirkcaldy of 
Grange ' clean revolted,' and with Maitland and 
Lord Hume held Edinburgh Castle for the Queen. 
It was the Bothwell marriage that provoked the 
rebellion. Mary was now free of Bothwell ; why 
should she not resume her position ? The King's 
party decayed. Its strong man was the Earl of 
Morton, and Morton would listen to no plan 
for Mary's return. But his cause was lost if 
Elizabeth did not intervene. An English force, 
therefore, entered Scotland, devastated the lands of 
the Hamiltons, and made possible the selection of 
the Earl of Lennox as Regent. It was now civil 
war, and the successes of the war fell to Lennox 
and ^lorton. The rock of Dumbarton was chmbed 
on a misty night, and seized for the King. x\rch- 
bishop Hamilton, in full armour, w^as found w^ithin, 
and was hanged at Stirling for his share in the plot 
which accomplished the death of Moray. But a 
band of Borderers surprised the Regent and his 
friends at Stirling, and in the scuffle Lennox was 
treacherously shot. He was succeeded by the Earl 
of Mar, a mere cover for Morton's rule. The war 
became one of no quarter. There was ' nothing but 


hanging on either side/ But as time passed, and 
the prospect of Mary's release faded, her champions 
weakened. The lords knew that, when the King's 
side prevailed, they would be stripped of their lands. 
Assured of their honours and estates, the Hamiltons 
and the Gordons abandoned a failing cause. Others 
were bribed ; Argyll receiving * a fat Kirk benefice.' 
At last were left only the sick and helpless Maitland 
with Kirkcaldy and his little garrison on ' the craig.' 
Mar, who had wished for peace, now died, and the 
resolute Morton was chosen Regent. The Castle was 
battered with English guns till its towers and walls 
ran down ' like a sandy brae.' The exhausted garri- 
son forced a surrender. Lethington was found dead. 
Hume was spared, but Kirkcaldy suffered the fate 
Knox had foretold for him — to ' hang against the 
face of the sun ' (1573). Knox, unbending to the 
last, had died in November of the previous year. 

4. Morton Regent. — The House of Morton was the 
third branch of the Douglases to become prominent 
in Scottish affairs. And James Douglas, fourth 
Earl of Morton, was the strongest and most capable 
statesman of his name. During the five j^ears he 
acted as Regent he governed well, and the country 
returned to prosperity. These years ' were esteemed 
to be as happy and peaceable as ever Scotland saw. 
The name of a Papist durst not be heard of ; there 
was no thief nor oppressor that durst show himself.'* 
For lack of funds he continued the practice of de- 
basing the coinage, which brought him some un- 
popularity. Scots money was w^orth only a tenth 
/of English. Yet foreign trade increased by bounds. 

Original, 'kythe.' 



The middle class of merchants and craftsmen grew 
in numbers and wealth. They, with the smaller 
landowners or lairds, were the strength of the Pro- 
testant party, and with their prosperity came power. 
The English Ambassador could see ' the noblemen's 
great credit decay in that country, and the barons, 
burghs, and such-like take more upon them.' 

5. The ' Tiilchan ' Bishops. — Morton, like Moray 
and Lethington, was of the school that desired a 
close union with England. To this end he wished 
the national Churches to be similar in character : 
' Bishops to rule the Church, and they to be answer- 
able to the King.' He disliked the political speak- 
ing of the ministers, and objected to General 
Assemblies being summoned without the royal 
permission. As the old Catholic prelates died out 
Protestant bishops were appointed in their places. 
To have no bishops would be to destroy one of 
the Estates, and so alter the whole machinery of 
Government. Morton, therefore, secured the con- 
sent of the Church to this arrangement in the mean- 
time ; but the lords continued to appoint inferior 
men with small salaries, and pocketed the rest of the 
revenues. These Protestant prelates were known as 
' tulchan ' bishops ; a tulchan being the stutted skin 
of a calf set beside a cow to induce her to give mi)k. 
When the clerg\' protested against this misuse of 
what belonged to the Kirk, the lords declared that 
they would abandon their cause unless they got the 
Church revenues. This was in the height of the 
civil war, and the protesting clerg\' were helpless. As 
always in Scotland, the lords had to do the fighting 
at their own expense. But the Church soon found 


a leader of the old type in the scholarly and out- 
spoken Andrew Melville, who took up the cry against 
bishops. Melville, like Knox, had been trained in 
the Calvinist republic of Geneva. The Regent's 
economies, too, made him powerful enemies. He 
was strict in money matters, which the officials and 
nobles in the Government did not like. AthoU and 
Argyll, otherwise deadly rivals, headed a party 
against him. He was forced to resign, and the hard 
Regent went down to Lochleven Castle to amuse 
himself with gardening. Aided by his nephew 
Angus and the Earl of Mar he was able to recover 
power for a short space, during which he completed 
the ruin of the House of Hamilton. There were no 
more Regents. 

6. Execution of Morton (1581). — But the Earl had 
now a more serious rival. There arrived from 
France the King's cousin, Esme Stewart, Lord 
D'Aubigny. He was a handsome, pleasant, accom- 
plished man, and speedily found high favour with 
the fourteen-year-old King. By the forfeiture of 
the Hamiltons he was the King's heir, and he in- 
duced his uncle to resign to him the Earldom of 
Lennox. Though supposed to be a Catholic, and 
to act in the Catholic interest, he professed to be 
converted to Protestantism by the boy-King's clever 
reasoning. James, indeed, had been well educated 
by his tutors, one of whom was the famous scholar 
George Buchanan, and was already overproud of his 
learning. Even at the age of six, as he walked with 
his guardian. Lady Mar, he would discourse ' of 
knowledge and ignorance.' Associated with Lennox 
was Captain James Stewart, brother-in-law of John 


Knox. These two adventurers took up the task 
of disposing of Morton. The Earl was charged with 
being one of the murderers of Darnley. He could 
not deny that he had known of the plot, though he 
had refused to take part in it. On the ground of 

this guilty foreknow- 
ledge and concealment 
he w^as executed, and 
his head stuck on a 
spike on the gable of 
Edinburgh Tolbooth. 
Captain Stewart, his 
accuser, received the 
Earldom of Arran. 
Lennox and Lord 
Maxwell had arranged 
to divide Morton's 
lands, even before his 
trial. Mary in her 
English prison was 
' most glad ' at the 
news of the death of 
' her greatest enemy.' 
: 7. Catholic Intrigues. 
— The chief Protes- 


under the influence of 
Lennox, the time seemed favourable for a Catholic 
success. Jesuits and priests haunted the Court and 
the Catholic nobles of Scotland. All sorts of wild 
schemes were afloat. Spanish troops were to be 
landed. Mary was to be freed, and placed on the 


throne of a united Catholic England and Scotland. 
James was to be removed to Spain, to be converted 
by force if necessary, and married to a Catholic 
Princess. But Mary's reliance on Spain provoked 
the jealousy of France. Philip was not at all 
[anxious to unite Scotland and England, as he had 
Ian eye on the latter kingdom for himself. Mary 
was to learn that her son would do nothing for her, 
and that she had no influence over him. But the 
news of these doings got abroad, and roused great 
alarm in Protestant quarters. 

8. The Second Book of Discipline and the Nega- 
tive Confession (1581). — The Kirk, too, found that it 
had profited nothing b}^ the fall of Morton. The 
' tulchan ' bishops remained, though they had no 
power, and were subject to the Assembly. That 
Court now declared itself against Bishops. Instead, " 
and with the approval of the King, it set afoot the 
system of local Church government by presbyteries, 
from which the Scottish Church has come to be 
.known as Presbyterian. Further, it adopted the 
^econd Book of Discipline, which, however, had the 
'fate of the first in that it was not accepted by Par- 
liament. Once more a claim was made for the 
Church property as the ' patrimony ' of the Kirk. 
The ' Book ' sought also to distinguish clearly be- 
tween the powers of State and Church. In ' spiritual ' 
matters the Church was to be independent of all 
State interference. It proved difficult in practice 
to say what was, and what was not, ' spiritual.' 
Earlier in the year an elaborate Confession had been 
drawn up, which condemned in every particular the 
teaching and claims of Rome. It was known as the 


Negative Confession, and was signed by both the 
King and the unscrupulous Lennox. Thereafter it 
was ordered to be signed by ah ministers and their 
parishioners under threat of punishment. Thus it 
was made a national bond or covenant against 

9. The Ruthven Raid (1582). — The power of such a 
favourite as Lennox was certain to raise opposition. 
The preachers made known what had been discovered 
as to his dealings with the Catholic powers. The 
usual Scots method was followed to displace him. 
A strong party of the nobles, headed by Ruthven, 
now Earl of Gowrie, seized the King at a hunting- 
party at Ruthven Castle. Their complaint to the 
King was that he did not take the ' auld nobility ' 
to be his advisers as the custom of the kingdom 
was. Lennox was forced to leave the country, and 
went to France, where he shortly died. The As- 
sembly approved of the action of the lords on account 
of the danger to the Kirk as well as to the ' innocent 
person ' of his Majesty ; so did the docile Parlia- 
ment, though James afterwards scored out the Act. 
But Lennox being got rid of, the lords could no 
longer hold together. Elizabeth would send them 
neither money nor soldiers. Ten months after his 
capture James easily escaped. The ' lords re- 
formers ' were not punished meantime, but Arran 
took the place of Lennox in the King's counsels. 
He, it was believed, ' put the opinion of absolute 
power in his Majesty's head.' James resented the 
action of the preachers in dealing with political 
affairs in their sermons. Andrew Melville was sum- 
moned before the Council for uttering from the 


pulpit what was declared to be ' treason/ He 
claimed that for what he preached he should be 
tried by the Kirk. James answered that treason 
was a matter for the Council to deal with, and not 
the Kirk. Melville was ordered to go into confine- 
ment, but slipped away to Berwick. A fresh con- 
spiracy to seize the King was exposed by Arran. 
Gowrie was trapped and executed. The other Earls 
and many ministers joined Melville across the 
Border. Arran had the refugee lords forfeited, and 
punished with severity their associates. 

10. The Black Acts (1584). — A Parhament packed 
by the King next undid all that the Church had 
hitherto accomplished. The King was declared to 
jbe supreme over Church and State. He and his 
Council were to be accepted as judges over all 
persons, ' temporal or spiritual.' To deny this was 
treason. Assemblies were not to be summoned 
without the royal permission. The ' estate ' of 
bishops was restored. To speak against these 
enactments was a treasonable offence. The ministers 
were then ordered to sign a declaration accepting 
these Acts, or be deprived of their livings. Most 
were induced to do so : a few preferred to follow 
their brethren into exile. By these Black Acts 
James divided the Church. The opponents of all 
Episcopacy were now in a minority. 

11. Fall of Arran. — Arran's triumph was short- 
lived. The formation of the Catholic League be- 
tween the Pope, Philip, and the House of Guise for 
France, threatened all Protestant countries. Eliza- 
beth approached James with a proposal for alliance 
against the common danger. James was, of course, 



anxious to stand well with the English Queen. At 
her instigation the banished lords returned from 
England, and, joined by the whole Borders east and 
west, seized Stirling with the King, and made them- 
selves masters of the Government. The detested 
Arran went into hiding, till he was speared in the 
back by Douglas of Parkhead in revenge for Morton's 
death. The banished lords were restored to their 
estates, and the ministers to their congregations. 
But to the bitter disappointment of the latter, the 
Black Acts were allowed to stand. The Privy 
Council was m.ade up of both Protestant and 
Catholic Earls, and a close alliance was concluded 
with England. 

12. Execution of Mary. — There Mary's hour had at 
last struck. All her ingenious scheming had come 
to nothing, and only led to her closer confinement. 
The activity of the Catholics in her favour turned 
to desperate measures. Elizabeth would have to be 
removed by assassination. But her agents and spies 
kept in touch with all such plots, and allowed Mary 
to implicate herself in that formed by a certain 
Anthony Babington. When all was ready, Babing- 
ton was seized and executed. Mary was brought to 
trial, and for two days in the hall of Fotheringay 
Castle defended herself with skill and courage. She 
was condemned to death, but Elizabeth delayed her 
execution for three months, in the hope that some 
one would take the hint, and save her the odium 
of putting the unfortunate Queen to death. Finally, 
on the morning of February 8, 1587, Mary laid her 
comely head under the axe of the executioner. 
Feeling in Scotland was strong against the sentence. 

MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS (1542-I587). 

From the Memorial Portrait in the possession of the Trustees of 
Blair s College ^ Aberdeen, 

16 — 2 


and an instant war on England would have been 
highly popular. But James, though he protested, 
did not wish to risk his chance of the English throne. 
Mary, in her will, had turned from her heretic son 
to bequeath her rights to the King of Spain ; and 
James left her to her fate. On a later day he caused 
Fotlieringay Castle to be razed to the ground, and 
brought his mother's body to burial in Westminster 



1. Scotland and the Spanish Armada. — In the year 
of his mother's execution James became of * perfect 
age.' The event was marked by two important 
Acts. One revoked all grants of Church property 
made in the previous reign as well as during James's 
minority, with certain exceptions. Money was 
badly needed to meet the expenses of Government. 
Many of the estates, however, were begged from 
James by his noble friends. Meantime the Kirk 
was starved. Another Act made effective that of 
1427, allowing the free tenants of the King in the 
shires to send representatives to Parliament, instead 
of attending personally. These were intended to 
serve as a check on the power of the great nobles. 
But the feeling which now mastered the country was 
dread of an invasion from Spain. Philip was fitting 
out his ' Invincible Armada.' As James was a 
heretic and Philip his mother's heir, the danger 
was as great to him as to Elizabeth. It was 


rumoured even that the Spanish troops would be 
landed in Scotland. Accordingly men were drilled, 

JAMES VI AND I (1566-I625). 

After the p07'trait by Paul von Somer. 

beacons prepared to give warning, and the Confes- 
sion of 1581 was sent round for signature, under 
compulsion. The CathoHc lords, chief of whom were 


the Earl of Huntly in the north, and Lord Maxwell 
in the south-west, were ready to welcome Spain. 
But Huntly was a man of no courage. James 
himself entered Maxwell's country, and shut him 
up out of mischief. x\ll that vScotland saw of the 
Armada in the summer of 1588 was the tall ships 
that drove helplessly ashore on the islands and 
coasts of the north and west. 

2. James and the Catholic Earls. — But the Catholic 
leaders had not abandoned hope. Early next year 
Cecil, Elizabeth's Minister, got possession of letters 
on their way to Spain from the Earls of Huntly and 
Errol. They invited a new enterprise, and promised 
help. ' No King could bear this,' wrote Elizabeth 
to James, when she sent him the letters. The Pro- 
testant ministers cried out for justice on the 
traitors — that is, confiscation and death — but James 
was not so minded. Let off easily, the Earls and 
their friends plotted to seize the King. Thereupon 
he marched north against them. Errol would have 
fought, but Huntly feared and his Highland sup- 
porters left him. The northern barons and chiefs 
— Gordons, Keiths, Grants, Mackintoshes, and 
Mackenzies — signed a bond of obedience. Huntly 
and Crawford were sent to ward, but released in a 
few months to welcome the arrival of James's Queen. 
She was Anne, daughter of the King of Denmark, a 
Protestant, who later became a convert to the 
Catholic faith. This match had not been favoured 
by James's chief adviser, the ' wise ' John Maitland, 
a brother of the famous Secretary, who became 
Chancellor and was created Lord Thirlestane. He 
was a Protestant, and friendly to England, but was 


disliked by the Queen and by the men of nobler 

3. The Catholic Party Destroyed. — The discovery 
of a fresh intrigue between the Catholic Earls and 
Spain again caused great excitement. Letters from 
Huntly, Errol, and a Catholic Angus, desiring terms 
for a Spanish invasion, were seized on the Clyde. 
Some papers, bearing only signatures, are known as 
the ' Spanish Blanks.' James himself, too, was 
making friendly approaches to the Catholic powers. 
His one aim was to make sure of the succession to 
the English throne, and as there were still many 
Catholics in England, he was anxious to conciliate 
them. He was not himself a Catholic, nor likely 
to become one ; but, with good cause, he distrusted 
Elizabeth. On the other hand, his Protestant sub- 
jects, and especially the outspoken ministers, did 
not trust him. The country, as a whole, was in a 
desperate condition. Feuds ran their course un- 
checked. Justice was powerless. Johnstones, on 
the West Borders, Macfarlanes and Macgregors in 
the West Highlands, were conspicuous for their 
robberies and murders. James, almost helpless, 
tried to arrange matters with the Catholic Earls ; 
but they took up arms. He was forced to act. 
Huntly defeated his Lieutenant, the young Argyll, 
at Glenrinnes in 1594. James himself had, there- 
fore, to deal with the rebellion in person. The Earls 
fled abroad, but their estates were left to their 
families. Later they were restored, and Huntly and 
Errol were received into the Church. It was James's 
desire to retain their support in keeping the power 
of the Kirk in check, but the Catholic cause in Scot- 


land was no more a danger to the State. Lord 
Maxwell had already fallen in a clan fight with his 
feudal enemies the Johnstones, at Dryfe Sands, near 
Lockerby — the last battle of the sort on the Borders. 

4. James in Conflict with the Ministers, — The King's 
soft treatment of the Catholic Earls roused Pro- 
testant feeling to a high pitch. This feeling found 
expression in the pulpit, and in the meetings of the 
General Assembly. The ministers, especially those 
of Edinburgh, had the ear of the public. In their 
sermons, which were delivered three times a week, 
they criticized, often in violent language, the doings 
of the King and his Ministers. The Assemblies were 
more independent than the Parliament, and included 
lay members as well as clergymen. All this was in- 
tolerable to the King, who could not bear opposi- 
tion. Moreover, the claims of the ministers seemed 
to limit his royal power. Andrew Melville, in one 
of his many stormy interviews with James, told 
him, as he ' plucked ' the King by the sleeve, that 
he was ' God's sillie (weak) vassal,' and in the Kirk 
' not a King, nor a head, nor a lord, but a member.' 
When summoned for introducing political matters 
into their sermons, the preachers refused to acknow- 
ledge the right of the King to judge them in what 
they claimed to be their spiritual office. James, 
on the contrary, maintained that he should rule both 
Kirk and State ; that ministers should not handle 
political questions in the pulpit ; and that he was 
supreme judge in all causes. 

5. James Imposes Bishops. — Unfortunately, in the 
circumstances of the time it was not easy to separate 
politics and religion ; but as long as Chancellor 



Thirlestane lived matters went smoothly enough 
between the King and the ministers. It was Thirle- 
stane who secured the passing of the important Acts 
of 1592. The penal laws against Catholics, more 
severe in Scotland than in England, were ratified. 
Presbyterian government of the Church was ap- 
proved. The ' tulchan ' bishops became a mere 
name. Their livings had been already annexed to 
the Crown, and they had now no means of support. 
Archbishop Adamson died in poverty. But the 
business of the Catholic Earls brought Kirk and 
King into sharp opposition. James determined to 
break the strength of the Kirk. By one of the 
recent Acts no Assembly could be held without his 
permission. He now summoned Assemblies at his 
pleasure. The northern ministers were brought 
down to check and outvote the extreme members 
from the south, who had hitherto ruled that body. 
James secured their support for his policy by 
flattery, by bribes, and even by threats. He was 
bent on having bishops, both as a means of con- 
trolling the Kirk, and, since they could sit in Parlia- 
ment as one of the Estates, of balancing the strength 
of the great nobles. James's new adviser, Lord 
Menmuir, would have had representatives appointed 
by the Kirk. This, however, the Estates would not 
agree to, but consented that ministers only should 
be appointed to vacant bishoprics, and that these 
should sit in Parliament. James professed that he 
was anxious ordy to benefit the Kirk by giving it a 
voice in the Government, and so enable it to pro- 
vide itself with adequate support. He protested it 
was not his intention to introduce ' Papistical or 


Anglican bishopping/ But the Melville party ob- 
jected to the very shadow of Episcopacy. They 
got hold of a copy of a book which James had 
written, but not yet published, called Basilicon 
Doron (The Royal Gift). In it he showed plainly 
his preference for regular bishops. As a result, an 
alarmed Assembly again decided that the representa- 
tives of the Church should be elected annually ; 
that they should be called ' Commissioners/ and 
should have no Episcopal power. There was thus 
a deadlock between the Parliament and the Kirk, 
and James found himself baffled. He solved the 
difficulty by appointing bishops to the Sees of 
Caithness, Ross, and Aberdeen, where alone some 
of the property of the bishoprics was still left in 
his hands (1600). A later Assembly, properly 
managed, approved of this step, and requested that 
the other bishoprics should be filled. But the pres- 
byteries and other Church courts continued. The 
bishops sat and voted in Parliament, but as yet had 
no place in the government of the Kirk. This was 
to come later. 

6. The Cowrie Affair (1600). — On a day some 
months before the appointment of the bishops 
occurred a strange affair in Gowrie House, the Perth 
residence of the Earl of Gowrie son of the Lord 
Ruthven of the Ruthven Raid. The Earl's brother, 
Alexander, Master of Ruthven, induced the King to 
ride from the hunt at Falkland over to Gowrie 
House, in order that he might examine into the 
case of a man who had been found in possession 
of a pot full of gold coins. An attempt to secure 
the person of the King in a small turret chamber 


led to a struggle. James managed to raise an 
alarm. His attendants rushed to his rescue. Both 
the Ruthvens were slain, and with them perished 
all knowledge of their intentions. There were some 
who suggested a plot on the King's part to ruin 
Gowrie and his brother. Gowrie was a Presbyterian ; 
and this difference of opinion again brought about 
a quarrel between the King and the Edinburgh 


The King's turret is to the right. 

ministers. Because they would not publish the 
royal version of the affair they were removed from 
their churches. The bishops took their places in 
the Parliament which forfeited the Ruthvens. 

7. Witchcraft. — In one interest alone were the con- 
tending parties agreed. King and Kirk joined hands 
in the discovery and punishment of witches. Such 
persons were believed to be in alliance with the 


powers of evil, and so able to bring on their victims 
misfortunes, sickness, and even deatli. Two hun- 
dred witches and sorcerers of North Berwick were 
declared to have conspired to raise a storm to wreck 
James and his bride on their way home from Den- 
mark. The Protestant Earl of Angus, who died 
young, apparently of consumption, was held to have 
been the victim of such black arts. The witch was 
discovered, tortured into confession, strangled, and 
burnt. This was the usual method with these un- 
fortunates, 'both men and women. In one year 
twenty-four so-called witches were burned in 
Aberdeen alone, besides many elsewhere. Such an 
inhuman practice was common to Europe ; but 
in Scotland, as in England, a charge of witchcraft 
was not punished with death till after the Refor- 
mation. Catholics and Protestants rivalled each 
other in the cruelties with which they pursued an 
imaginary offence. For a century and a half witch- 
burning was a repulsive feature of Scottish life. 

8. The 'Nameless Clan' : The 'Fife Adven- 
turers,'' — James, having secured the submission of 
the Catholic Earls of the north and east, and 
boimd the chiefs to obedience, next turned his 
attention to the West Highlands. The Macdonald 
chiefs of Islay made one more attempt to recover 
some of their, lost possessions, and were sup- 
pressed by Argyll as the royal Lieutenant. The 
Clan Macgregor had for many years been distin- 
guished by their lawlessness and robbery. In the 
year 1603 they made a raid on Glenfruin, slew many 
of the Colquhouns, and cleared the townships of 
their cattle. This outrage -was their ruin. The 



whole clan was declared outlaw. To bear the 
name of Macgregor became a crime. They survived 
only as the ' nameless clan.' James had even 
contemplated making an armed visit to the West 
Highlands and Isles, but was prevented by lack of 
money. An Act of Parliament in 1598 had ordered 
all chiefs and landlords to produce their titles to 
their lands. No rents were coming in to the Crown, 
and the natural riches of the north, such as the 
fisheries, were utterly neglected. The Macleods, 
who owned Lewis, being too busy fighting among 
themselves, failed to comply with the Act. The 
island was accordingly granted on easy terms to a 
number of gentlemen of Fife, known as the ' Fife 
Adventurers.' But far from help, and amid a hostile 
population, they failed in all their attempts to 
establish a settlement. A second set of ' venturers ' 
did no better. They finally disposed of their rights 
to Mackenzie of Kintail, who in a short time made 
himself master of the island. 

9. Condition of the Country. — In the south, too, 
violence had long prevailed. There was a ' flood 
of bloodshed and deadly feuds.' Slowly the country 
recovered from the disorder of the early part of the 
reign. James wisely devoted himself to reconciling 
the great houses which were enemies to each other. 
Much was gained by making friends of Huntly, 
Argyll, and Moray. Edinburgh, where rival families 
had frequent chances of meeting, was an ordinary 
scene of feudal skirmishes. James suppressed such 
factions by fines and imprisonment. He thus suc- 
ceeded in bringing the restless nobility under better 
control. But both King and nobles suffered from the 



want of ready-money. James imposed a tax on im- 
ported goods. The nobles, being now more cultured 
and in the habit of going abroad, had developed 
expensive tastes. They desired finer furniture, 
richer dress, and daintier food. Gowrie House had 
a fair gallery of pictures. Thus they burdened their 
tenants with heavy rents, and for the same reason 
many of them were only too ready to take bribes 
from England or France, Protestant or Catholic. 
Yet in the ports trade was increasing, with France, 
Holland and the coasts of the Baltic. James used 
means to improve manufactures. Following the 
example of England, he introduced skilled work- 
men from abroad. Flemish weavers soon taught 
the Scots to turn out cloth of good enough quality 
to be largely exported. But trade had still its out- 
side risks. English pirates watched the coasts. 
Thieves waylaid merchants on their journeys to 
the distant fairs at Montrose, Wigtown, and Ber- 
wick. There was no proper police. The central 
Government was still weak, and without fit means 
of enforcing the laws. The Scots had long been 
forced to rely upon themselves, and to hold their 
own. Thus, in large measure, came that ' freedom 
and liberty/ that ' pride and boasting of their 
nobility,* that hastiness and readiness to revenge, 
which other peoples attributed to them. 

10. Learning and Literature. — James, himself a 
learned man and an author, was a patron of learn- 
ing. A ' King's College ' was founded at Edinburgh 
in 1582. Books were being printed and read in 
large numbers. But Scots as a literary language 
was disappearing. Scholars and even poets wrote 


much in Latin. James, on going to England, 
changed his hterary style from Scots to English. 
Educated men followed his example. Even John 
Knox had written his vivid History of the Reforma- 
tion in a language that was rather English than Scots. 

11. James Becomes King of England. — On a Satur- 
day night, March 24, 1603, Sir Robert Carey rode 
up to Holyrood Palace with great news. Elizabeth 
was dead, and had named James as her successor. 
Thus peacefully the long-sought end was accom- 
plished. An English King the Scots, rightly jealous 
of their independence, w^re not likely to accept. 
England could afford to be less sensitive. The 
delighted James promised to revisit his native land 
every three years. He was to reign for twenty-two 
years more, but during that time Scotland saw him 
only once. 


Not used in Scotland before 1684. 



PART III (1603-1625) 

1. Character and Ideals of Jaiiies. — The King whom 
Scotland had given to England was no kingly lignre. 
His manners were not pleasant. ' He speaks, eats, 
dresses, and plays like a boor,' said a French agent. 
His natnral ability was overweighted with learning. 
So conhdent was he of his own powers that he 
would argue at length with those who differed from 
them. If he could not convince in this way he 
would use any trickery to secure his purpose. He 
wished to reconcile extreme parties, but tried to do 
so by imposing his own will on all alike. True to 
his Scotch training, he had worked out a theory 
about his rights and powers as a King, and on this 
he always professed to act. He ruled, he held, by 
Divine choice, and was answerable for what he did 
to God only.* He stirred up a strong opposition in 
England, but in Scotland he brought his system 
near perfection. ' Here I sit,' he boasted, ' and 
govern it with my pen : I write, and it is done ; and 
by the Clerk of the Council I govern Scotland now — 
which others could not do by the sword.' 

2. The Union a)id the Borders. — James was anxious 
I to complete the union by having one Parliament 
for the two kingdoms, and throwing the English 
trade open to the Scots. To please the King, and 
for the sake of free trade, the Scots were willing to 

* This theory was the fashionable one among the 
poUtical writers of the time. 



surrender their Parliament. But the EngUsh pro- 
tested that in commerce the poorer nation would 
secure the best of the bargain, and the proposals 
dropped. Still, something was gained by a legal 
decision that all Scotsmen born after James's 
accession were citizens of both kingdoms, for which, 
as united, the King himself invented the title of 
Great Britain. The need for a frontier had thus 
disappeared. The Borders were now only the 
' Middle Shires.' But it was hard for the Borderers 
on either side to settle down and abandon the 
lawless practices which had grown up through 
centuries of warfare. Thieving was the ordinary 
occupation of the neighbouring clans, who had been 
accustomed to pay little heed to their Kings. In 
the very week in which James began his gorgeous 
journey through England the Armstrongs of 
Liddesdale ravaged the North Country as far as 
Penrith. They found that times had changed. 
The captain of Berwick, with a force of Scots and 
English, entered their district and almost extermi- 
nated them. A company of mounted police was 
raised, and the ' moss-trooping ' dalesmen received 
their lesson in ' Jeddart* justice : hang a man first, 
and tr\^ him afterwards.' Many of the smaller 
lairds, Kerrs, Elliots, and Maxwells, were sent into 
confinement for a time in the northern towns. The 
carrying of arms was forbidden. Restless spirits 
found employment in the foreign wars. Scott of 
Buccleuch relieved Teviotdale of many of his clan, 
whom he led abroad to fight for the new Dutch 
Republic against Spain. 

* Jedburgh. 


3. The Estates and the General Assembly. — James, 
as he truly said, ruled Scotland through the Privy 
Council, whose members he himself chose. The 
Estates were submissive. All the powers they 
possessed had long since passed to the Lords of the 
Articles. At their first meeting these were ap- 
pointed. The Lords prepared the ' Articles,' or 
measures which were to become law. Parliament 
met once more to approve of these, and then dis- 
solved. James introduced the practice of nominat- 
ing the Lords of the Articles himself. Thus the 
Scottish Parhament became, not, like that of 
England, a popular council able to resist the King, 
but, like the Parliament of France, merely a court 
to register the royal decrees. The only public body 
not completely at his bidding was the General 
Assembly of the Kirk. As the bishops were once 
more one of the Estates, and so represented the 
Church, James even thought of doing away with the 
Assembly altogether. A ' free ' General Assembly 
meeting annually in its own right was no part of his 
scheme of government. Its claim of Divine right 
to rule the Church did not fit in with James's idea 
of his own Divine right to rule in all things. ' A 
Scottish Presbytery,' he said, ' agreeth as well with 
a monarchy as God and the devil. Then Jack and 
Tom and Will and Dick shall meet, and at their 
pleasures censure me and my Council, and all our 
proceedings.' And men who ruled the Church 
might naturally wish to rule the State. To James 
it seemed to be a case of ' No Bishop, no King.' 

4. James in Conflict with the Ministers. — For two 
years James succeeded in preventing any meeting 



, of Assembly, a thing which had not happened since 
the Reformation. Then in the summer of 1605 
nineteen ministers went through the form of holding 
an Assembly at Aberdeen. Later ten more joined 
them. They were all summoned before the Council 
for convoking the lieges without the royal per- 
mission. Thirteen only held their ground. They 
refused to recognize the Council as having power to 
judge them in a spiritual matter. For this James 
insisted that they should be brought to trial on a 
charge of high treason under the Act of 1584. 
Six were tried, and a jury bullied and threatened by 
the King's Advocate found them guilty. They were 
all banished abroad. The remaining seven were 
confined to Ireland and the Hebrides (1606). But 
there were others whom James wished to have out 
of the way. Earlier in the same year he had sum- 
moned to London eight of the leading Puritan 
ministers, including Andrew and James Melville, 
to consult upon ' the peace ' of the Church. The 
King and his English Bishops failed to move them. 
The two Melvilles were, therefore, not allowed to 
go back to Scotland. Andrew, of bitter speech, 
was sent into exile on the Continent, and died as a 
professor in the Protestant College of Sedan. Their 
comrades were ordered not to go beyond their own 

5. James Completes his Episcopacy, — By such 
means James cleared the way for the fulfilment of 
his plans. While the ministers were still in London 
the ' Red Parliament ' met at Perth. It was so 
called from the scarlet cloaks of the nobles worn by 
the King's order — an old fashion that had gone out 


in Scotland. This Parliament put on record that 
' His Majesty's sovereign authority ' extended ' over 
all estates, persons, and causes whatsoever/ This 
meant the royal supremacy over the Church. As 
was said, James was to be Pope of Scotland as well 
as King. The same Parliament formally restored 
the Estate of Bishops, and repealed the Act annexing 
the property of the bishoprics to the Crown. This 
latter proposal had alarmed the nobles, who saw 
themselves threatened with the loss of some of their 
Church lands. But the shrewd King satisfied 
them by securing their rights, and even distributed 
among them more of the ecclesiastical estates. 
Meantime the bishoprics were filled up to the old 
number of thirteen. In successive Assemblies and 
Parliaments packed for the King, the powers of the 
bishops were extended. Two Courts of High Com- 
mission, each presided over by an Archbishop — 
St. Andrews and Glasgow — were formed to deal 
with offences ' in life and religion.' They were 
afterwards reduced to one. In the same year (1610) 
Archbishop Spottiswoode of St. Andrews and two 
others went to England, where they were conse- 
crated by three Enghsh Bishops. They then per- 
formed the same service for their Scottish brethren. 
But the Presbyterian courts were not abolished. 
James was satisfied with their control by the 
bishops. As these were nominated by himself, he 
treated them simply as his tools in both Church 
and Parliament. They regarded themselves as 
peacemakers, and would do nothing to provoke 
further quarrel. 

6. Persecution of Catholics, — During these years 


the penal laws against Catholics were steadily 
enforced. James himself was prepared to allow 
their worship, but neither party in the Church 
would hear of such toleration. Moreover, in the 
Counter-Reformation the Catholic cause on the 
Continent was winning great successes, and for a 
time it looked as if the work of the Protestant 
Reformation would be undone. Catholics might 
refuse to acknowledge James as a heretic King. 
Thus, partly to defend himself and partly to please 
the Church, he kept the Courts active against them. 
There were still many Catholics in Scotland, espe- 
cially in the Highlands and the south-western 
districts. In Huntly's country and in Caithness 
and Sutherland wandering priests and Jesuits 
openly said Mass. Fines, imprisonment, and banish- 
ment were used to suppress the offenders. One 
Jesuit, named Ogilvie, was seized at Glasgow. He 
refused to deny the spiritual supremacy of the Pope 
over the King, and was hanged for treason (1615). 

7. The Statutes of lona (1610). — The Western 
Isles were still unsettled. The Campbells of 
Argyll were quietly absorbing the old possessions 
of the Macdonalds, such as Kintyre. This led to 
successive risings by the Clandonald of the South, 
whose centre was Islay, and these were usually 
suppressed by Argyll to his own profit. The 
Scottish Council determined to deal with the situa- 
tion on a large scale. A force of Scotch and 
English troops with a fleet assembled at Islay. It 
was commanded by Lord Stewart of Ochiltree, who 
was accompanied by x\ndrew Knox, Bishop of 
the Isles. They sailed to Mull, where the chiefs 


had been summoned to meet the Royal Commis- 
sioners. Invited on board one of the royal vessels, 
these found that they had been trapped. With its 
precious burden of Macdonalds, Macleans, Macleods, 
etc., the vessel sailed to Ayr, whence the chiefs were 
distributed as prisoners in several castles. Released 
under conditions, they again met the Bishop in con- 
ference in lona. There they entered into a bond 
of obedience to the King, and professed to accept 
' the true religion.' They also engaged to observe 
certain ' statutes ' or regulations now submitted. 
Churches were to be repaired, ministers obeyed, and 
their stipends regularly paid. The number of 
persons kept in the households of the chiefs was to 
be reduced. These with other ' idlers ' were the 
fighting * tail ' of the chiefs ; it was not the custom 
in the Highlands to employ in warfare the labourers 
on the land. Now no one was to be allowed to 
remain who could not support himself by some 
honest means. The wearing of arms was forbidden, 
as it had been on the Borders. And every chief 
and person of property was to send his eldest child 
to the Lowlands to be educated in English. In the 
following year the chiefs bound themselves to appear 
yearly before the Council. They were to be 
answerable for the good conduct of their clansmen 
and tenants. Later these statutes were renewed 
and extended. The chiefs were ordered to have 
fixed residences and take farms. All their children 
were to be sent to the Lowlands for their education. 
These ordinances, which aimed at removing the 
fighting ' idlers ' of the Isles and turning the chiefs 
into farmers, certainly had a good effect. But the old 


order changed slowly. The Campbells supplanted 
the Macdonalds in the South, and Islay, too, fell to 
their hands. They became the Government garrison 
in the West. Within a few years Cameron of Lochiel 
was almost the only Highland chief of importance still 
' lying out ' in disobedience to the royal authority. 

8. The Five Articles, — In 1617 James paid his one 
visit to his ancient kingdom. He visited the chief 
towns, and was everywhere received with extravagant 
rejoicings. William Drummond, an accomplished 
vScottish poet, welcomed him in his poem Forth 
Feasting as ' A King of wonder, wonder unto 
Kings !' But he troubled the plain Presbyterians 
by his elaborate Church services. He was now bent 
on introducing into the vScottish Church certain 
practices borrowed from England. To an Assembly 
which met at Perth in 1618 five ' Articles ' were 
submitted for acceptance. These were that the 
Communion should be taken kneeling ; that in certain 
cases the Communion or Baptism might be ad- 
ministered in private ; that young people should be 
confirmed by the Bishops ; and that the Church 
festivals, such as Christmas and Easter, should be 
' precisely observed.' James's high-handed methods 
moved even the bishops to offer resistance. But he 
declared that if the Articles were not passed he would 
impose them by his own authority. They were 
carried by a majority, and a few years later approved 
by the Estates on another ' Black Saturday ' in 
Scottish history (1621). 

9. Feeling against the Articles. — James had at last 
touched his northern subjects where they felt most 
sorely. To kneel at Communion was, in the 


teaching of Knox and his successors, merely a form 
I of idolatry. The Articles were ' the sound of the 
feet of Popery at the doors/ Worshippers refused 
to kneel as directed, and unseemly scenes took place 
at the services. Edinburgh set the example of 
popular resistance. On the festival days shops were 
kept open and the churches avoided. James 
stormed and threatened, but even the bishops were 
half-hearted in the business. The Court of High 
Commission suspended disobedient ministers. Bur- 
gesses who would not conform were imprisoned or 
removed from the town. Archbishop Spottiswoode 
dreaded the result of such extreme dealings. ' For 
our Church matters,' he wrote, ' they are gone 
unless another course be taken.' But James was 
not to be moved, and held his course till he died in 
1625. He had reigned over Scotland for fifty-eight 
years, the only one of his line for two hundred years 
who lived out his full term and died in peace. 

10. The Scot Abroad. — Scotland was still a poor 
country with few opportunities at home for her 
enterprising sons. With the Union, England was 
opened to them, and crowds of Scots followed their 
King to that country. He was pestered with de- 
mands for places and gifts. His favours to many 
of them made the Scots most unpopular with the 
English, who saw their old enemies enriched at 
their expense. 

' Bonny Scot, we all witness can 
That England hath made thee a gentleman.' 

The Scottish Privy Council had at last to forbid 
their countrymen crossing the Tweed without per- 


mission. But the pushful Scot had long been a 
famihar figure all over Europe. Wandering scholars 
and teachers went round the schools and Universities. 
Of such were George Buchanan, poet and latinist, 
and Andrew Melville. Scotch pedlars and mer- 
chants were everywhere — settled in towns or attend- 
ing the great fairs. Holland was full of them ; they 
were plentiful in Prussia ; but specially they 
flourished in Poland. In that wide country there 
was no native trading class, and the Scots supplied 
it. They numbered at the most quite 30,000 
persons. And this emigration had been going on 
since the end of the fifteenth century. The main 
cause was the poverty and poor chances of the home 
country. The oft-recurring famines, too, drove 
many abroad. Scotland was poorly cultivated, and 
lived from hand to mouth. Such a ' scarcity ' 
forced James VI on one occasion to command an 
emigration. The wars and religious troubles also 
made exiles. Then the clannish Scots, when com- 
fortably settled, sent for their relatives and friends 
to join them. Even lads of fifteen or seventeen 
crowded to the Prussian ports to seek the fortunes 
denied them at home. But an attempt to settle a 
New Scotland in North America between French 
Canada and New England was not successful. The 
name alone survives in Nova Scotia. There was 
a larger migration to the confiscated lands of the 
rebellious Irish chiefs in Ulster, where a thriving 
community of Scots and English displaced the 
native population. 

11. The Scots in the Thirty Years War. — In the 
great Continental wars adventurous Scots always 


found ready employment. The ' Scots Guard ' of 
France had, it is true, ceased to be Scottish, as with 
the Union the countries had drawn apart. There 
was, however, a strong Scots Brigade in the army of 
the young Dutch Repubhc. Sweden, Denmark and 
Russia, too, had their Scottish soldiers, many in high 
position. When the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) 
developed into a struggle between the Catholic and 
Protestant Princes of the German States, great 
numbers of Scots filled up the Protestant ranks. 
James and his successor Charles were involved in 
this war, and most of the men whom they furnished 
were from the northern kingdom. The levy of 
1626-1627 raised 12,000 men for foreign service. 
Almost as many were despatched a few years later. 
For most they were of decent but poor families, and 
were usually commanded by the younger sons of 
nobles and lairds, or, in the case of the Highlanders, 
by sons of the chiefs. Not a few, however, were 
idlers, ' masterless men,' and law-breakers, compelled 
to serve. Thus there were thirteen regiments of 
Scots under the great Protestant leader Gustavus 
Adolphus, King of Sweden, besides many officers 
in other regiments. There were few Scottish homes 
without a personal interest in the war. 

' First they took my brothers twain, 
Then wiled my love from me ; 
Oh, woe unto these cruel wars 
In low Germanie V 

The return of so many trained men to their own 
country was to be of the greatest importance in the 
years to come. 



PART I (1625-1638) 

1. The Country Unsettled, — To James VI succeeded 
his son Charles, a man of a very different type. He 
was dignified in appearance, and in manner retiring 
and silent. From his father he took over a war with 
Spain, as well as a share in the religious conflict in 
Germany, and to these he himself soon added a 
brief war with France. As the English Parliament 
gave him scanty supplies, Charles turned to Scot- 
land. There was no lack of men, as we have seen, 
but of money there was little to be got. The Estates 
had to plead ' the known poverty of the country by 
the calamity of some hard years.' Money had to 
be laid out, too, in maintaining a ' fleet ' of three 
ships, and fortifying the coast against a possible 
invasion from Spain. In a few years the Scottish 
exchequer was empty. And through the unsettle- 
ment of the wars Scottish commerce was suffering. 
For a time the profitable wine trade with France 
was stopped. Provisions were dear, and in certain 
years the export of victuals had to be forbidden. 
Meantime the magistrates of the towns still exercised 
control over the prices of goods. In Cupar, Fife, 
the craftsmen refused to sell at the prices which 
the magistrates put upon their boots and shoes : 
materials had grown dearer. The magistrates com- 
mitted them to prison. They appealed to the Privy 
Council, as Scotsmen in difficulties always did. But 
the Council upheld the action of the town officials, 


and sent the rebellious craftsmen back to prison till 
they should promise obedience. Later in the reign 
the Town Council of Edinburgh was being called 
upon to do something to keep down the prices of 
all sorts of articles in the town. Trade in Scotland 
was still in fetters. There was, too, the everlasting 
trouble about foreign coins and bad money. And 
there were fresh outbreaks of disorder in the 
Highlands among Gordons and roaming Mac- 
gregors, and on the Borders. Charks was too busy 
in the South to give these districts the constant 
attention which they needed. 

2. The Great Revocation. — Charles, too, held fast 
to his father's ideas about the royal supremacy, 
and he was . even more sincere in his interest in 
Church affairs. He was a devoted Episcopalian, 
believing that government of the Church by bishops 
was of Divine origin, just as Presbyterians believed 
the same thing about government by presbyteries. 
He opened his reign with a Revocation, ' the most 
ample that ever was made.' In one sweeping 
proclamation he revoked all gifts of Church lands as 
well as of teinds, or tithes, that had been made since 
the Reformation. At once there was commotion 
and indignation among the noble holders of such 
property. Charles fined down his Revocation to 
apply only to what had been first annexed to the 
Crown, and then granted out to its present posses- 
sors. These surrendered their rights with a bad 
grace. Charles's intentions were to recover for 
the Crown as much as he could of the old ecclesi- 
astical property, and to make a suitable provision 
for the Church. After proceedings which lasted 


over many years the nobles retained their lands on 
payment of certain rents to the Crown. Since the 
Reformation the Church had existed on what was 
left over by the State of a tax of one-third on the 
confiscated property. It was too little, and James 
had added a share of the teind. Now the whole of 
the teind was set aside for the support of the Church 
in the first instance, and those who lost thereby 
received compensation. The teind was valued at 
one-fifth of the rent. This settlement of the Church 
revenues prevented future troubles, and holds good 
to the present day. But Charles had lost the 
confidence of the nobles. They no longer felt secure 
in their gains, and became suspicious of every action 
of the King. The Revocation was said by a states- 
man of the time to be ' the ground-stone of all the 
mischief that followed after, both to this King's 
Government and family.' 

3. The Nobles and the Bishops. — The breach be- 
tween Charles and the Scottish nobles was further 
widened by his attempts to limit their rights as 
hereditary judges in their own domains, and still 
more by the preference he showed for the bishops. 
The prelates were not likely to oppose the royal will. 
Five of the thirteen were admitted to the Privy 
Council, and this number was afterwards increased 
to nine. Charles also wished them to be regarded, 
in the old fashion, as the First Estate of the Realm. 
The Scottish Primate, the Archbishop of St. Andrews, 
was to take higher place even than the Chancellor. 
At the Coronation ceremony the Chancellor, Lord 
Kinnoul, absolutely refused to allow this, saying 
that ' never a stoled priest in Scotland should set 


A. ManselieD^ Co. 

CHARLES I (160O-1649). 
From the poi'irait by Van Dyck in the Louvre, 


a foot before him as long as his blood was hot/ 
The blood of the Scottish nobles was usually hot. 
On KinnouFs death in 1635, Archbishop Spottis- 
woode was appointed Chancellor — the first church- 
man to hold that office in Scotland since the 

4. Charles in Scotland. — In June, 1633, Charles 
visited Scotland, and was crowned in the Abbey 
Church of Holyrood. The Scottish gentry spent 
more than they could afford in their patriotic efforts 
to outshine the King's brilliant train of Englishmen. 
Notable among these was Bishop Laud, the royal 
adviser in all religious matters. But even moderate 
Scotsmen were troubled in mind by the elaborate 
services and ceremonial adopted in the Abbey 
Church and in St. Giles's. There was ' great fear of 
inbringing of Popery,' the constant terror of the 
Scottish mind. Charles also presided at a meeting 
of Estates. The Lords of the Articles were chosen 
in such a way as to give the direction of business to 
the ' Episcopal and Court faction.' The nobles 
chose eight bishops, who in turn chose eight nobles. 
The prelates were not likely to select their unfriends, 
and they themselves were all King's men. These 
sixteen then chose the eight barons of the shires 
and the eight burgesses. Charles added as many 
of the royal officials, these having always sat in 
the Parliament in virtue of their office. The Act 
of Revocation was then approved, the royal supre- 
macy again affirmed, and power given to the King 1 
to prescribe a fitting dress for the clergy when en- j 
gaged in Divine service. Charles might have been : 
warned by the strong opposition which was shown, \ 


a new thing in a meeting of the Estates, but he 
would not hsten, and tried to overawe it. 

5. The Book of Canons and the Liturgy. — In fact, 
the King and Laud, now Archbishop of Canterbury, 
had one object in view — to secure a uniform manner 
of pubhc worship in all congregations, after the 
English model. First came a direction for the use 
of ' whites ' — that is, surplices — by the clergy. 
Charles v/as now acting entirely on the strength of 
his supreme power. His supporters in Scotland 
were the younger bishops who had been appointed 
by himself. On his own authority, too, he issued a 
Book of Canons, or ecclesiastical laws, which reim- 
posed the Articles of Perth with additions. All 
who ventured to oppose the royal will were to be 
excommunicated, and excommunication brought in 
its train the penalties of the law. Two years later 
(1637) appeared the promised Liturgy, or Book of 
Common Prayer, also issued solely on the royal 
warrant. It was to take the place of the Scottish 
Liturgy in use since the days of Knox, which was 
little more than a guide or model to be followed as 
the minister thought fit. The new Liturgy was 
framed on the English service-book, and was the 
work of some of the Scottish Bishops and of Laud. 
This at once brought it into evil repute. Laud was 
suspected of sympathy with Rome. The new 
Prayer-Book would just be the Mass over again. 
The Book of Canons had, even before it was pub- 
lished, threatened punishment to such as should 
refuse to accept it. The dreaded volume made its 
appearance in St. Giles's on July 23, 1638. It was 
met by an instant outbreak among ' the common 



people, especially the women/ A stool was thrown 
at the Dean's head.* The church was cleared of 
the rioters, and the service went on to the accom- 
paniment of breaking windows and beaten doors. 
The Bishop of Edinburghf and his friends were 
mobbed in the street ; there was plenty to throw 
at them, and the wrathful crowd did not spare. 
Similar feelings were shown elsewhere. In Glasgow 
the women were as ready for violence as their 
Edinburgh sisters. 

6. The National Covenant (1638). — All the varied 
dissatisfaction with Charles's rule now gathered 
round the Liturgy. The nobles, the Puritan clergy, 
and the mass of the people had found a bond 
of union. The Council was divided in its sympa- 
thies and helpless ; lords and bishops distrusting 
each other. The King, when appealed to, sent down 
vain proclamations. The Liturgy must be enforced, 
and the ringleaders of the riots punished. In return, 
petitions or ' supplications ' against the Service-Book 
poured in upon the Council. All blame and a.buse 
was heaped upon the bishops. They, it was said, 
had ' misinformed ' the King. Edinburgh was 
crowded with excited ' supplicants.' To attend to 
their interests they chose a body composed, after 
the model of the Lords of the Articles, of four 
members from each order — nobles, lairds, ministers, 
and burgesses. Charles in a fresh proclamation 
ordered the supplicants to cease from their actions, 
and disperse under pain of treason. The response 

* This is the action attributed by tradition to a certain 
Jenny Geddes. There were no pews in the churches. 
I Charles had recently made Edinburgh a bishopric. 



took the old Scottish form of a general band. The 
Covenant of 1581, which condemned all Catholic 
teaching and ceremonies, was revived, and to this 
additions were made, asserting that the late ' inno- 
vations and evils ' were ' contrary to the Articles of 
the foresaid Covenant,' and binding all who sub- 
scribed to resist them, and defend the ' true religion,' 
and to stand by each other in doing so. At the 
same time it was declared that there was no intention 
of doing anything to lessen the King's authority. 
The Covenant was m^ainly the work of an able lawyer, 
Archibald Johnstone, afterwards Lord Warriston. 
Written out on ' a fair parchment above an ell* 
square,' it was read to the assembled barons and 
gentry in the Old Greyfriars Church of Edinburgh 
on the afternoon of the last day of February, 1638, 
and signed by as many as could do so ere it became 
too dark. Next day 300 ministers added their 
names. Those who had ' doubts ' were brought 
over by the lords. The representatives of the burghs 
followed. Copies of the original document were 
then made, and sent far and wide over the country. 
Names poured in. So strong was public feeling 
that few couM venture to refuse to sign. Only in 
Aberdeen and Angus did the Covenant meet with 
opposition, and the clans of the west had no part 
in it. Otherwise the movement was a popular 
one in which the nobles took the lead. To the 
objection that bands had by many Acts of Parlia- 
ment been declared illegal, it was answered that 
this was ' not a private league of any degree of 
subjects among themselves, but a public covenant 

* The Scots yard. 


of the collective body of the kingdom with God, for 
God and the King/ The name 'supplicants' now 
gave place to ' Covenanters/ The bishops, except 
four, fled to England. 

7. An Assembly at Glasgow defies the King. — In 
face of a nation thus united Charles's stubborn 
attitude could not be maintained. He declared 
himself ready to yield on all points but the exist- 
ence of Episcopacy. To save the bishops he gave 
up the Liturgy. Parliament and a General Assembly 
were to be summoned. The Assembly, the first 
for twenty years, met towards the end of 1638 in 
the Cathedral of Glasgow. The Marquis of Hamil- 
ton attended as Royal Commissioner. The bishops 
entered a protest against the presence of laymen, - 
and because laymen had had the main share in the 
election of the ministers. It was thus not a proper 
ecclesiastical body. The debate ended in Hamilton 
dissolving the Assembly in the King's name. The 
members refused to leave, and continued the 
sittings. The Liturgy, the Book of Canons, the Five 
Articles of Perth, and the Court of High Com- 
mission were condemned, and all the bishops 


PART II (1639-1649) 

1. The First Bishops War (1639). — The action of 
the Assembly was, of course, a clear challenge to 
the King. Scotland had broken loose. Both sides 


had already begun to prepare for war. The 
Covenanters had secured a vahiable recruit in Field- 
Marshal Alexander Leshe of the Swedish service, 
' an old, crooked little soldier/ He was a relative 
of a leading Covenanter, the Earl of Rothes, and 
had introduced the Covenant to the Scottish 

White St. Andrew's Cross on blue ground. 

soldiers in Germany. As Gustavus was dead, and 
the war seemed to be near an end, large numbers 
of these came home. They now found employment 
in drilling the ' stout young ploughmen ' who formed 
the bulk of the Covenanting army. Blue was the 
Covenanting colour — blue caps and blue ribbons. 

* Jockey with his bonnet blue 
Both Crown and Sceptre would subdue.* 

So the case seemed to a Royalist ballad-maker in 
England, and to the King's party in general. Yet 


Charles had the greatest difficulty in collecting an 
army. Most of the English people were in sympathy 
with the Scots. In Scotland the Royalist leaders 
were the Marquis of Hamilton and the Earl of 
Huntly — who had been bred a Protestant — both 
half-hearted and incapable. The Covenanters got 
possession of the principal castles. Then, while the 
young Earls of Argyll and Montrose (James 
Graham), soon to be rival Marquises, watched 
Aberdeenshire and the West, Leslie led a splendid 
army to the Border. Charles, with the levies of 
the Northern counties untrained, starving, and 
mutinous, lay at Berwick. To fight the Scots was 
hopeless. Again Charles gave way, and a * Pacifica- 
tion ' was made. Both armies were to be dis- 
banded, and affairs in Scotland were to be settled 
by a new ParHament and a new General Assembly. 


2. A Revohitionary Parliament. — The Assembly 
met first, and as Charles had disowned ' the pre- 
tended Assembly ' of Glasgow, it ' acted over at a 
gallop ' all that had there been done. To save his 
royal rights Charles now sacrificed the bishops. 
The Parliament had thus to deal with the fact that 
there was no longer a ' spiritual Estate.* This would 
prove a serious loss of power to the Crown. Charles 
suggested the selection of an equal number of 
Presbyterian ministers ; Montrose that the Crown 
should nominate as many laymen. Both proposals 
were rejected, so that the majority of the Lords of 
the Articles fell to the barons of the shires and the 


burgesses, sixteen votes to eight. Charles, on the 
plea that the religious revolution was becoming 
political, and that ' the frame of government ' was 
being altered, prorogued the Parliament ' without its 
own consent,' which was contrary to custom. War 
had actually begun again when, in the summer of 
1640, the Parliament met without royal authority — 
being thus, strictly, but a Convention of the 
Estates. An Act was passed excluding churchmen 
from Parliament, and declaring the Three Estates 
to be Nobles, Barons, and Burgesses. Royal 
officials were deprived of their right to sit unless 
elected. The Lords of the Articles as such were 
abolished. Parliament was to meet at least once 
every three years. The laws in favour of Episco- 
pacy were repealed, and Presbyterian government 
of the Church restored. Finally, in agreement with 
an Act of the Assembly, it was commanded that the 
Covenant should be ' subscribed by all His Majesty's 
subjects of what rank and quality soever, under all 
civil pains.' So was accomplished what was rightly 
said to be ' the real greatest change at one blow 
that ever happened to this Church and State these 
600 years by-past.' Meantime a Committee of the 
Estates, known as the ' Conservators of Peace,' 
was chosen to exercise the powers of Parliament 
when not sitting. 

3. The Second Bishops War (1640). — To annul 
the Acts establishing Episcopacy did not suit 
Charles's intentions. His policy was to gain time 
until a change of public feeling should allow of the 
bishops being restored in accordance with these 
Act^. The appeal was again to the sword. General 



Munro, with an armed force, went north to compel 
the people of Aberdeen and the neighbourhood to 
sign the Covenant. Argyll did the same in Angus, 
Badenoch, and Lochaber. Leslie led a fresh army 
to the Border. Charles was penniless, and begging 
money from Spain and the Pope. His troops were 
a rabble. Leslie crossed the Tweed, Montrose 
entering the water first and leading his regiment 
across. Newcastle was occupied, and the coal- 
supply 01 London cut off. The presence of a 
victorious Scottish army served the purpose of the 
English Puritans. Charles was forced to summon 
the Long Parliament, which had him at its mercy. 
Laud was sent to the Tower, and in a few years to 
the block. All the demands of the Scots were 
granted. The English Royalists laid the blame of 
their defeat on the King's untrustworthy friends in 
Scotland — Hamilton, who looked first to his own 
' self-preservation,' and Huntly, a mere ' skulker,' 
with others who were Covenanters at heart. 

* We feared not the Scots Irom the Highland nor Lowland ; 
Though some of their leaders did craftily brave us, 
With boasting long service in Russia and Poland, 
And with their fierce breeding under Gustavus. 

Nor their tales of their Combats, more strange than Ro- 

Nor Sandy's screw'd Cannon* did strike us with wonder ; 
Nor their Kettle-Drums sounding before their long Lances, 
But Scottish Court-whispers struck surer than Thunder.' 

4. Charles in Scotland (1641). — The Scots had 
concluded their wars with full success just when 

* Light guns * of white iron tinned and done about with 
leather and corded,' introduced by Alexander Hamilton, a 
famous Scots artillerist. 


the King and his English ParUament were drawing 
towards a like struggle for supremacy. In the 
circumstances Charles thought that the Scots in 
gratitude would give him their support, or at least 
refrain from interference. He therefore went down 
to Scotland in 1641. There the Government was 
now wholly in the hands of the Estates under their 
new constitution, and Charles was met with a further 
demand that they should have a voice in the selec- 
tion of the royal officials. To this he could not but 
agree. The lands of the bishops had been mostly 
divided among the Covenanting leaders, who were 
thus repaid for the expense they had been put to 
in carrying on the war. Of these leaders Argyll 
was now the chief. Montrose was a prisoner in the 
Castle of Edinburgh. Ever since the Parliament of 
1640 he had been uneasy at the march of events. 
Bishops he cared not for, but the attacks on the 
royal power seemed to lead to the supremacy of 
the nobles associated with the Kirk. He himself 
was being overshadowed by Argyll. He had a vision 
of his own — a ' temperate Government ' with the 
impossible Charles at its head. Having entered 
into correspondence with the King, which was a 
breach of the Covenant, he with some friends was 
sent to prison. Charles, however, failed to set the 
Scots against England, while by the favour he 
showed to the Covenanters he displeased his friends. 
A rising in Ireland suddenly called him away. He 
had created Argyll a Marquis and old Leslie Earl 
of Leven, and secured the release of Montrose and 
his comrades. But he left the Covenanting party 
masters of Scotland. 


Fi'oin the original in the possession of /he Duke of Argyll. 



5. The Solemn League and Covenant (1643) . — When 
Charles refused to hand over to Parhament the 
control of the militia, the military forces of England, 
the Civil War broke out. Both sides made an appeal 
to the vScots for aid. They had no further cause of 
quarrel with the King, but a new prospect was now 
opened up. The Long Parliament abolished Episco- 
pacy. To the Scottish Presbyterians this was the 
dawn of a ' new reformation ' — that is, the establish- 
ment of their own Presbyterian system in the sister 
kingdoms. They were to force their Church upon 
England, who had taken up arms because the 
English Church was being forced on themselves. 
Moreover, the past tactics of Charles had convinced 
them that his success in England would mean the 
restoration of the old state of things in Scotland. 
It was known, too, that the loyal Montrose was 
pressing on Charles a proposal to raise a Scottish 
army on his behalf. But Montrose was regarded 
by the English Royalists as an adventurer, and his 
advice was not followed. A Convention of the 
Estates met, and, supported by the General 
Assembly, concluded with the English Parliament a 
treaty known as the Solemn League and Covenant. 
Its chief value for the Scots was that it provided 
for ' the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of 
England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, discipline, 
and government, according to the Word of God and 
the example of the best reformed Churches,' with 
' the extirpation of Popery, Prelacy,' and all other 
differences in religion. This they read to mean the 



From the p07' trait in the possession of Lord Panmure: 


full adoption of Scottish Presbyterianism. The new 
Covenant all Scots, again, were to sign under threat 
of punishment for refusal. In terms of the League 
a Scottish army under the Earl of Leven and his 
nephew, David Leslie, marched into England, and 
by helping to win the Battle of Marston Moor (1644), 
in Yorkshire, ruined the King's cause, where it was 
strongest, in the North. 

6. The Year of Montrose (1644-1645). — In Scot- 
land, however, that cause now flashed up in a brief 
but brilliant career of success. Charles at last gave 
a free hand to Montrose, now a Marquis. He was 
joined at Perth by a roving force of 1,200 Mac- 
donalds from Ireland, mostly of Highland descent. 
With their help he defeated the Covenanting army 
at Tippermuir. His hope was in the Gordons, but 
the jealous Huntly would have nothing to do with 
him, and few of his clan took the field. Another 
defeat of the Covenanters at Aberdeen left that 
city open to a merciless sacking by the Irish. The 
opening of the new year found the Macdonalds in 
the heart of Argyll's country, harrying the Campbells, 
the old enemies of their clan. At Inverlochy they 
cut to pieces the army of the un warlike Earl. The 
chances of plunder brought to Montrose's side many 
of the local Macdonalds, Camerons, and homeless 
Macgregors ; and fear of him, the wavering Earl of 
Seaforth* (Mackenzie), who had taken the Covenant. 
Victories at Auldearn, Alford, Dundee, and Kilsyth 
destroyed the Covenanting resistance. Montrose's 

* Seaforth, however, reverted on the advance of the 
Covenanting army and fought against Montrose at Auld- 
earn. Finally he settled down as a Royalist. 


rapid success had been due to his swiftness of move- 
ment, his readiness on the field of battle, and the 
blunders of the Generals opposed to him. But the 
Highlanders who had been his strength were also 
his weakness. They retired with the plunder, which 
was their pay. The Macdonalds visited Cantyre to 
pay off other old scores on the Campbells. Montrose 
went south on the strength of promises from the 
Border Royalists, the Earls of Home and Roxburgh. 
They played him false. Leven sent up from England 
4,000 mounted men under General David Leslie. 
On a misty September morning they surprised 
Montrose with about a fourth of their number at 
Philiphaugh, near Selkirk, and inflicted a total 
defeat (1645). The campaign had been marked by 
much cruelty on both sides. The Irish gave no 
quarter : ' they killed men ordinarily with no more 
feeling of compassion, and with the same careless 
neglect that they kill a hen or a capon for supper.' 
The defeats of the Covenanting armies had been 
massacres. In return the Estates had put a price 
on the head of Montrose. After Philiphaugh the 
helpless camp-followers, mainly women and children, 
were butchered by Leslie's soldiers. The Irish 
prisoners suffered the same fate. The captured 
officers were hanged at Edinburgh ; and the Mac- 
donalds, caught in the fortress of Dunaverty, 
Kirityre, were forced to surrender, and slain to a 
man. Montrose was allowed to retire to the 
Continent, but he had made himself the best-hated 
man in Scotland. 

7. Charles with the Scottish Army. — Three months 
before Philiphaugh the Royalist army in England 


had suffered a crushing defeat at Naseby. Soon 
no army was left. Again Charles turned to the 
Scots. Disguised as a groom, he rode into their 
camp at Newark, only to find himself a prisoner. 
Negotiations were opened between the King and 
the English and Scots Commissioners. But Charles 
-would not give up the Church of England or the 
^control of the militia, both of which he regarded as 
necessary to the monarchy. Nor would he sign the 
Covenant whereby he would justify the Scottish 
* rebellions/ and ' lay a foundation for such pas- 
times in time to come.' But without the establish- 
ment of Presbyterianism in England the Scots 
would not support him, ready as they were to do so. 
No agreement was possible. The Scottish army 
was paid for its services in England, and the 
King was transferred to the representatives of the 
English Parliament. ' Sold their King for a groat ' 
was how the deed was described by the Royalists. 

8. The Engagement (1648). — Charles's hopes re- 
vived with the quarrel that now developed between 
the Parliament and the victorious army under Oliver 
Cromwell, the greatest cavalry soldier of modern 
times. The army was composed mainly of ' Inde- 
pendents,' who wished that all, except Catholics, 
should be allowed to worship as they pleased. The 
Parliament would establish a Presbyterian Church, 
not, however, in the independent Scottish form, 
but subject to its own control. The Scots de- 
clared that the Covenant had not been observed, 
and a reaction began in favour of the King. A 
secret agreement was made with him at Carisbrooke 
Castle by three Scottish commissioners, of whom 



the chief was the Earl of Lauderdale, a descendant 
of the House of Maitland of Thirlestane and Queen 
Mary's secretary. The others were the Lord Chan- 
cellor the Earl of Loudoun, and the Earl of Lanark, 
Hamilton's brother-in-law. The Covenant was to 
be confirmed by Act of Parliament, and so made 
legal, and Presbyterianism was to be tried in England 
for three years. The Scots on their side were to 
send an army to restore the King. Though the 
Assembly fiercely opposed this ' Engagement ' as a 
violation of the Covenant, the elections gave the 
Engagers a majority in the Estates. Hamilton 
triumphed over Argyll. A fresh army was raised, 
the Kirk doing its best to keep back men from 
joining. A poorly-equipped force with quarrelsome 
leaders, commanded by the incapable Duke of 
Hamilton, entered England to aid the King in the 
Second Civil War, At Preston it was cut up by 
Cromwell's dragoons, and chased, distracted, powder- 
less, and starving, back to Scotland. There the 
Western Covenanters, now known as Whiggamores, 
or Whigs, had risen to support the Church. They 
occupied Edinburgh and Stirling. Argyll and the 
two Leslies put themselves at their head. Hamil- 
ton was Cromwell's prisoner. The Committee of 
Estates gave in, and the remnant of the army of the 
Engagement was disbanded. 

9. The Kirk Supreme. — Thus the Kirk and the 
Assembly had triumphed. Cromwell entered Edin- 
burgh with a body of horse, which he left for the 
protection of the Anti-Engagers. His understand- 
ing with the party of Argyll and Warriston was that 
all supporters of the King should be excluded from 


office. There was no other way of dommating the 
country. The Engagement had shown a serious 
division in the Covenanting ranks. Even ministers 
had revolted, and all who had refused to preach 
against that undertaking were now deposed and 
forced from their livings. A ' Whiggamore Parlia- 
ment/ which few nobles attended, passed the 
Act of Classes (1649). The Engagers, or Royalists, 
or ' Malignants,' were divided into three ' classes/ 
and these were excluded from Parliament and all 
offices of State or public trust of any sort — the 
leaders permanently, the others for ten or five 
years, according to the extent of their offence. No 
one was in any case to be admitted without first 
satisfying the Church. Patronage, or the right of 
the landowner to appoint a minister, was also 
abolished, and the election given to presbyteries and 
congregations. The Act of Classes brought even 
the proud nobles to their knees. Most of them 
were only too eager to profess their repentance in 
public, and be reconciled with the Church. Chan- 
cellor Loudoun went through this ordeal in tears 
before an Edinburgh congregation. The churches 
were crowded with ' mock penitents ' of humbler 
station. This humiliation was not to be forgotten. 
But all eyes soon turned on England, where a 
Scottish Sovereign was again undergoing a trial 
before a special court. On January 30, 1649, 
Charles was executed in front of Whitehall Palace, 
under protest from the Scottish Commissioners 
against a peace having ' its foundation laid in 
the blood of the King.' Some months later the 
Duke of Hamilton suffered the same fate, and in 

19 — 2 


Scotland the Marquis of Huntly was beheaded in 

10. The Westminster Assembly. — The struggle 
against a roydl despotism had left Scotland with a 
more powerful Parliament than had ever existed in 
its history, and an even more powerful General 
Assembly. There was one other more lasting 
result. Since the days of the Solemn League an 
Assembly of Divines, with some Scottish members, 
had sat at Westminster preparing articles which 
should set forth the Puritan doctrine. This was 
embodied in a Confession of Faith, and the ' Larger ' 
and ' Shorter ' Catechisms, which were adopted by 
the General Assembly in 1647, ratified by the 
Estates two years later, and remain to this day in 
national use. The popularity of these writings and 
of the revised English version of the Bible completed 
the work of destroying the old Scots as a literary 
language. Scots became a dialect left to poets and 
the poor. 



1- The Scots Proclaim Charles IL — It took five 
days for the news of the King's execution to reach 
Edinburgh. So ended the brief alliance between 
Independents and Anti-Engagers. In England the 
Army ruled, in Scotland the Kirk. But the Coven- 
anters had always protested their loyalty, and did 
not wish to give up the monarchy, which the English 
Parliament presently abolished. On February 5 
Prince Charles was therefore proclaimed King at the 


Cross of Edinburgh. He was an exile in Holland, 
and had not yet completed his nineteenth year — 
' a tall man, above two yards high, with hair a deep 
brown near to black/ But the Scots accepted him 
as King only on condition that he should swear to 
the Covenants and establish Presbyterianism in 
the three kingdoms. These terms at first Charles 
refused. The Catholic Irish had joined with the 
Royalists there against the Puritan Commonwealth, 
and by their aid he hoped to secure his throne. 
Moreover, Montrose held out hopes of a purely 
Royalist rising in Scotland. But in a short time 
Cromwell stamped out the Irish resistance. There- 
upon Charles again opened negotiations with the 
Scots. Montrose however was allowed to go on 
with his preparations. He was to be used to 
frighten the Covenanters into moderating their 
demands. It was a hopeless mission. The Scottish 
Royalists were not likely to take risks for a King 
who at any moment might come to terms with their 
enemies. And he did. On May i, 1650, Charles 
signed the draft agreement at Breda, in which he 
accepted the Covenants, and agreed to the establish- 
ment of Presbyterianism. Thus again he damped 
the enthusiasm of his supporters in England, who 
were, of course, Episcopalians. 

2. The Fate of Montrose. — Meantime Montrose, 
with some foreign soldiers, had landed at Kirkwall 
in the Orkneys, a safe base as the Covenanters had 
no fleet. His friends, having gone before him, 
had raised 700 of the natives, who had little heart 
in the cause. With these troops Montrose landed 
at Thurso, and marched south, expecting to be 


joined by the Mackenzies and the Gordons. But 
he got no recruits on his march. The Earl of 
Sutherland was a Covenanter, and the towns and 
strong places were garrisoned against the Royalists. 
Leslie was hurrying north, and to avoid his cavalry 
Montrose struck into the hills. At Carbisdale, near 
the head of the Dornoch Firth, he was surprised by 
Colonel Strachan with a small body of horse sup- 
ported by Munros and Rosses, both Covenanting 
clans. His little force was scattered by half its 
number, and Montrose took to the heather, and 
fled westwards in peasant's clothes. After a few 
days of hardship he was captured and brought 
south, wrapped in a brown plaid, and riding, with 
tied feet, a Shetland pony on a saddle of rags and 
straw. His enemies did not spare his feelings, but 
they could not break his spirit. He had no friends. 
His fate was fixed ; he was already a proclaimed 
traitor. He was hanged at Edinburgh, and his 
head stuck on a new spike on the Tolbooth. His 
limbs were bestowed among the four chief towns. 
Three weeks before Charles had signed the agreement 
of Breda. 

3. Charles in Scotland, — But the efforts of the 
young King to make easier for himself the hard 
conditions of the Covenanters nearly ended the 
negotiations. At last, on his way across, Charles 
made a complete surrender, binding himself also to 
enforce the penal laws against the Catholics who 
had fought for him, and to dismiss the greater part 
of his personal following who were mere Royalists. 
Before he landed at Speymouth he took the oath 
to observe the Covenants. It was next ordered by 


the Estates that all his friends, Royalists and 
Engagers, should leave vScotland, except nine, 
among whom were the new Duke of Hamilton and 
the Earl of Lauderdale. Nothing was left undone 
to check the very thing Charles hoped for — a rismg 
on his behalf independent of the Scottish Govern- 
ment. When he reached Leslie's army at Leith the 
soldiers showed such enthusiasm for the young 
King that he was at once hurried away to Dunferm- 
line. A Commission had already been appointed 
to ' purge ' the army of the Covenant by weeding 
out all who had shared in the Engagement or were 
unsatisfactory in character. These now expelled 
from the ranks 80 officers and more than 3,000 

4. Leslie Outmanoeuvres Cromwell. — While these 
' purgings ' were on hand the first blows of the 
campaign had been struck. Oliver Cromwell led 
the army of the Commonwealth, which numbered 
about 16,000 men. For provisions he had to rely 
upon his fleet, as the Eastern Lowlands had been 
cleared of food, and even the Scots outside the 
army were soon starving. Cromwell had to feed 
them too. His plan was to occupy some port where 
his ships could lie in safety. But when he moved 
to seize Leith he found the Covenanting army, 
over 20,000 strong, entrenched in his way, with 
the skilful veterans, the old Earl of Leven and 
David Leslie, at its head — the latter really being in 
command. He was forced to retreat first to Mussel- 
burgh, where the harbour was unsuitable, and then 
to Dunbar. He now entered into correspondence 
with the Com.mission of the Assembly, taunting 


them as Covenanters with supporting the greatest 
of all the ' mahgnants ' — Charles himself. Stung 

Emery Walker. 

Fro7n a pai7iii7io in the. National Poi'trait Galleiy, London. 

by this ' blasphemous letter/ as they called it, the 
Commission insisted upon the King signing a 


declaration in which he expressed repentance not 
only for his own shortcomings, but also for the 
wrong-doing of his father and the ' idolatry ' of his 
mother. Unless he did so, he was told, neither 
Church nor army would support him. Charles 
signed, and this was Cromwell's answer. The 
English leader, abandoning hopes of Leith, now tried 
to reach Queensferry. But every movement was 
blocked by Leslie in a strong position. Though 
there was some skirmishing, Cromwell could not bring 
on a general engagement. Both sides were suffering 
from sickness and lack of food, and at last the 
baffled Cromwell had to hurry back again to his 
ships at Dunbar. He was closely followed by the 
Scots, who barred the road to Berwick, and from 
Doon Hill looked down on the English army cornered 
at Dunbar behind Brock's Burn. 

5. Dunbar Drove (1650). — For two days the armies 
watched each other. Cromwell had lost many men 
through sickness, and his force was but half the 
number of that of Leslie, who had received northern 
reinforcements. But the ' purging ' was still doing 
its foolish work. On the very day before the fight 
many officers had been removed from their regiments 
and young unknown men appointed. The clergy 
and their supporters, too, were demanding the 
destruction of the ' sectaries.' A council of war 
decided that an attack should be made. Leslie 
seems to have feared that Cromwell might slip 
through his fingers. He might fortify Dunbar ; 
there was a rumour that he was shipping his men 
and heavy guns. On the Monday afternoon, to the 
dehght of Cromwell, the Scots were seen to be 


moving downwards from the right to the more level 
ground. Leslie intended a surprise ; it was himself 
who was surprised. Night came on with torrents of 
rain. Many Scottish officers strayed away to seek 
shelter. The men, drenched and hungry, huddled 

The Battle of 


From C. H. Firth's ' Oliver CromwelV [Putnam s Sons). 

under the corn-stooks. But through the rain and 
darkness Cromwell moved up men and guns to the 
steep banks of the Burn, himself directing the 
dangerous operation from ' a little Scots nag,' and 
in his nervous anxiety ' biting his lip till the blood 


ran down his chin without his perceiving it/ Ere 
daybreak the regiments were across, and driving 
in the Scottish left. But this was only a feint : 
Cromweirs plan was to destroy the Scottish cavalry 
on the right, and then roll in the centre and left 
between the hill and the burn. After one repulse he 
succeeded. The crowded ranks of the Scots were 
thrown into confusion, and confusion was turned 
to flight. Some of Leslie's infantry made a brave 
stand till they were ridden down. The new officers 
had not stood by their men. Then the sun rose 
from the sea to throw its first beams on the slope 
covered with Scottish fugitives. ' Let God arise, 
and let His enemies be scattered !' exclaimed Crom- 
well as he pressed on the pursuit. He had lost but 
few men. Thousands of Scots fell, and 10,000 
were prisoners. These were marched south to be 
shipped to the plantations in the English colonies. 
They could not be supplied with sufficient food, 
and at Morpeth they ate the raw cabbages in 
the gardens. Of this meal many died. Little 
more than half reached New England. They were 
bound as serfs to the colonists for a few years, 
then became free, and settled down in their new 

6. Remonstrants, or Protesters, and Resolutioners. — 
The defeat at Dunbar was the defeat of the policy 
of the Kirk and Argyll. ' Surely,' wrote Cromwell, 
' it's probable the Kirk has done their do.' Division 
at once appeared. While the wreck of the Scottish 
army gathered itself together at Stirling the Whigga- 
more portion under Colonel Ker retired to the West 
to raise fresh troops. These extreme Covenanters 


had as their leaders Sir Archibald Johnstone of 
Warriston, and James Guthrie, minister of Stirling. 
From Dumfries they issued a Remonstrance against 
the present Government, refusing to acknowledge 
Charles as King, as he was not honestly a Covenanter. 
They were, of course, right in this belief. Charles 
had taken the Covenants because there was no other 
way open to him, but he had no intention of observ- 
ing them further than it served his interests. His 
tongue had sworn, his heart was unsworn. In the 
north, again, there was a Royalist rising under 
Colonel Middleton. But General Lambert broke up 
the Whiggamore army at Hamilton. The outcome 
was an alliance between the moderate Covenanters 
and the Royalists, including those now in arms. 
While the Remonstrants demanded that the Act of 
Classes should be strictly enforced, the Estates 
passed a series of resolutions the effect of which 
was to undo that Act, and admit to Parliament and 
the army those who had been excluded thereby 
after satisfying the Church. The main thing at 
present was to unite the nation under its King. 
Charles was crowned at Scone on January i, 1651, 
Argyll placing the crown upon his head. On the 
same day the restored Earl of Lauderdale was sworn 
a Covenanter. Later the excommunicated Middle- 
ton did penance in sackcloth in a Dundee church. 
The Estates next repealed the Act of Classes entirely. 
These proceedings were approved by the General 
Assembly under protest from the Remonstrants, 
who now came to be known as Protesters, The 
majority, having accepted the resolutions admitting 
the ' Malignants,' were styled Resolutioners, The 


\ strength of the Protesters was in the south-western 

7. The Scots Invade England. — Charles himself now 
assumed ' the conduct of the army/ with Leslie and 
Middleton as his chief commanders. Cromwell 
having defeated a Scottish force at Inverkeithing, 
where the warrior Macleans were cut to pieces, seized 
Perth. Thereupon the Scots marched south and 
entered England, hoping to bring about a Royalist 
rising there. Few joined them. The Scots were 
mistrusted, and there was no enthusiasm for a 
Covenanted King who had bound himself to force 
Presbyterianism upon the country, and sworn that 
' he will have no enemies but the enemies of the 
Covenant, and that he will have no friends but the 
friends of the Covenant.' The English people rallied 
against him instead of for him. Meantime Crom- 
well and Lambert had hurried after the Scots, and 
at Worcester, on September 3, 1651, the anniversary 
of Dunbar Drove, the Royalist army, after a stiff 
contest, was defeated and dispersed. Charles had 
fought bravely, and narrowly escaped. After some 
adventures he reached a fishing village and sailed 
to France. He said he ' would rather have been 
hanged ' than go back to Scotland. Leslie and 
Lauderdale were captured, and sent to the Tower. 
Middleton, by the help of Sir James Turner, also 
managed an escape, and the two joined the King 
abroad. Argyll, no longer in power, had been 
excused from following the army to the disaster at 

8. The Subjugation of Scotland. — To complete the 
work of subduing Scotland Cromwell had left 


behind him General Monk, who had begun his career 
as a Royahst officer. Leilh, Edinburgh, and Perth 
were already in his hands, and vStirling was soon 
added. Then the Committee of Estates was seized 
at Alyth, and thus the sole governing body left in 
Scotland was swept from the board. Dundee was 
captured, and as it had been taken by assault the 
soldiers, according to the custom of war, were 
allowed to plunder it for twenty-four hours. Aber- 
deen and Inverness made no resistance, and a garri- 
son was planted even in distant Kirkwall. The 
western towns and fortresses fell in the same way. 
Monk's colonels established garrisons in every 
corner of the country. Never, not even under 
Edward I, had Scotland been so reduced. The two 
years' war had cost her 40,000 of her best sons, slain 
or in captivity. Her nobles had been forced to 
make terms, or were in prison, or were lurking in 
the Highlands, or had fled abroad. An English 
force which ' rambled and scrambled ' through 
Argyllshire compelled the doubtful Marquis to 
submit to the Commonwealth. Only the ' Honours ' 
were safe — the crown, the sceptre, and the sword of 
State, the lone symbols of independence. They 
had been carried into Dunnottar Castle, the last 
Lowland fortress held for the King. Before its 
fall the ' Honours ' were smuggled out in a bag of 
flax on a woman's back, and buried under the floor 
of a neighbouring church. By the end of 1652 
it was said of Scotland that ' all things at present 
are in a strange kind of hush.' 

9. Union with England. — After Worcester the 
first intention of the English Parliament was simply 


to annex Scotland and abolish the name. This idea 
was given up, and the country was placed under 
eight English Commissioners, afterwards under a 
Council of vState which included some Scots. In 
place of the Estates, Scotland was to be given thirty 
representatives in the English House of Commons. 
The negotiations regarding this Parliamentary 
Union dragged on for five years, while Cromwell dis- 
missed one Parliament after another. The Scots 
took little interest or share in the business, but in 
1657 the Act of Union was completed. A more 
important fact was the suspension of the Court of 
Session, whose place was taken by Commissioners 
of Justice, most of them Englishmen. Thereafter 
the * hereditary jurisdictions ' of the barons were 
abolished, and local courts set up-. The results 
were all for good. Clean justice had been almost 
unknown in Scotland, where no well-born judge 
could ' see a cousin or friend in the wrong.' The 
English judges tempered the harsh Scots law with 
mercy. Death was still the punishment for stealing 
a cow, a horse, or , a sheep. Such capital crimes the 
Commissioners preferred to punish with fines or 
flogging, and even these sentences were not always 
fully carried out. During the stern rule of the 
Kirk, too, smaller offences had been severely dealt 
with. In 1650 much lying and cheating had been 
' detected ' by the Lords of Session, ' for the which 
there was daily hanging, scourging, nailing of ears 
and binding of people to the tron,* and boring of 
tongues.' And the inhuman torturing of witches 
revolted even Englishmen who believed in such 

* Weighing machine. 


people. The policy of the Commonwealth was to 
curb the great men and the clergy, and win over 
the middle class and the ill-used peasantry. The 
price of ' incorporation ' with England was to be 
free trade with that country and its colonies, and 
easier rents for the farmers. But the war had to 
be paid for, and the army of occupation supported. 
For these purposes a tax was imposed, which proved 
a monstrous burden, and had to be reduced by half. 
The estates of the leading Royalist nobles were con- 
fiscated and divided among the officers and officials. 
Others were placed under heavy fines. Still the 
greater part of the cost of administration had to 
be paid by England. In religion there was freedom 
of worship for all, and even army officers of different 
sects preached to congregations. To such liberties 
the Church was entirely opposed. But it was 
hopelessly divided by the bitter quarrels of Reso- 
lutioners and Protesters, and in 1653 the General 
Assembly was turned out of doors by Colonel 
Lilburne and his soldiers. ' As for the embodying 
of Scotland with England,' said a learned minister 
and historian, ' it will be as when the poor bird is 
embodied into the hawk that hath eaten it up.' 

10. A Rising in the Highlands (1653-1654). — One 
reason why the General Assembly had been sup- 
pressed was that the Resolutioners, w^ho were the 
great majority, still clung to their covenanted King, 
and that another general rising was taking shape. 
The Commonwealth was at war with Holland, and 
Dutch aid was looked for. In fear of the Dutch 
fleet the posts on the islands were strengthened. 
Colonel Cobbett visited the Western Isles, and left 


garrisons in some of the ancient fastnesses of the 
chiefs. In the north the Earl of Glencairn took 
the command for Charles. His most active sup- 
porters were Glengarry with his Macdonalds, and 
Lochiel, chief of the Camerons. These were joined 
by other northern clans. Parties of loyal Borderers 
were constantly slipping north. Lord Lorne, with a 
following of Campbells, broke off from his father 
the Marquis of Argyll, who was acting in the English 
interest and yet trying to keep on good terms with 
the King. The English garrisons were constantly 
harassed. But personal and clan quarrels broke out 
among the leaders of the rising. Early in 1654 
arrived General Middleton with Charles's com- 
mission, to find only a divided and unfit little army, 
and ' a strange miscarried business.' The close of 
the Dutch War set free General Monk, who came to 
Scotland to proclaim Cromwell as Protector, and 
settle the insurrection. He soon cut off Middleton's 
communications with the Lowlands. Then he 
marched north, wasting the country as he went, 
while Middleton retreated before him into the 
remoter Highlands. But over untrodden ways 
Monk pressed hard at his heels. He reached 
Inverlochy, then passed up the Great Glen, and 
crossed to Kintail, ravaging the districts of the 
chief Royahst clans. He had made his way back 
to Inverness when he heard that Middleton was in 
Argyllshire. The Royalists were caught in retreat 
by Colonel Morgan at the Pass of Dalnaspidal, 
where the road over the Grampians leads down to 
Inverness-shire, and easily routed. This really 
ended the rising, though irregular fighting went on 



for a little time. The Highlands were bridled with 
forts great and small. An extensive ' citadel ' had 
already risen at Inverness, built from the ruined 
cathedrals and rehgious houses in the neighbour- 
hood. A fort was raised at the head of Loch Ness, 
and a ship-of-war with four guns was dragged 
overland, and launched on the loch. Another 
garrison at Inverlochy watched the Camerons and 
the western clans. In all about twenty-eight forti- 
fied posts dotted Scotland from Ayr to Kirkwall. 
The chiefs soon made their submission. Monk's 
successful way of dealing with the Highlands was 
the model for after days. 

11. End of the Commonwealth. — Meantime Scotland 
groaned under a heavy burden of taxation. The 
districts in which were the great garrisons, however, 
profited by the money they spent, especially Inver- 
ness. In Edinburgh, as in Leith, the magistrates 
were compelled to impose some useful rules. The 
inhabitants were ordered to hang out lanterns with 
candles at their windows or doors from six till nine 
at night. The streets and closes were to be cleaned 
regularly. No one was to presume to throw filth or 
water from their windows — a lovable old Edinburgh 
custom, not to be given up so soon. Everywhere 
the soldiers were kept under strict discipline. 
Highlands and Borders ceased from troubling. The 
' tories* and robbers ' of the Highlands and the 
mounted ' moss-troopers ' of the Borders, whose 
daring thefts had been a feature of the troubles, 
were put down with an unrelaxing hand. Life and 
property were made secure to an extent such as had 

* An Irish name for banditti, or highwaymen. 


been rarely known before. Oliver Cromwell died 
towards the end of 1658, and the succession of his 
son Richard to the Protectorate made no change in 
Scotland. It had been too thoroughly cowed. But 
in England Richard proved a failure. Monk, 
supplied with funds by a Convention of Estates, 
led his army to London, and secured the restoration 
of Charles (1660). With mutual regret in many 
quarters the garrisons were withdrawn. But even- 
handed justice, reviving trade, and a pacified country 
could not make up to a proud nation for the loss of 
its long-cherished independence ; and the Church of 
the Covenants was unreconciled. 


PART I (1660-1680) 

1. The Restoration Government, — The Restoration of 
Charles sent Scotland ' frantic' with joy. To have 
the ' auld Stewarts ' back again pleased the national 
sentiment. On a day of public thanksgiving the 
spouts of the Cross of Edinburgh ran with claret, 
and the streets were strewn with the fragments of 
hundreds of broken glasses. The exiled and im- 
prisoned nobles returned home, all of them heavily 
in debt, and eager to recover their losses. Charles's 
first step was to appoint a Privy Council without 
summoning the Estates, who as yet had a right to 
be consulted in the appointment. The almost 
bankrupt Earl of Glencairn was made Chancellor. 

20 — 2 


The Earl of Rothes became Treasurer, and Lauder- 
dale Secretary of State. General Middleton, now 
an Earl, was presently appointed High Com- 
missioner representing the King. They were a 
company worthy of their King. Big, burly Lauder- 
dale, with red hair and a tongue too large, 
' which made him bedew all that he talked to,' 
was so coarse in conversation and manners as to 
disgust even Charles himself. Yet he had occupied 
his ten years' imprisonment in making himself a 
remarkable scholar. Both Charles and Lauderdale 
again had to reprove Rothes for his unexampled 
powers of drinking. Middleton was of an ancient 
family, but so poor that he had begun his career 
as a pikeman in the Thirty Years' War. His chief 
anxiety was to enrich himself. The members of 
Council, as a whole, were such that Charles declared 
many of their acts to be the ' acts of madmen or 
of men continually drunk.' No whit better and 
entirely corrupt were the new judges. On the 
other hand, Argyll, on going up to London, was 
arrested, tried before Parliament for ' compliance ' 
with the Government of Cromwell, and executed. 
Mr. James Guthrie was similarly disposed of, and 
the same fate befell Johnstone of Warriston on his 
capture two years later (1663). 

2. The Restoration Parliament and Episcopacy. — 
The Parliament which met in 1661 and continued 
for three years, showed itself submissive to the 
King's wishes. It restored to the King the sole 
right of selecting the officers of State. It imposed 
an oath on all public officials declaring the King 
' supreme Governor of this kingdom over all persons 


and in all causes/ One Act annulled the Whigga- 
more Parliament of 1649, and another all public 

A ugitstin R ischgitz. 

From an engravi7ig of the painting by Sir Peter Lely. 

Acts passed between 1640 and 1648. Charles was 
voted an annual grant of £40,000, a sum quite 


beyond the ability of the country to pay. In the 
following year Episcopacy was formally restored, 
and the bishops admitted to Parliament. Patron- 
age, too, was restored, and ministers otherwise 
appointed were ordered to be properly presented 
and approved by the bishops. The Covenants were 
declared unlawful, and all persons holding public ap- 
pointments were required to take an oath renouncing 
them, and declaring any resistance to the King 
to be a crime. Those who spoke or worked against 
the royal supremacy or the Episcopal government 
were to be held guilty of treason. In the closing 
session the form of electing the Lords of the Articles 
which had been used in 1633 was adopted, placing 
the real power in the hands of the bishops (see 
Chapter XXVI, § 4). A standing army was raised. 
Finally an Act, known as the ' Bishops' Drag-net,' 
I made subject to fines all who failed to attend church. 
Parliament then dissolved, and the work of carrying 
out the new constitution was left to the Privy 
Council and its officers. But ere the third session of 
Parliament had met, Middleton and Lauderdale had 
quarrelled, and Lauderdale, who had the ear of the 
King and of the King's lady friends, brought about 
the dismissal of his rival and the appointment of 
Rothes as High Commissioner. An Act of Fines 
to be laid upon such as had accepted the Common- 
wealth, had been secured by Middleton, and applied 
so as to provide money for himself and Royalist 
friends. This Lauderdale caused to be repealed 
after Middleton's fall, but it was revived later by 
royal proclamation. 

3. Results of these Measures, — It thus seemed as 


if the work of the last twenty years had been 
undone. Yet not all. The restored Lords of the 
Articles were not all-powerful. Parhament no longer 
met simply on the first and last days of the session 
to appoint the Lords and approve the measures 
which they had framed. The whole body met at 
short intervals, and debated and even altered the 
/ Articles ' submitted to them. A regular opposi- 
tion, too, disclosed itself in time, due partly to 
the jealousies of the nobles among themselves, 
partly to their jealousy of the bishops. Nor was 
the restored Episcopacy what it had been, in so far 
as the Liturgy and the Articles of Perth were not 
reimposed. But the Presbyterians had been deceived 
by Charles, and betrayed by the agent whom they 
had sent to London, James Sharp, minister of Crail. 
Expected to do his best for Presbyterianism, he 
came back Archbishop of St. Andrews. Rather than 
submit to the new order, over 270 ministers, nearly 
a third of the total number, resigned their livings. 
The greater number of these were in the Lowland 
counties from Fife to Galloway. The North showed 
its old affection for Episcopacy, and thence was 
brought a crowd of young men, most of them 
quite unfit to occupy the vacant churches. They 
were known as ' the curates,' and were so unpopular 
in many quarters as to be mobbed and assaulted. 
The people forsook the churches, and gathered to 
the services of their old ministers in private houses. 
As these proved too small, the services were held 
in fields, and were known as ' conventicles.' Such 
meetings were declared illegal. To put them down, 
compel the people to attend the parish churches, 


and collect the fines, which would come into their 
own pockets, was now the business of the Council. 
A body of soldiers was sent into the south-western 
shires under the command of Sir James Turner, 
a soldier of fortune who had been a Covenanter, 
but was ready to serve either side. The collection 
of fines from landowners and merchants who had 
accepted the Commonwealth and contributed to its 
heavy taxation, ruined many, and drove others 
abroad. Then there were ' the Church fines ' also 
to be collected. Of these the soldiers had their 
share, known as ' riding money,' and took free 
quarters with such as did not pay. The unscrupu- 
lous Turner was known as ' Bite-the-sheep.' To 
add to the general distress a war with Holland 
cut off the main part of Scottish foreign trade. 
Meantime Turner was kept busy in protecting the 
curates, and forcing the parishioners to attend their 
preaching. These, however, rather gathered in 
conventicles among the hills or by the side of a 
moss or river to listen to the ' ousted ' ministers. 

4. The Pentland Rising and ' RuUion Green ' (1666). 
— There could be only one end to such treatment of 
' the stubborn people of the West,' as Rothes called 
them. On a November morning Turner was 
surprised in his bed in Dumfries by about 150 men, 
some of them mounted. The affair had begun 
with the rescue on the previous forenoon of an 
old peasant who was being threatened by some 
soldiers with torture if he did not pay his Church 
fines. A soldier had been wounded with a pistol 
charged with the fragments of a tobacco-pipe. 
Followed the surprise of Turner. He had only 


a dozen men in Dumfries, almost all his force 
having been drafted away to the Dutch War. 
Some would have ' pistoled ' the captive, but were 
not allowed. The insurgents then marched west- 
wards to Ayr, and from Ayr to Lanark, where they 
renewed the Covenant. Recruits from Ayrshire 
and Clydesdale had now swelled their numbers to 
about 1,100, but there were few officers. In 
command was Colonel Wallace, who had fought in 
the English Civil War and at Dunbar. He had 
come from Edinburgh, whither the little army with 
a strange mixture of weapons now marched, hoping 
to find sympathizers in the east. But General 
Sir Thomas Dalzell (Daly ell) was on their track. 
He was a hardy, brutal soldier of wild appearance, 
who had seen rough service in Russia fighting 
against Tartars and Turks. When the western 
men reached Edinburgh they found the city closed 
to them, and Dalzell within touch. A few en- 
thusiasts joined, and they retired to a camp among 
the snow-clad Pentlands. On the frosty afternoon 
of the following day they were attacked by Dalzell 
in a strong position on the slope of a hill near 
RuUion Green. The ' handful of poor naked 
-country lads who had never seen war,' and were 
without proper arms, made a stout stand till the 
early darkness fell, when they gave up and fled, 
and so the fifteen days' rebellion came to an end 
(November 28, 1666). 

5. Fall of Rothes and Sharp, — About seventy 
prisoners had been taken, and of these fifteen were 
hanged at Edinburgh. Two of them, one of whom 
was a young minister named Hugh McKail, were 


first tortured with the * boot/ an instrument in 
which, by means of wedges driven in with a hammer, 
the leg was slowly crushed. As many more were 
hanged in the western towns. Others were de- 
spatched to the ' plantations ' of Barbadoes. The 
rebellious districts were now placed under the 


F7'om Kirktori s ' Church History.' 

control of Dalzell and Sir William Ballantyne. 
Fines and confiscations of property for sharing in 
the rebellion, were fresh fruit for greedy Councillors 
and merciless soldiery. Dalzell ' acted the Musco- 
vite (Russian) too grossly,' and ' Turner was a 
saint to Ballantyne.' By these means ' all the 
people were struck with such a terror that they 


came regularly to church/ In this work the 
military agents were encouraged by the Arch- 
bishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow — the faithless 
Sharp and the witless, excitable Burnet. Then 
came quarrels about confiscated estates. Lauder- 
dale did not like the alliance between the Church 
and the Army. On Rothes and Sharp was laid the 
blame of the rising, and the former was removed 
from his position as High Commissioner. The army 
was disbanded with the exception of the Guards. 
Pardon was proclaimed for all who had taken part 
in the rising, provided they should take a ' bond 
of peace ' not to bear arms against the King. 
Turner lost his command ; the inhuman Ballantyne 
was fined and banished. 

^. An Attempt at Conciliation. — For the next few 
years a new policy was tried. The Government did 
not desire to bring about another Covenanting 
rising : the memory of 1638 and its sequel was 
still fresh. Charles II was not, like his father, a 
lover of Episcopacy for its own sake. He was at 
heart not even a Protestant. Nor did Lauderdale, 
any more than Montrose, care aught for bishops 
as such. Both had, of course, with other members 
of the Government, unpleasant memories of their 
treatment by the Presbyterians in the day of their 
power. But the Episcopacy of Charles II, like that 
of James VI, was a political necessity. It was 
necessary in the interests of the absolute power at 
which the Stewarts aimed. The bishops managed 
the Lords of the Articles, and the Articles controlled 
the Estates. As the King appointed and dismissed 
the bishops, this meant in the end control by the 


King. The arrangement did not work out so well 
for Charles II as it had done for James. The 
Estates had tasted independent power, and were 
no longer entirely passive. But without the bishops 
and the Articles the supremacy of the Crown w^ould 
be gone. These granted, Charles was ready for 
toleration. All the more as he and his brother 
and heir, James, Duke of York, had come to the 
conclusion that if they were to be really absolute 
Kings, Catholicism must be restored. Louis XIV 
was their model, and his way was to root out 
Protestantism from his kingdom altogether. Charles 
saw his chief obstacle in the High Church party in 
England and Scotland. In England its leaders 
were dismissed from office. Lauderdale was sent 
down to Scotland to undermine its power there by 
trying to conciliate the Presbyterians. For the 
rest, French money and troops were to be at Charles's 
disposal when the time came to strike a blow for 

7. * The Blink.' — Lauderdale associated with him- 
self some of the best and most moderate spirits in 
the country. Of these the Earl of Tweeddale had 
gone to prison for opposing in Parliament the 
execution of Guthrie. The Earl of Kincardine 
believed in a ' qualified toleration.' Sir Robert 
Murray was a man of scientific tastes, and the 
first President of the Royal Society. Alexander 
Leighton, Bishop of Dunblane, was ready to go 
far to meet the Presbyterians. His idea was an 
' accommodation ' which, by yielding something 
on both sides, would unite the opposing parties in 
one Church. Thus in 1669 an Indulgence was issued 


allowing ' peaceable and orderly ' Presbyterian 
ministers to return to their vacant charges on 
certain conditions. Forty-two ministers took ad- 
vantage of this offer. The High Church Episco- 
palians naturally remonstrated, Archbishop Burnet 
taking the lead. Their answer was an Act of 
Parliament (1669) affirming that the King ' hath 
the supreme authority and supremacy over all 
persons and in all causes ecclesiastical/ and was at 
liberty to make what arrangements he pleased 
regarding the government of the Church. Burnet 
was compelled to resign, and the peace-loving 
Leighton was induced to take his see. In the 
summer of 1672 a second Indulgence was published, 
and about as many ministers as in the case of the 
first returned to their pulpits. 

8. Conciliation Fails. — The Indulgence cut a 
deep division in the ranks of Presbyterianism. 
It was urged that those who yielded accepted the 
King as head of the Church, made the Church 
entirely subject to the State, and so were ' Eras- 
tians.' The ministers who had submitted, and 
those who followed them, were denounced as 
bitterly as the pure Episcopalians by their extremer 
brethren. These would accept no settlement which 
did not include an equality of ministers — that is, 
the removal of bishops. Thus Leighton's attempts 
in the West to secure reunion utterly failed, and 
finally, weary of what he pronounced ' no better 
tnan a drunken scuffle in the dark,' he resigned his 
post, and retired to England. Meantime field- 
conventicles, whose numbers now ran to thousands, 
revived and spread. They appeared in Fife, in 


Perthshire, and even in the Presbyterian districts 
of Easter Ross, and Moray. As a threat, Lauder- 
dale had in 1670 secured a ' clanking Act,' which 
made death the penalty for a field-preacher, and 
laid heavy fines on the listeners. These, therefore, 
began to carry arms, and sentinels were posted to 
give the alarm against any attack by the soldiers. 
Both curates and ' indulged ' ministers had their 
houses broken into, and were themselves assaulted. 

9. ' The Party ' in Opposition. — Angered at the 
stubbornness of the Covenanters and for personal 
reasons, Lauderdale, now a Duke, fell back on the 
old|^methods. He needed money, and fines were 
to be got from captured conventiclers, many of them 
gentlemen of good position. But Lauderdale with 
his oaths and his insolence offended on all sides, 
and drove from him his best friends. Murray died, 
and Tweeddale and Kincardine soon retired in dis- 
gust. In Parliament a strong Opposition made 
itself heard. Its leader was the Duke of Hamilton. 
It was known as ' the Party,' and acted along with 
the English opposition to Charles's Catholic designs. 
Lauderdale had made a request from the King 
that a militia should be raised in Scotland. This 
was a threat to England. But in the session of 
1673 the Duke of Hamilton proposed that before 
any answer was given the grievances of the nation 
should be inquired into by a special committee. 
These grievances were that men ignorant of law 
had been made judges, and that, to enrich the Duke 
and his friends, the coinage had been debased, and 
heavy taxes imposed on salt, brandy, and tobacco. 
The taxes were removed, but, as the Partv was not 


thus to be silenced, Parliament was dissolved. 
Lauderdale, possessing the full confidence of Charles, 
was supreme in the country, and with a Privy 
Council of his ' creatures,' including Sharp, ruled all 

10. A New Way with Conventicles. — The Council 
now tried to suppress field-preaching by indirect 
means. Landowners were made responsible for the 
actions of their tenants and servants. If they 
failed to report the holding of a conventicle on 
their land they were to be fined a fourth of their 
rent. Field-preachers were outlawed, and a price 
offered for their capture. Garrisons were placed in 
the houses of country gentry who were disaffected. 
About a hundred people — ministers, men, and 
women who had been summoned for being present 
at conventicles — failed to appear, and were declared 
to be rebels. Those who sheltered or assisted them 
were to be treated as equally guilty. Finally, in 
1677, all landowners and heritors were required to 
sign a bond that they would be responsible for the 
conformity of their tenants. Against this under- 
taking the landlords of the West reasonably pro- 
tested ; it was beyond their power to fulfil such a 
promise. The Duke of Hamilton and other western 
peers were involved. Then a ' Highland Host,' 
6,000 strong, from AthoU and Lochaber, with half 
the number of Lowland militia, was, early in the 
following year, settled in free quarters over the West 
Country. A month later they were withdrawn, 
having made a clean sweep of all they could carry 
away, returning with ' loads of bedclothes, carpets, 
men's and women's clothes, pots, pans, gridirons. 


stoves, and other furniture/ This withdrawal was 
due to a personal appeal to the King by the western 
lords. The militia stayed a couple of months longer. 
It was Lauderdale's intention to force the West into 
rebellion, for which an army might be provided. 
This would give a weapon to his despotic master, and 
leave him with more confiscated estates to divide. 
Every conventicle had now its armed guard, and 
to the royal forces were added three troops of horse, 
one of them commanded by Captain John Graham 
of Claverhouse a small estate near Dundee. Their 
special business was to enforce the laws against the 
field-preachers, their hearers and sympathizers. 
Claverhouse had just returned from service in the 
army of William of Orange, Charles's nephew and 
head of the Dutch Republic, who was struggling to 
keep Holland from the imperial grasp of Louis XIV, 
Charles's patron. 

11. Murder of Sharp and Skirmish at Drumclog 
(1679). — The rising expected at Court was not long 
delayed. The people ' fell ' into it. Early in the 
year there was a brush between some dragoons and 
the armed men of a conventicle at Lesmahagow, 
and the dragoons were driven off. Then at the 
beginning of May a party of twelve men of Fife, 
headed by two lairds, John Balfour of Kinloch 
and David Hackston of Rathillet — all outlawed 
Covenanters — lay in wait on Magus Moor for 
Carmichael the Sheriff-Deputy, detested for his 
severities. Instead they encountered Sharp him- 
self, and the old Archbishop was forthwith brutally 
murdered before his daughter's eyes ; Hackston, 
as a personal enemy, refusing to take a hand, but 




looking on ' with his cloak about his mouth/ On 
May 29 of the same month, the King's birthday 
and the anniversary of the Restoration, Sir Robert 
Hamilton of Preston, with about eighty horsemen, 
rode into Rutherglen, put out the holiday bonfires, 
and publicly burned copies of all the Acts and 
Proclamations directed against the Church of the 
Covenants. Claverhouse at once set out to hunt 
for this company. On Sunday, June i, he found 
them as members of a large conventicle assem.bled 
on the slope of London Hill, near Dru'mclog. Notice 
of the approach of the royal troops was given by the 
watchman, who fired his carbine. The service at once 
ended. The women and children retired to the rear, 
and the men advanced singing a psalm. Hamilton 
and William Cleland, an eager Covenanter and some- 
thing of a poet, twenty years old, took command. 
Between the forces was a dangerous marsh. Unable 
to cross, most of the royal troops dismounted, and 
opened fire. The Covenanters, or Whigs, as they 
were now being styled, having few guns, but plenty 
of old halberds and pitchforks, shouted for close 
quarters. ' For the Lord's sake, go on /" and 
immediately they ran violently forward, and Clavers 
was looming^ the shot all the time on them.' The 
astonished troopers failed before such a charge. 
Claverhouse's horse, horribly wounded, ran him olf 
the field, and his discouraged men fled. 

12. The Battle of Bothwell Bridge {June 22). — 
* This may be counted the beginning of the rebellion,' 
wrote Claverhouse of his defeat. The insurgents 
failed to occupy Glasgow, and lay about the town of 
Pouring out. 


Hamilton. Meantime troops were hurried up from 
London to stiffen the eastern mihtia. The command 
of about 15,000 men was taken by the Duke of 
Monmouth, the King's son, the hope of the Enghsh 
Protestants. A month's delay gave time for the 
division in the Covenanting camp to come to a 
head. The extremists under Hamilton, who was 
in chief command, and Cleland, were for barring 
out not only the indulged ministers and their 
congregations but all who would not go so far as 
openly to denounce them. The less extreme, under 
John Welsh a noted field-preacher, wished to bring 
as many as possible to their ranks, and leave other 
matters to the free Parliament and free General 
Assembly which they demanded. Their fiercer 
friends condemned them as ' rotten-hearted.' The 
ministers in the camp ' preached and prayed 
against each other.' A little longer and the 
Covenanters would have broken up or fought 
among themselves. In this condition Monmouth 
found them on the south side of the Clyde at Both- 
well Bridge. For a time the barricaded bridge 
was stoutly held, but Hamilton sent neither 
reinforcements nor ammunition. The Cavaliers 
forced their way across, and horse and guns soon 
drove the Whigs in rout. Hamilton and Balfour 
escaped to Holland. Over a thousand prisoners 
were marched to Edinburgh. A few were hanged. 
The prisons overflowed, and the main body of the 
captives was crowded within the walls of the 
churchyard of Old Greyfriars, there to pass the 
winter. A good many managed to climb out and 
get away. Of the others, all but about 250 took 


the oath not to rise in arms against the King, and 
were released. The stubborn ones were shipped for 
the plantations of the West Indies. But the ship 
was wrecked in the Orkneys, and all but the odd 
fifty drowned. These honest peasants were wel- 
comed elsewhere. The Governor of Barbadoes had 
written to Lauderdale that he found such as had 
already been sent to that island ' good subjects : 
I wish there were more of them.' There were, of 
course, the usual confiscations of the estates of the 
western lairds who had helped in the rising. 
Monmouth, however, secured an Act of Indemnity 
or general pardon for all who would take the bond 
of peace. A third Indulgence was offered to 
ministers who had not been rebels. But Monmouth 
fell into disgrace, and at the earnest request of the 
bishops this Indulgence was shortW withdrawn . 
Bothwell Bridge proved the destruction of the 
cause of the Covenants, and, save among the small 
body of extremists, conventicles came to an end. 


CHARLES II— PART II (1680-1685) ; 
JAMES VII (II) (1685T689) 

1. Scottish Trade and Commerce. — The energies of 
the Scottish Government were not confined to sup- 
pressing the Covenanters. That conflict mainly 
affected the south-western districts. The other 
ruhng interest was the condition of trade. The 
encouragement of manufactures had received the 


steady attention of James I. Charles I, too, had 
done much. He had tried even to enforce the free 

CHARLES II (1630-1685). 
From an engraving by P. Vanderhanc, 

interchange of commodities between England and 
Scotland. The industries were carried on in the 
homes of the people, but it was now sought to 


transfer these to factories and public companies. 
The Dutch had long been drawing riches from the 
Scotch fisheries. One of the constant complaints 
against the Highland chiefs of the West was that 
they made no effort to develop this industry. 
Thousands of Dutch ' busses ' found the herring- 
droves a ' golden mine.' Both the first and the 
second Charles formed companies to work the fish- 
f'ings, but without success. The largest industry in 
Scotland was still the making of coarse cloth, or 
' plaiding.' It was made all over the country, in- 
cluding the Hebrides. Its export brought in the 
largest revenue to the Customs. In Poland it was 
known as ' Scotch.' Its only rival in value was salt. 
But a better class of cloth it was not so easy to pro- 
duce. Scotland did not furnish wool fine enough, 
and this had to be brought from Spain. Nor did 
Scotch workmen possess the necessary skill, and 
skilled foreign workmen generally avoided so poor 
a country. England was the chief seat of this 
manufacture, and as the Government tried to rival 
the Dutch in fishing, so it tried also to equal the 
English in this profitable business. Fine wool and 
dyes were allowed to enter without paying duty, 
and everything possible was done to help the manu- 
/facturer. More suitable to Scotland was the making 
I of linen, an old-established industry which, in 
spinning and weaving, employed a large number 
of people. Since the beginning of the present reign 
many other industries had been started, few of 
which, however, managed to continue. A soap- 
; works was set up in Glasgow. The making of sugar 
had been begun in the same city under the Pro- 


tectorate, and proved most profitable, chiefly by 
reason of the rum made from the sugar. Out of it 
came the first large fortunes in the west. Paper- 
mills were built in the east at Dairy, near Edin- 
burgh, which at first, however, produced only grey 
and blue paper, and needed the direction of foreigners 
to do anything better. All these industries found 
it hard, even with special privileges, to struggle 
against imports from other countries. Especially 
was this the case with the better kinds of cloth. 
;At last, in 1681, Acts were passed which entirely 
forbade the bringing into the country of articles 
which would compete with those made at home. 
All stuffs made of linen or cotton or wool, except 
carpets, were shut out. No raw materials produced 
in Scotland might be exported. These Acts were 
met in the same spirit. Most of the Scottish 
linen had gone to England, but now, as English 
cloth was refused, so linen was forbidden to be 
brought across the Border. Scottish linen mer- 
chants were seized and whipped as criminals. On 
the other hand, English cloth was regularly smuggled 
into Scotland, and the Privy Council found it cheaper 
to buy for the uniforms of their soldiers. With this 
want of success, and the disturbances which again 
developed in the country, the boom in industry fell 
off. For Scotland to develop into an important 
manufacturing country, it needed capital, better 
workmen, and peace from the distracting quarrel 
between Church and State. It was hampered, too, 
by the fact that, though united with England, it 
was not allowed to share its commerce, either with 
India or the American colonies. That England 


kept for herself. The free trade desired by James I 
and Charles I, and established by Cromwell, had 
been lost at the Restoration. 

2. The Cameronians. — For a brief space after 
Both well Bridge there was peace in the West. The 
greater part of the Presbyterians had outwardly 
conformed ; the Covenanting cause w^as left to a 
small band of sterner souls. Young Richard 
Cameron came back from Holland to raise the 
fallen banner. On the first anniversary of the 
battle (June 22, 1680) he, with twenty followers, 
rode into Sanquhar and read a ' Declaration ' at 
the Cross. In this all present ' as the representa- 
tive of the true Presbyterian Kirk and Covenanted 
nation of Scotland . . . disowned Charles Stuart 
as having any right, title to, or interest in the Crown 
of Scotland,' and ' declared war against him ' and 
all ' who acknowledged him in his tyranny, civil or 
ecclesiastic' A price was at once put on Cameron's 
head. A month later he and his men were brought 
to bay at Ayrsmoss, near the upper waters of the 
River Ayr. Cameron was killed in the fight. Hack- 
ston of Rathillet, who had looked on at the slaughter 
of Sharp, was captured, hanged, and quartered. 
The heads of both adorned the poles at the Nether- 
bow of Edinburgh. Cameron left his name to his 
party, who were now known as ' Cameronians.' 
One preacher they still possessed, the aged Donald 
Cargill. At a conventicle at Torwood, south of 
Stirling, Cargill formally excommunicated Charles, 
his brother the Duke of York, Monmouth, Lauder- 
dale, Rothes, Sir George Mackenzie (now King's 
Advocate), and General Dalzell. Ere a year had 


passed CargilFs grey head was withering at the 
Netherbow beside those of Cameron and Hackston. 
The gallows was again busy with conventiclers. 
The Cameronians now formed themselves into 
' Societies/ and refused to have anything to do 
with * any Presbyterian minister ' not of their own 
mind in all things. 

3. The Test. — The same year saw a change in the 
Government. The King's brother, the Duke of 
York, came down to Scotland as High Commissioner. 
He was a confessed Roman Catholic, and the 
attempt in England to exclude him on that account 
from the throne made things there too unpleasant 
for him. The supporters of the exclusion were 
known as ' Whigs,' a name borrowed from Scotland ; 
while those who stood for hereditary right were nick- 
named ' Tories ' (see Chapter XXVIII, § 11). York 
was determined to secure Scotland in his interest, 
and to this end to stamp out all disaffection, espe- 
cially among the western Whigs. He courted the 
upper classes, and kept a gay Court in Holyrood, 
where the Scottish ladies now made their first 
acquaintance with tea. Among James's following 
was ' Lady Anne,' his daughter, afterwards Queen. 
The Duke thus found the Scottish Parliament easy 
to manage. An Act of Succession was passed, which 
laid down ' that no difference in religion . . . can 
alter or divert the right of succession and lineal 
descent of the Crown.' This made the Catholic 
heir safe so far as Scotland was concerned. Another 
Act devised a lengthy Test, which had to be taken 
by all holding public appointments. They thereby 
swore adherence to the Confession of Faith of 1560, 


which was a Presbyterian Confession ; to own the 
King as the only supreme governor in Church and 
State, which was in contradiction to the Confession ; 
and on no account ' to endeavour any change or 
alteration in the Government, either in Church or 
State as it is now established ' — and the heir to the 
throne was a Roman Catholic ! This complicated 
Test was too much even for many Episcopalians. 
A number of ministers resigned their livings rather 
than receive it. The President of the Court of 
Session retired for the same reason. The Marquis 
of Argyll, who took it with a quahfication, was 
declared guilty of treason, put on trial, and con- 
demned to death. He escaped from the Castle dis- 
guised as a footman holding up the train of his step- 
daughter, and passed over to Holland. The Parlia- 
ment having served its turn was dissolved, and the 
government of the country reverted to a new Privy 
Council. Rothes was dead. Lauderdale, ill and in 
disgrace, had been removed from office, and deprived 
even of his pension. He died in 1682. 

4. Claverhouse in Galloway. — In Galloway and the 
neighbouring districts many who had been at Both- 
well Bridge were still at large. Claverhouse was, 
therefore, appointed Sheriff of Wigtown, and Sheriff- 
Depute of Dumfries, Annandale, and Kirkcudbright. 
The local sheriffs could not be trusted to carry out 
the severe laws. He was instructed to prosecute 
all who had failed to take ' the bond of peace ' 
under the Act of Indemnity, and all who had since 
attended conventicles or had given up attendance 
at church. This programme he carried through 
with great success. He found the churches ' quite 


desert ; no honest man, no minister in safety/ And 
he describes his method thus : ' He fell in search of 
the rebels, played them hotly with parties, so that 
there were several taken, many fled the country, 
and all were dung (driven) from their haunts ; and 
then rifled so their houses, ruined their goods, and 
imprisoned their servants, that their wives and 
children were brought to starving, which forced 
them to have recourse to the safe conduct, and 
made them glad to renounce their principles/ By 
such means, and by having the roll read every 
Sunday after the first sermon to find out the absent 
ones, the parish churches were soon filled, and Claver- 
house was astonished at his own success. He was 
now given a regiment, and promoted to be Colonel. 

5. Victims of the Test. — Thus encouraged, the 
Privy Council extended the application of the Test 
Act to all persons whatsoever. The Circuit Courts 
were empowered to bring before them such as were 
suspected of having given shelter to or conversed 
with suspected rebels since Bothwell Bridge, or 
should do so during the next three years. Few, 
guilty or innocent, could escape this net. In 
Lanarkshire alone over a thousand persons were 
brought before the Courts. Many hurried in to 
take the Test to escape further trouble. In the 
autumn of 1684, on the ground that they had not 
observed their instructions, all the Presbyterian 
clergymen were again turned out of the Church, 
and several imprisoned. Most of them retired to 
Holland. Such was the condition of affairs that the 
Duke of Hamilton was complaining of the way his 
tenantry were being treated, and a number of nobles 


and gentlemen had formed a plan for emigrating to 
the new colony of Carolina. Some who had gone up 
to London in connexion with this business got mixed 
up in the Rye House Plot (1683) for the forcible 
exclusion of the Duke of York from the throne. 
Three Scottish conspirators were arrested : one 
Spence, chamberlain to the Earl of Argyll ; William 
Carstares, a clergyman ; and Robert Baillie of Jervis- 
wood. Spence was cruelly tortured till he gave 
evidence that implicated Carstares. Carstares suf- 
fered the ' thumbscrews/ but could not face the 

' boot/ and supplied in- 
formation which could be 
used against Baillie. He, 
an old and dying man, 
was tried and hanged. 

6. The ' Apologetical De- 
claration ' (1684). — At last 
the Cameronians got a 
minister to their liking in 
young James Ren wick, or- 
dained in Holland. To the 
alarm and annoyance of the Presbyterian ministers, 
field-preaching was revived, and the soldiers went 
hunting the country-sides once more. In November, 
1684, the * Societies ' published an Apologetical 
Declaration, in which they declared their intention 
of punishing with death as / enemies to God and 
the covenanted work of reformation ' all who should 
persecute or inform against them. Two life-guards- 
men and an Episcopal minister were killed. Kirk- 
cudbright Prison was broken open, and the inmates 
released. These occurrences forced the Government 


to further action. The Council declared that, the 
Declaration being high treason, all who should refuse 
to disown it might be immediately shot in the 
presence of two witnesses. Suspected persons who 
did disown were to be retained for further trial. 
A commission on these terms was given to General 


Dalzell, Sir James Johnstone of Westerhall, Sir 
Robert Grierson of Lag, and Colonel Graham of 
Claverhouse. Thus began the ' killing in the fields ' 
known as ' the Killing Time.' In February of the 
following year (1685) Charles II died, an absolved 
Roman Catholic, and was succeeded by his brother, 
the Duke of York. 



7. A Loyal Parliament. — James VII, the last of 
the Stewart Kings, was never crowned in Scotland. 
He was known to be a Roman Catholic, but the 
Royalist reaction in England after the Rye House 
Plot brought him safely to a Protestant throne. 
The Scottish Parliament, which was summoned to 
set a good example to that of England, fully answered 
this purpose. The Duke of Oueensberry, as Royal 
Commissioner, announced the King's intention to 
maintain the established religion. The members 
thereupon offered their ' lives and fortunes ' in 
defence of his throne, and voted an even greater 
income to James than they had given to his brother. 
Fresh Acts were passed against the Covenants, and 
it was declared that attenders at field conventicles 
as well as preachers should be put to death ; while 
husbands were to be fined if their wives absented 
themselves from church. The Cameronians re- 
sponded with another Sanquhar Declaration, in 
which they refused allegiance to one who was a 
murderer and an ' idolater,' and who was but 
' making way for the Man of Sin ' — their name for 
the Pope. 

8. Incidents of the Killing Time. — The various 
Acts against all degrees of religious or political dis- 
sent kept the Council and its military agents busy. 
The Test was still going round. Bothwell Bridge 
survivors, and those who sheltered such, and all 
who failed to appear in church and preferred con- 
venticles in the open air, were open to punishment 
under the penal laws. But specially abhorred was 


the fanatical ' new sect sprung up from the dregs 
of the people/ as the Chancellor described the 
Cameronian ' Societies/ The manner in which 

JAMES VII AND II (1633-I701) 

these ' hill-men ' were dealt with may be illustrated 
by some famous incidents. On Ma}^ i, 1685, 
Claverhouse captured on a moss John Brown, a 
carrier of Priesthill, near Muirkirk, and his nephew 


John Browning. Brown refused to take the Ab- 
juration Oath against the Apologetical Declaration 
(see § 6), or to ' swear not to rise in arms against 
the King, but said he knew no King/ Bullets and 
' treasonable papers ' were found in his house, ' upon 
which,' Claverhouse reports, ' I caused shoot him 
dead/ Brown's wife was standing by. The nephew 
took the oath, and so Claverhouse, who always kept 
strictly to the law, had no power to execute him ; 
but, ' convinced that he was guilty ' of being in 
arms, Claverhouse ' had carbines presented to shoot 
him,' and so wrung from him a confession. Brown- 
ing was, therefore, handed over to a Justiciary, and 
by him w^as tried before a jury of soldiers, and 
hanged with four others at Mauchline. Another 
case was that of Andrew Hislop in Eskdale, a youth 
who lived with his mother. They had given shelter 
to ' one of the suffering people,' who died in their 
house, and they buried him. The grave was dis- 
covered by another Justiciary, Sir James Johnstone 
of Westerhall. The guilty persons were traced, and 
their house pulled down. Claverhouse then came 
upon Hislop ' in the fields.' He made no refusal 
to take the oath, but was handed over to Wester- 
hall. He had already suffered punishment, but now 
Westerhall tried him again, and he was shot. The 
careful Claverhouse protested. ' The blood of this 
poor man be upon you, Westerhall ; I am free of it.' 
At Wigtown, where Grierson of Lag made himself a 
lasting reputation for cruelty, two women, one about 
twenty years old, the other over sixty, were drowned 
in the Solway for failing to satisfy their judges of 
their loyalty. The number of those killed in these 



From an engraving after the painting by Sir Peter Lely. 



ways or in trying to escape amounted to seventy- 
eight. Hundreds who avoided the sentence of death 
had an ear cut off, and were shipped to the planta- 

9. ' Unfortunate Argyll.' — The Estates had early 
been called upon to prove their devotion to the 
King. The numerous exiles in Holland had planned 
an invasion which should lead both countries to 
revolt. While the Duke of Monmouth landed in 
England, Argyll at the same time was to make a 
descent upon Scotland. With him went Sir Patrick 
Hume and Sir John Cochrane, Border lairds. This 
expedition was unfortunate from the start. It was 
all known and prepared for before Argyll touched 
Scottish soil. He landed at Campbeltown in Kin- 
tyre, where he published a Declaration which had 
been drawn up in Holland. It recounted the op- 
pressions and cruelties of the past twenty years — 
in which, indeed, Argyll himself, as a member of 
the Privy Council, had taken his share — and called 
upon the people to rise in defence of their religion 
and liberties ' against an apostate Papist, an usurp- 
ing and persecuting tyrant.' The response was not 
encouraging. Even of the Campbells few came to 
join their chief. The Earl of AthoU was in Argyll- 
shire on behalf of the Government with a force of 
Murrays and Stewarts. Argyll wished to make for 
his own country, and seize Inveraray. The Border 
lairds preferred to go south, and rouse the western 
Whigs. Accordingly, a landing was made at 
Greenock. But the royal forces were gathered in 
the neighbourhood, and an English fleet watched 
the coast. The Whigs looked askance at the Earl, 


who by his vote had ensured the death of Cargill. 
Claverhouse and Westerhall by their ' dragoonings ' 
held Galloway in check. Argyll's plan was, there- 
fore, adopted, and a march made towards Inveraray. 
It accomplished nothing of importance, and on the 
retreat Argyll lost his ships with guns, ammunition, 
and all the outfit of the expedition. Then a des- 
perate rush towards Glasgow resulted in the army 
losing its way among the bogs at night. The few 
who reached Kilpatrick on the Clyde at once scat- 
tered for safety. Hume and Cochrane succeeded in 
getting back to Holland. Argyll, dressed as a 
peasant, was recognized while crossing the Cart at 
Inchinnan, and captured by some militiamen. 
' Unfortunate Argyll ' were the words that betrayed 
him. He was taken to Edinburgh. There was no 
need for a trial, as the former sentence of death held 
good. Like his father before him, under whose 
' curse ' he had gone out with Montrose, he met his 
death with a noble dignity, being beheaded by ' the 
maiden.' Earlier in the same month Monmouth 
landed in the South of England, to pass to a like 
disaster and doom. 

10. The Estates Oppose James. — The occasion had 
now come for James to proceed with his pet scheme, 
the gradual restoration of Catholicism. Queens- 
berry, while a Tory, was also a firm Protestant, and 
the King found a readier tool in James Drummond, 
Earl of Perth, who, seeing his chance of advance- 
ment, suddenly announced his conversion to the 
royal faith. He had a chapel fitted up in his house 
in Edinburgh, where Mass was said. This provoked 
a serious riot. The house was attacked. Lady 


Perth and some lady friends' were pelted with mud. 
Soldiers were brought out to deal with the rioters, 
some of whom were shot. Others were arrested and 
hanged. This was a bad beginning, and James soon 
found that in his Privy Council also he would meet 
with opposition. Queensberry was removed from 
the command of Edinburgh Castle, which was given 
to the Catholic Duke of Gordon. When the Estates 
met he was no more High Commissioner. Perth 
was now in James's confidence. But the Estates 
proved as great an obstacle as the Council, and 
even among the Lords of the Articles there was 
division. James demanded the repeal of all penal 
laws against ' his innocent subjects, those of the 
Catholic religion.' At the same time he declared 
his intention to throw open to Scotland the trade 
with England and its colonies. But the Estates 
were not to be bribed. They replied they would 
go as far as their consciences would allow. This 
did not suit the King. Three Privy Councillors 
and some other officials were dismissed. As the 
clergy had protested against the freeing of Catholics, 
one bishop was deposed, and another forbidden to 
preach. After much debate the Estates rejected 
the King's proposal, and were at once dissolved. 

11. Toleration by the Royal Supremacy (1687). — 
This conffict was watched with great eagerness in 
London, where James was acting on similar lines. 
The news of his defeat heartened the Protestant 
opposition. But James was not the man to yield. 
Yielding, he said, had ruined his father. The Council 
was filled up with Roman Catholic members. As 
the. representatives of the towns had been foremost 


in opposition, James stopped further elections, and 
himself appointed the magistrates, in whose hands 
was the right to return members. Then, in virtue 
of the power given by the Act of Supremacy of 
1669, James proclaimed an Indulgence which gave 
complete freedom of worship to all Dissenters — 
Presbyterians and Catholics. By the same power 
the penal laws against Catholics were suspended. 
They were thus at liberty to fill any public office. 
The selling of anti-Catholic literature was forbidden. 
On the other hand, a press was placed in Holyrood 
for the issuing of Catholic publications, and the 
Chapel Royal prepared for the Catholic service. 
James had at first intended to exclude Presbyterians 
from his Indulgence, but in the end they were ad- 
mitted. Their ministers expressed their gratitude 
for the ' sudden and surprising nature of this favour.' 
Those in exile at once hurried home. All this time 
James was following the same course in England, 
issuing Indulgences, thrusting Catholics into leading 
positions, and so rousing the enmity of both Whigs 
and Tories. 

12. Execution of Renwick. — One more victim there 
had yet to be, young James Renwick with a price 
on his head. At the end of January, 1688, he was 
hiding in an Edinburgh friend's house, which was 
searched for smuggled English goods. Renwick was 
recognized, and made a prisoner. He was offered 
his life if he would acknowledge the Government, 
but this he refused to do as contrary to his ' testi- 
mony.' A kindly bishop pled for him, but Renwick 
was unflinching, and he went, in Lauderdale's old 
phrase, ' to glorify God in the Grassmarket.' The 


Society people would have nothing to do with the 
Indulgence of an uncovenanted and papist King. 

13. The Revolution (1688). — But the night was 
near gone. The birth of an heir to the throne pro- 
mised for the kingdoms a Roman Catholic dynasty. 
Terrified of this, and exasperated by James's con- 
duct, the leading Whigs and Tories of England sent 
an invitation to William, Prince of Orange, nephew 
and son-in-law of the King, his wife, Mary, being 
one of James's two daughters. That this had been 
done was soon known, and James set about pro- 
viding for the invasion. The Scottish. Council called 
out the eastern militia, but all the regular troops, 
one of whose commanders was Claverhouse, were 
hurried up to London. William issued an address 
to the people of Scotland, in which he declared his 
purpose to be the redress of grievances and the 
freeing of the kingdom ' from all hazard of Popery 
and arbitrary power for the future.' The bishops, 
on the other hand, sent a long, encouraging letter 
to James, in which they addressed him as ' the 
darling of heaven.' Their fear of Popery vanished 
before the danger to the hereditary monarchy. But 
the withdrawal of the regular soldiers left Edinburgh 
and the Council at the mercy of William's supporters. 
Numbers of west-land Whigs drifted into the capital, 
and secreted themselves about the town. Early in 
December an attack was made upon Holyrood. An 
entrance was forced, and many of the small garrison 
killed. Then the chapel was cleared of its Catholic 
adornments, which were given to the flames. The 
houses of Catholics were entered and treated in the 
same way. Within a few days James had left 


London for ever. During December the western 
Presbyterians devoted themselves to the ' rabbhng ' 
of the ' curates/ In the western and southern 
shires about two hundred of the Episcopahan 
ministers were turned out of their churches and 
manses by bands of ' rabblers/ They were hated 
not only as Episcopalian ministers, but because 
they had acted as informers against those who 
failed to attend church. 

14. The Throne is Declared Vacant, and Given to 
William and Mary (1689). — Early in the next year a 
Convention of Estates assembled. The Duke of 
Hamilton was elected President — the first blow to 
the supporters of James, who had put forward the 
Earl of AthoU. This brought over many waverers 
to the Whig side. Then the Estates passed a reso- 
lution declaring that James had never taken the 
coronation oath, ' being a professed Papist,' and 
had altered ' the fundamental constitution of this 
kingdom from a legal limited monarchy to an 
arbitrary despotic power.' Whereby, it concluded, 
' he hath forfeited the right to the crown, and the 
throne is become vacant.' Thus the principle 
which had been applied to Scotland by John Major 
(see Chapter XVIIl, § 8), and had been adopted by 
such Protestant leaders as Knox and Melville, was 
expressed as the law of Scotland, and the royal 
claim of ' Divine right ' formally disowned. In a 
Claim of Right the Estates further declared that 
Episcopacy was contrary to the inclinations of the 
mass of the Scottish people, and should be abolished. 
With these and other limitations the crown was 
offered to William and Mary. In taking the corona- 


tion oath William at first refused to swear ' to root 
out all heretics/ an obligation which Protestant 
Scotland had taken over from the old Church. It 
was pointed out to William that it was but a form 
of words which he was not expected to act upon. 
Such was the change that had come over the Scottish 
temper as the result of the wrongs and miseries of 
the different forms of religious intolerance imposed 
on the country during the past century. 

15. The Convention and Dundee. — Most prominent 
of the adherents of James was Claverhouse, whom 
he had created Viscount Dundee. When the Duke 
of Gordon proposed to deliver up Edinburgh Castle, 
it was he who prevented the descendant of the fickle 
Huntlys from doing so. He had come back from 
London under a promise to William to ' live quietly 
unless he were forced.' He attended the opening 
meetings of the Convention till he became convinced 
that the western men in the city intended to take 
the lives of himself and ' the bloody Mackenzie/ 
lately King's Advocate. Dundee made his comi- 
plaint to the Convention, which passed it over. 
Thereupon the Jacobite* lords purposed holding a 
rival Convention. But Atholl's ' heart failed/ as 
did the hearts of the others. They merely with- 
drew. Then Dundee, gathering a few troopers and 
friends, suddenly rode out of the town, and so on 
to his new home at Dudhope beyond Dundee. There 
he was summoned by a herald and trumpeter to 
return and appear before the Convention. He 
refused, but offered to ' give security or parole 

* From Latin Jacobus, James : the name given to the 
supporters of the Stewarts. 


not to disturb the peace.' He was proclaimed 
a ' fugitive and rebel/ Dundee, indeed, was but 
biding his time till all was ready to strike a blow 
for the banished King. But he had now been 
' forced ' from his quiet, and the first of the Jacobites 
raised the standard of the royal Stewarts on Dundee 
Law (April, 1689). 


WILLIAM IT AND MARY (1689-1702) 

1. Dundee in the North. — From Dudhope the Vis- 
count, with a small band of horsemen, rode north- 
wards by the low country of the east, following 
' the track of Montrose/ Hard at his heels came 
General Mackay, just back from Holland, with such 
infantry as he could hurriedly bring ' together. 
Dundee, on LochieFs invitation, made his way to 
Lochaber. Sir Ewan Cameron of Lochiel had been 
out with Montrose, and was again ready for similar 
service. He was a notable figure among the High- 
land chiefs. He had turned back to fight for King 
Charles when on his way to enter as a student at 
Oxford. He had gone up with Monk for the 
Restoration, and had been knighted by James. 
With his own hands he had killed the last wolf in 
the Highlands, and his home was a palace of logs 
in Lochaber. The fiery cross brought to the side 
of the Camerons the neighbouring Macdonalds, some 


Macleods, Macleans, and Grants. With 1,500 men 
Dundee marched out to cut off Mackay on his way 
south to meet reinforcements. Mackay retreated 
before him down Speyside ; but when he was joined 
by a strong body of horse it became the Viscount's 
turn to retreat. Satisfied with the booty they had 
picked up, his clansmen dropped off home. Mackay 
went on to Edinburgh, Dundee back with Lochiel. 
In June the Duke of Gordon, having used up food 
and ammunition, surrendered Edinburgh Castle. 

2. Dundee s Second Advance. — Dundee worked 
hard to secure recruits for his cause. He believed 
that James, now in Ireland, was bound to carry 
everything before him, and he tried to get others 
to believe it too. James sent over three hundred 
undisciplined Irishmen to his aid, with some much- 
needed gunpowder. But the chiefs of the great 
clans, the Macintoshes, Macphersons and Mackenzies, 
would not move. The Atholl men waited for the 
Duke to give them a sign, but he had gone south to 
nurse his health. Blair Castle, however, was held 
for Dundee, and was being besieged by the Duke's 
eldest son. Lord John Murray. Mackay marched 
north to secure this important post, which com- 
manded Badenoch and threatened Lochaber. 
Dundee could not afford to lose it, and, still believing 
that Murray and the Atholl men would join him, 
hurriedly assembled his clans, and crossed to Blair. 
Murray retired to keep open the Pass of Killiecrankie 
for Mackay's advance. 

3. Battle of Killiecrankie and Death of Dundee 
{July 27, 1689). — Over the hills came Dundee, to 
the surprise of Mackay, who expected him by the 


high road he was himself following. He moved his 
regiments up the slope to his right, and extended 
them to outflank the clansmen, who were but half his 
numbers. This left his 
line only three deep 
to meet the downhill 
charge of the columns 
of the clans. It was 
the tactics of the 
school of Gustavus 
Adolphus : to enable 
every musketeer to 
use his weapon at 
the same time, and 
so to envelop the 
attack with musketry 
fire. As the sun sank 
to the horizon and 
took its light from 
their eyes, the High- 
landers started down 
the brae. They re- 
served their fire till 
close on the enemy, 
then flung away their 
muskets and fell on 
with axe and clay- 
more. The royal line 
went down like paste- 
board. Many fled without firing a shot. ' In 
the twinkling of an eye ' three-fourths of Mackay's 
army were swept down into the valley. Only 
the extreme right, which extended beyond the 

CRANKIE (1689). 


Highland charge, stood its ground, and poured a 
heavy fire into the passing clansmen. A bullet 
brought down Dundee as he waved on his little 
band of horsemen, and he died with the notes of 
victory in his ear. Mackay hurried away the 
shaken remnant of his army by the hill roads, and 
safely reached Stirling. 

4. The Stand of the ' Cameronians.' — The news of 
the death of Dundee quieted the alarm which had 
been aroused by the defeat at Killiecrankie. With- 
out a leader suited to their peculiar ways the clans 
were helpless. The Highland and Lowland officers 
quarrelled, and Lochiel went home ' to repose him- 
self/ Meantime the Government had formed a 
regiment out of the Cameronians, whose Lieutenant- 
Colonel and real commander was William Cleland, 
the hero of Drumclog and Bothwell Bridge. This 
regiment was sent to hold Dunkeld. There they 
were beset by what remained of the Highland army, 
now including the Perthshire men. It was com- 
manded by Colonel Cannon, who had come with 
the Irish troops. The Cameronians posted them- 
selves in the church and the Marquis of iVtholl's 
town house. The Highlanders poured in a raking 
fire from the surrounding houses, but could not 
cross the defences of the Cameronians. Cleland 
fell early in the fray. The Cameronians had almost 
run out of powder when the disappointed High- 
landers drew off. It was the final blow to the 
Jacobite army, which promptly dispersed. The 
Lowland officers, Scots and English, came to terms 
with the Government, and left the country to take 
service in France. By Mackay's advice fortified 


posts were again established up to Inverness A 
garrison was once more placed at Inverlochy, in 
* Fort William/ to threaten the Camerons. The 
Cameronian regiment afterwards served under 
William in his great campaigns against Louis XIV. 

5. The Revolution Settlement. — During these years 
the new organization of Church and vState was 
taking shape. The Estates insisted on the abolition 
of the Committee of the Articles as ' a great grievance 
to the nation/ Thus passed away the direct 
control of Parliam.ent by the Crown. Henceforward 
Scotland had a free debating Parliament with all 
its powers in its own possession. Another ' griev- 
ance ' was the Episcopal government of the Church, 
and this was now declared at an end. William 
would have saved both the Articles and Episcopacy 
had he been able. A proclamation had been 
issued which all ministers were ordered to read 
from their pulpits. It released the people from 
their allegiance to James, and enjoined public 
prayers for the new Sovereigns. Refusal to do this 
on the part of a large number oi Episcopal ministers 
resulted in over 180 being deprived of office in 
the Church. The Act of Supremacy of 1669 was 
repealed. The surviving ministers of those who 
had been expelled from their parishes in 1662 were 
restored, and, in the meantime, given full power to 
' purge ' the Church. They numbered sixty, and 
the Episcopalians styled them the ' Sixty Bishops/ 
The government of the Church was then consti- 
tuted on the lines of the ' Golden Act ' of 1592. 
Parishes from which the ' curates ' had been rabbled 
or legally expelled were declared vacant. Patronage 


was abolished, the right being transferred to the 
heritors or landowners and the kirk-session, and 
the congregation having the right of appeal to the 
presbytery against a minister to whom they 
^objected. Excommunication by the Church was 
I no longer to be followed by civil penalties. The 
Xhurch was thus deprived of a powerful weapon. 
Nor were the Covenants renewed ; they were simply 
ignored. On this account the extreme Cameronians 
refused to share in the settlement, though their 
three ministers accepted it. William insisted on 
moderation in the treatment of the Episcopal 
ministers, who were still the great majority. They 
were to be subjected to a political, not a religious, 
test. They were to remain in their parishes pro- 
vided they took an oath ' to be faithful and bear 
true allegiance an ' assurance ' acknowledging 
William and Mary to be ' the only lawful, un- 
doubted Sovereigns and accepted the Presby- 
terian rule. A later Act insisted only on the oath 
and the assurance, and thus even twenty years 
after there were still 113 Episcopal ministers 
serving in the Presbyterian Kirk. The strongest 
opposition to these terms was met with in the north. 
There, with the full support of their people, many 
Episcopal clergymen retained their livings in defiance 
of the oaths. Even as these died out, so strong was 
the hatred to the Whig Presbyterians in many of the 
Highland parishes that it was found impossible for 
several years to fill their places under the new order. 
The dissenting Episcopalians in vScotland adopted the 
Jacobite cause, and the defeat of that movement 
brought in its train the triumph of Presbyterianism. 


6. The Submission of the Jacobite Chiefs. — The 
failure of the Highland rising had been followed by 
the conquest of Ireland for William. The hopeless 
James therefore advised the chiefs to come to terms 
with the Government for the meantime. Favour- 
able conditions were offered them. A full pardon 
was to be granted to all who took the oath of 
allegiance by December 31, i6gi. A sum of £12,000 
was to be distributed among them, ' to take away 
grounds of hereditary feuds.' This transaction 
was placed in the hands of the Earl of Breadal- 
bane, a Campbell, which did not make it easier to 
carry through. There were quarrels about the 
distribution of the money. Lochiel would not 
' break the ice/ and others of the chiefs held off as 
long as possible. But fear of the severe punish- 
ment threatened by the Government brought almost 
all in before the end of the year. The unlucky 
honour of being last, and too late, fell to Glengarry 
(Macdonald) and Mclan of Glencoe, the chief of the 
small sept of Macdonalds in that barren valley 
lying in the gloom of mighty mountains. On 
December 31 he presented himself at Fort William, 
only to learn that Colonel Hill, not being a sheriff, 
had no power to administer the oath. Fearful of 
the danger to his people, the old chief at once 
hurried south to Inveraray with a letter from Hill 
explaining the circumstances. But the roads and 
passes were heavy with snow, and the sheriff was 
not on the spot. Not till January 6 did Mclan 
have an opportunity of taking the oath, the reluctant 
sheriff yielding to the old man's entreaties and 
tears. The certificate and an explanation were 


then forwarded to Edinburgh, and Mclan went back 
to his lonely glen confident of his safety. 

7. Measures against the Glencoe Men. — There was 
one man at Court whom this development did not 
satisfy — Sir John Dalrymple, Master* of Stair, one 
of the Secretaries of State. He had looked forward 
to making an example of some at least of the High- 
land clans, for choice the Macdonalds. And Mclan 
had personal enemies. There was ' blood ' between 
him and Breadalbane. Though his following was 
small, he had great influence among the Jacobites. 
Thus when it became known that ' the Laird of 
Glencoe ' had taken the oath ' after the prefixed 
time/ it was regarded as ' very good news ; being 
that at Court it's wished he had not taken it, so 
that that thieving nest might be entirely rooted 
out.' Moreover, the Macdonalds were a * Popish ' 
clan, and it would ' be popular to take severe course 
with them.' By the King's ' specia,l commands ' 
' justice ' was to be done on ' these miscreants.' 
Captain Campbell of Glenlyon, with about 120 men 
of Argyll's regiment, w^as commissioned to enter 
the glen, and put all under seventy to the sword, 
beginning at a fixed hour on a certain date. By 
that time another force of soldiers would have 
secured all the roads and passes so as to ensure that 
none should get away. Glengarry and his clan, 
however, were to be given another chance. 

8. The Massacre of Glencoe {February 13, 1692). — 
On the first day of February the soldiers entered the 
glen. The people were at first alarmed, but were 

* I.e,, heir to the title of Viscount Stair held by his 


informed that they had simply come to quarter 
there until a place was ready for them at Fort 
William. The Macdonalds made them welcome. 
The chief and his tacksmen entertained the officers, 
and with brandy and card-playing the jolly hours 
led on the fated day. On the night of February 12 
a heavy snowstorm raged in the valley and among 
the hills. Five o'clock on the following morning 
was the hour and date arranged. Glenlyon began 
with the butchery of his own host. Nine Mac- 
donalds were dragged from their beds, tied hand 
and foot, and ' killed one by one with shot.' 
Neither children nor women were spared. A party 
marched to the chief's house, shot him from behind, 
wounded his wife, stripped her of her clothes 
and little jewellery, and left her to die. But by 
this time the whole valley was up. The reports of 
the guns and the flames of the burning house told 
too truly what was going on under the darkness of 
the winter morning. In scanty clothing young and 
old took to the hills. The storm had delayed the 
soldiers from outside, and the greater part of the 
clan, including the chief's two sons, escaped. In 
all about twenty-five* had been slain, apart from 
those who perished from exposure on the snow-clad 
heights. The houses were set on fire, and the 
soldiers drove away with them cattle, sheep, goats, 
and horses to the number of a thousand. Lochiel, 
when he heard of what had happened, was 
thoroughly frightened, and he and the neighbouring 
clans expelled the soldiers quartered among them. 
In contrast with this treatment of Glencoe the sub- 
* Another estimate puts it as high as thirty-eight. 


mission of ' Glengarry and those with him ' had 
been accepted on their taking anew the oath of 

9. Inquiry and its Result. — Only very slowly did 
the news leak out of what had been done in the 
punishing of the Macdonalds of Glencoe. At 
home and abroad Jacobite writers made the most 
of the atrocity. Three years after, an inquiry into 
the whole affair was ordered. A Committee of the 
Estates made a careful report, upon which it was 
voted that the killing was a murder, that the Master 
of Stair by his * warm directions ' was.' the original 
cause of this unhappy business,' and that those who 
carried it out should be put on trial if the King 
should * think fit.' But the officers were serving 
abroad in William's army, and no steps were taken 
against them. Dalrymple was forced to retire from 
office, and became a shunned man. William, how- 
ever, granted him a full pardon on the ground that, 
while * the execution of the men of Glencoe was 
contrary to the laws of humanity and hospitality,' 
Stair, being absent in London, could not be re- 
sponsible for the way it was carried out. He had 
merely shown ' excess of zeal,' and he received a 
pension for his public services as a mark of the 
royal favour. 

10. Industry after the Revolution. — The persistent 
efforts of the Scots to equip their country with 
various industries, were renewed after the Revolu- 
tion. They were helped in two ways. English 
capital flowed north to find employment in sugaries 
and wool factories as well as in smaller concerns. 
From the same quarter, too, came many Huguenots 


who had crossed the Channel to escape the persecu- 
tions of Louis. They supphed expert Knen-weavers. 
But the standing difficulty was to find an outlet 
for the Scottish manufactures. To protect the 
young industries the door had been shut against 
foreign stuffs. The Scots accordingly found foreign 
markets closed against them in turn. Each country 
jealously guarded its trade. England, by its 
Navigation Acts, barred the Scots equally with the 
Dutch from commerce with her North American 
colonies. The English and Dutch East India 
Companies, again, divided between them the rich 
trade with the East. But the English monopoly 
was now being attacked. Ships known as ' inter- 
lopers,' some of them owned by Scots, were forcing 
their way into the Eastern trade. And if the 
English Parlieiment could give monopolies of trade 
with English settlements to great companies, no 
less could the independent Parliament of Scotland 
do the same for Scottish companies with Scottish 
settlements. Thus early in 1695 was passed an 
' Act for a Company trading to Africa and the 
Indies.' The moving spirit in the matter was one 
William Paterson, a Scottish merchant in London, 
to whom was due the formation of the Bank of 
England in the year preceding the formation of 
the Bank of Scotland (1695). The Act gave the 
Company great powers. They might establish 
colonies in any part of India, Africa, or America 
with the consent of the natives. They could make 
war and conclude treaties. Their trade was to be 
free from all taxation for a term of years. They 
were to have the sole right of trade with their 


settlements. Half the stock of the Company, 
amounting to £300,000, was always to be owned by 
Scotsmen ; the other half was to be offered in 

11. Opposition of the East India Company. — The 
Company was enthusiastically received by the 
English merchants striving to get a share in the 
East India trade. The English share of the stock 
was quickly subscribed. Then the East India 
Company took alarm. They saw their monopoly 
in serious danger. Pressure was brought to bear 
on the English Parliament. If the Scots merchants 
could, by being free from taxation, import the tea. 
coffee, silks, and spices of the East more cheaply 
than their rivals, the English trade would be ruined. 
The wealth that flowed into the Thames would pass 
to the Forth and the Clyde. The English Govern- 
ment would lose the Customis revenue which the 
India trade supplied. These inflamed objections 
killed the project so far as England was concerned. 
Parliament threatened the members of the Company 
in London with charges of high treason. Most of 
them thereupon withdrew, and the scheme appeared 
to have broken down. But Scottish pride was 
kindled. If English capital was lost, there would 
be more for Scotland. The Scottish share was 
raised to £400,000. There was no difficulty in 
securing this sum — on paper. In three months the 
greater part had been subscribed, and all of it by the 
time the books were closed. But of actual money 
only one-half was ever paid up. Every one believed 
that vast riches were to flow into the country. 
Contributions poured in from every class except the 


peasantry — from Dukes to shopkeepers, from the 
wealthy merchants of Glasgow to the small traders 
of Inverness. It was a national and patriotic under- 
taking, and such enthusiasm had not been shown 
since the days of the National Covenant. But the 
attempt to secure the balance in Holland was foiled 
by the Dutch Company, and in Hamburg the 
English Ambassador was equally successful in his 
opposition. This taught the Scots that in foreign 
affairs the voice of the United Kingdom was merely 
the voice of England. 

12. The Colony at Darien (1698). — The scheme 
had, however, been altered. The proposal of Pater- 
son was to establish a trading settlement on the 
Peninsula of Panama in Central America, which 
should divert the Eastern trade into a shorter 
route, and set up a more direct commerce between 
East and West. A colony there would relieve 
Scotland of its ' loose, idle people.' Its position 
would make it the ' door of the seas and the key of 
the universe.'* The idea was a brilliant one, but 
did not suit the Scots, whose aim was an exclusive, 
not a free colony. For this the conditions of success 
were wanting. The district chosen on the Gulf of 
Darien was within the possessions of Spain, though 
unoccupied by that country. At this very time 
Spain, with a dying, childless King, was the subject 
of delicate European negotiations in which William 
was closely concerned. The intrusion of the Scots 
was likely to cause mischief. Moreover, they had 
no colonial experience. There were too many 

* Paterson had even a scheme for a canal, an idea now 
being reahzed. 


' raw heads ' in the business. This was shown 
in the way the first expedition was equipped. 
It consisted of five ships carrying 1,500 men. It 
carried provisions for only six months, with no 
means of getting more. Besides the implements 
necessary for a colony, there was a large cargo of 
articles for trade with tropical peoples. And these 
were mainly woollen goods, tweeds and serges 


from the Lowland factories, stockings from Aber- 
deen, no fewer than 4,600 wigs of all sorts, and 
1,500 English Bibles, ' thin grey paper,' and ' many 
little blue bonnets ' ! With such an unsuitable 
burden the little expedition reached its destination 
early in November, i6g8. The Bay of Ada, now 
Caledonia Bay, north of the Gulf of Darien, was 
selected for the settlement, and on the outermost 


point of a small peninsula was planted the fort 
which was to be the beginning of the town of New 

13. Disasters to the Colony. — The season of the 
year favoured the colonists in that deadly climate. 
The Indians made them welcome ; they thought 
they were some of their old friends, the buccaneers, 
come to spoil the Spaniard. And in that light, too, 
they soon found they were regarded by the 
Spaniards. One of their ships was captured while 
out for supplies, and only the interference of the 
English Government saved its crew later from 
being hanged as pirates. Soon provisions began to 
run short, and the goods brought over were useless 
for trade. There was no demand in steaming 
Darien for plaidings and kid gloves. A royal com- 
mand forbade the English colonies in the neighbour- 
hood having any intercourse with their unfortunate 
countrymen. With the summer came the fatal 
fevers. Men died in scores. There was no help, 
no news from home. There had been jealousies 
and quarrels among the leaders who formed the 
Council. The starving and fever-stricken remnant 
at last abandoned their fort in three ships, two 
of which bore their miserable crews to New York, 
while the 5^. Andrew reached Jamaica, where those 
on board, refused official aid, were helped by private 

14. Failure of the Second Expedition (1700). — In 
the autumn of the year arrived the first two ships 
of the second part of the colony. They found the 
settlement, of course, deserted and overgrown. 
They could do nothing. The ship containing the 


bulk of their provisions was accidentally blown up, 
and they too were forced to retire to Jamaica. 
Thus again an abandoned site met the four ships 
which sailed into the bay shortly afterwards. 
There were keen disputes as to what was to be done 
in the circumstances, but finally the colonists 
settled down to rebuild and establish themselves. 
Other ships were dispatched from Scotland, but 
only one arrived in time. Again the provisions were 
found insufficient, and much had gone bad. The 
articles of trade none would have. The Spaniards 
were beginning to close in upon the settlement 
by land and sea. In February, 1700, Captain 
Campbell with a small force, mainly Highlanders, 
marched across the peninsula, and surprised many 
times their number of Spaniards at Tuhacanti, 
defeating them with ease. The news of this success 
caused great excitement and rejoicing in Edinburgh. 
In the state of feeling against King William and his 
Government the rejoicing grew into a noisy riot. 
Unilluminated windows were smashed. The Tol- 
booth was forced open and the prisoners released ; 
two of them having written fiery pamphlets 
against the Government on the Darien question. 
The bells of St. Giles's were set ringing to the tune, 
' Wilful WiUie, wilt thou be wilful stiU V 

15. Darien is Abandoned [March 31, 1700). — But 
while Edinburgh was thus triumphant, the final 
disaster had already overtaken the darling colony. 
Captain Campbell returned to find the harbour held 
by eleven Spanish warships. The settlers were 
blockaded in their fort. Disease slew faster than 
the enemy. As many as sixteen died in a day. 


The water-supply was cut off ; what could be got 
was brackish. Food and ammunition were both 
bad, and rapidly running short. The end came in 
an honourable capitulation. The little garrison 
marched out with all their property and arms, 
' with colours flying and drums beating.' They 
crowded aboard their five ships and two sloops. 
Hundreds of sick men, whose chief food was damaged 
oatmeal, died on the voyage. Most of the vessels 
were wrecked or run ashore on the American coast. 
But one ship, the ill-named Speedy Return, and 
Campbell's sloop reached home. The Darien under- 
taking had cost Scotland about 2,000 men and 
£200,000. It brought the nation to the brink of 
financial ruin. 

16. Indignation in Scotland, — With each rebuff 
and disappointment that marked the course of 
the Company the anger of the Scots had deepened. 
The interference of the English Parliament, the 
action of the Ambassador at Hamburg, the instruc- 
tions to the colonial governors to boycott the 
colony, the wilfulness of the King in his opposition, 
then the final failure — each blow drove the nation 
' still madder and madder.' As the Estates could 
not be kept off the Darien business, they were 
adjourned from time to time. The Jacobite mem- 
bers of the Opposition or Country party fostered 
the national grievance. Their prospects were 
brightening. William had no children. Mary had 
•died in 1694. Her sister Anne would succeed, and 
Anne's one surviving son now died. The following 
year (i70i)|'saw the death of James VH, and what 
more likely than the restoration of the old royal 


family in the person of his son, James Francis 
Edward, ' the Old Pretender,'* now recognized as 
King by Louis of France ? The thought of this 
rallied the Whig members of the Country party to 
the support of the Government. Still, Scottish 
pride needed satisfaction. When Parliament at 
last met, WiUiam expressed his regret at being unable 
in the interests of peace to support the colony in 
Darien, but was ready to aid the Company on other 
lines. In reply, addresses and petitions poured in 
from every class and district in the country. The 
Government vainly tried to dispose first of the 
demand for supplies for the great war now impend- 
ing over the Spanish Succession. The Darien affair 
overshadowed everything. Resolutions were passed, 
after heated and stormy debates, condemning the 
obstacles that had been placed in the Company's 
way, and asserting New Caledonia to be a lawful 
settlement. This brought the Estates into direct 
conflict with the English Parliament, which, in the 
House of Lords, had approved all that the Estates 

17. Proposals for Union. — There was only one 
way to deal with the situation. William renewed 
the proposal for closer union which he had 
made at the beginning of his reign. If conflicts 
between the two independent Parhaments were to 
be avoided, the trade interests of the two countries 
would have to be more fairly adjusted. Early 
in 1702 William informed the Commons that he 
' would esteem it a peculiar felicity if, during his 
reign, some happy expedient for making both 

* Pretender is simply the French pretendant, claimant. 


kingdoms one might take place/ But the Enghsh 
ParUament, it was to be shown, had not yet awoke 
to the seriousness of the case. Shortly afterwards 
the King, worn out by his campaigning, died from 
the effects of a chill (March, 1702). Despite the 
unhappy events with which his name had been 
associated, he was popular in Scotland. This was 
largely due to the careful guidance in dealing with 
that kingdom which he had received from his 
chaplain and life-long friend William Carstairs, the 
sufferer through the Rye House Plot, one of the 
best of Scotland's clerical statesmen. He was 
' properly Viceroy ' of Scotland, and ' was called 
at Court Cardinal Carstairs.' 



1. Scotland in the Seventeenth Century. — Thus the 
century which had opened proudly for Scotland 
closed in bitterness and distress. The union of the 
Crowns had brought the nation no material gain. 
The strife of the Churches had been prolonged and 
embittered by the power of Kings living out of the 
country, and becoming more English than Scotch. 
' Independence ' was but a shadow when it was no 
longer an object of fear, and so the interests of the 
larger and wealthier kingdom always took first 
place. Wars, confiscations, and fines had burdened 
or ruined many of the landed families. The towns 
were so reduced that several royal burghs had parted 


with their privileges, as they could no longer pay 
their dues. The population of such a promising 
town as Glasgow fell largely after the Common- 
wealth, during which the nation had its first glimpse 
of prosperity. When, free of the Covenanting 
struggle, an active and ambitious people turned its 
energies to trade, the conditions of the union were 
found to be insupportable. Scotsmen had to pay 
for wars whose advantages fell to England. They 
helped to man the fleets of England and of Holland, 
and to fill the ranks of the armies that held France 
in check. But the kingdom could not act apart 
from England ; it could not compete with her trade, 
and it was not allowed to share. In ah forms of 
prosperity it was still far behind. England had 
seven times the population of Scotland (about 
800,000), and was sixty times as rich. Newcastle 
alone had more trade than all the Scottish burghs 
together. Attempts to set up industries on inde- 
pendent lines led to the inglorious failure of Darien. 
This crushing loss fell on a country passing through 
the seven lean years (1696—1703), when the green 
harvests of sunless summers were often reaped in 
early snows. So many died of starvation that ' the 
living wearied of the burying of the dead.' The 
eighteenth century dawned on a poverty-stricken 

2. The Working Classes, — In many respects the 
poorer Scots were no better off than they had been 
two hundred years before. Rents were high, though 
paid mostly in produce, and the peasants occupied 
their holdings at the pleasure of their landlords. 
There was thus no encouragement to this class to 


better their conditions. Sturdy beggars. in threaten- 
ing bands still swarmed over the country and 
infested the towns. In lonely hamlets it was dan- 
gerous to refuse their demands. These were in 
addition to the really poor and helpless. It was 
still the law for magistrates to fix the prices of goods 
and the wages of workers. Crafts and merchandise 
were still confined to freemen of burghs. Owners 
of lead-mines in Lanarkshire, and of coal-mines in 
Fife and the Lothians, required a special licence to 
supply their workmen with food. The tailors of 
Inverness more than once complained to the Privy 
Council of ' outlandish ' men carrying on that trade 
outside the burgh. The difficulty of enforcing such 
laws led to the reduction of two important classes 
of workers to a state of slavery. Colliers and salters 
were bound to the mines and ' pans ' at which they 
worked. They could not take up any other occupa- 
tion. One master was not allowed to offer higher 
wages than another. They were part of the pro- 
perty on which they worked, and were transferred 
with it. Their children were born to the slavery 
of their parents. Such was the law of Scotland till 
near the close of the eighteenth century. Early in the 
nineteenth century there were still men and women 
within a few miles of Edinburgh who had been born 

3. Life in the Country. — Labour on the land was 
still the main industry, and both in England and 
Scotland the methods were still the same as those 
in use at the time of the War of Independence. 
Only the portion of land near the farmhouse, the 
'in-field,' was regularly tilled. The larger portion. 


or ' out-field/ lay waste under the coarse, wild 
grasses as pasture for the undersized cattle and 
sheep. Part of the out-field was ploughed up each 
year, but a single crop exhausted it, and it lay 
fallow till its turn again came. Ploughing was done 
by all in common with a team of eight to twelve 
oxen. Horses were expensive to use, as they had 
to be fed with oats, and of that there was often 
little enough for the people themselves. Wheaten 
bread was a dainty in Scotland, as in the north of 
England. Less wheat was grown in the Lowlands 
than in the days of the farmer-monks. There were 
no fences. The cultivated land was marked off by 
grassy banks, or by lines of ' march-stanes.' Hence, 
during the summer, the cattle had to be watched 
all night lest they should break down the dry-stone 
walls of the fold and stray among the growing crops. 
On the moors were the sheep and cattle farms. Wool 
was the most plentiful product of the Borders, as 
cattle and horses were of the Highlands. But Gallo- 
way ' nags ' also were famous, and good horses were 
known in England as ' Galloways.' The houses of the 
peasantry were what they had been for hundreds of 
years (see Chapter XVIII, § 2). Farmers and their 
cottagers or labourers made up the smaller towns. 
The landed gentry still kept to their country houses, 
where living was cheaper than in towns such as 
Edinburgh, and where they could use up their rents 
in ' kind.' ' In Scotland the merchants and some 
lawyers alone make their constant abode in the 
\cities.' Bare and bleak was the Lowland landscape, 
from which the trees had long been cleared. Only 
about the towns was growing timber to be seen, or 


in close clumps shading the houses of the great 
noblemen. Wood for all purposes, from platters to 
house fittings, had to be brought from the High- 
lands or Norway. 

4. Life in the Towns. — Of the Scottish towns, 
Edinburgh was still easily first in all respects. Its 
long, sloping street of unusual width, paved with 
round stones, and formed by houses that rose as 
high as ten stories, gave it a distinguished air. As 
in all the towns of Scotland, the houses were stone 
built, but faced with boards. The ' fore-stairs ' 
were now giving way to spiral stairs in outside 
turrets, and, owing to the destructive fires to which 
the towns were subject, the olden thatch was being 
replaced by tiles or slates. Of the narrow windows 
the upper half only was of glass, the lower opened 
in wooden shutters. The gutters ran down each 
side of the street, and there was none in the middle, 
which thus formed an open space for the busy 
crowds that flocked to the courts and markets of 
the capital. ' In Scotland you walk generally in 
the middle of the streets.' On either side, filling 
the spaces between the pillars that upheld the 
wooden fronts, were the ' booths ' of the shop- 
keepers, but their goods often spread on to the 
street itself. The towering ' lands ' above were 
laid out in flats in the French style. In one tene- 
ment all classes might be represented — lords or ladies, 
judges, lawyers, ministers, craftsmen, and labourers — 
the poorer folk on the lowest and highest levels, the 
richer between. Up and down the narrow winding 
stair they pattered all day long — gentlemen in their 
wigs and three-cornered hats, ladies in wide hoops 


and red shoes, barefooted maids with their water- 
buckets from the pubhc wells, coal-men, fish-wives 
from Musselburgh with their creels, and messengers 
of all sorts. Strangers were led about by ' caddies,' 
or carried in sedan chairs, swaying along on the 
shoulders of two stalwart Highlandmen. Every night 
at ten o'clock, or soon after, as the bells of St. Giles's 
rang out, windows were opened, and with a warning 
cry of ' Gardy-loo !'* the inmates flung the dirty 
water and refuse of the day on to the street below, 
sometimes to splash over the late passer-by, whose 
shout of ' Hand yer haim !' had not been heard or 
attended to. Next morning, Sunday excepted, the 
stuff was hastily swept up in wheelbarrows. But 
the sewage of a crowded population in their lofty 
' lands ' was no sweet m.atter when thus disposed 
of, and Edinburgh after dark was an evil-smelling 
place. In sum^mer, for the same reason, it was, 
according to a great advocate, ' the most unwhole- 
some and unpleasant town in Scotland.' The 
cleansing of all the Scottish towns, indeed, was 
chiefly the work of the frequent rains and the high 
winds. Next to Edinburgh in size and importance 
came Glasgow, about hall the size of modern Inver- 
ness, whose noble cathedral, four straight streets, 
gardens and orchards, made it look like an English 
town. In the north Aberdeen was one of the 
busiest and most prosperous places in the kingdom. 
From some sides it looked ' as ii it stood in a garden 
or little wood.' ' The dwelling-houses,' wrote a f 
gentleman of the district, ' are cleanly and beautiful, 
and neat both. within and without, and the side that 

* French, Gardez I'eau, ' Look out for water/ 


looks to the street mostly adorned with galleries of 
timber.' It did a large trade with Holland, sup- 
plying much of the pork that was used in the Dutch 
navy, and having a great name for its ' plaidings ' 
and the lambskins which were used in the East of 
Europe for lining warm cloaks. It was said to 
bring more money into Scotland, mostly Dutch 
silver dollars, than any other place. Farther north 
Inverness was the only town of any size. It sup- 
plied the household wants of the Highland districts 
round about. Its main streets were much like those 
elsewhere, with smaller and less imposing buildings. 
But the ' extreme parts ' were made up of miserable, 
turf -co vexed houses. The outskirts of all the Scot- 
tish towns were of this sort, houses of the meaner 
kind or rows of tumble-down ruins. The heart of 
the town was the fashionable as well as the trading 
quarter. The eastern ports did their commerce 
with Holland, while the wine and other products of 
France made the business of those on the Ayrshire 
coast, such as Ayr and ' dainty ' Irvine. Ayr was 
a serious rival to Dumfries, where the Solway was 
no easy road for shipping. In the west salmon and 
herring were common articles of food, and, when 
dried or salted, of export to the Continent. So long 
as Scotland was a chiefly agricultural and fishing 
community, with but a few struggling factories, and 
its industries mainly home industries, the towns 
could not be large. The blue bonnets of the men — 
only the better classes could wear hats — the brown 
cloaks of the country people, and the checkered plaids 
in which all women wrapped themselves ' like harle- 
quins/ were the peculiar parts of the national costume. 

24 — 2 


5. Roads and Travelling. — In the narrower streets 
of the towns the roadway was banked high, and, if 
paved with pebbles, very sHppery for any but foot 
travellers. Throughout the country the roads were 
of the most wretched description, but little worse 
than those south of the Border. They were usually 
no more than drove roads for the cattle, or tracks 
for the pack-horses, which always kept to the higher 
levels to avoid the marshes and pools and mists of 
the lower lands. The easiest mode of transit was 
down the rivers or by the sea. Highland timber was 
floated down the larger streams to the ports at their 
mouths. On the Spey men in coracles of the ancient 
sort, one man paddling in each, towed down the logs 
fastened to their legs. From the districts not thus 
served only the bark of the trees could be sent to 
market, the timber being left to rot on the ground. 
Ponies could carry the bark, or, where the wood might 
be sawn, drag the planks along the rough tracks. E ven 
between Edinburgh and Glasgow there was no real 
road, and it was cheaper and more convenient to 
send cordage from Glasgow to the Eastern Lowlands 
by sea. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that 
the attempts to follow England in the introduction 
of hackney and stage coaches were not successful. 
Horseback remained the quickest and safest form 
of travelling. Great lords possessed their lumber- 
ing family coaches drawn by six horses, but besides 
their usual attendants, two tall footmen marched 
alongside with poles to support the coach from 
toppling over or assist it when the road became 
nearly impassable. A highway ran from Edinburgh 
ito Berwick, but even the first few miles out of the 


capital were a danger to life, as nothing was easier 
on its rutted and broken surface than for a horse 
to stumble and fall or a coach to be upset. Over 
this road went the horse-post to Berwick for London 
twice a week, while another horse-post took letters 
to Portpatrick for Ireland. To the other towns — 
to Glasgow and the North as far as Inverness — the 
posts went from the capital on foot once or twice 
a week, weather permitting. Bridges were few, 
ferrymen made heavy charges, and drowning at 
the fords was no uncommon occurrence. 

6. Education and Literature. — Ever since the Re- 
formation attempts were being made from time to 
time to secure that every parish in Scotland should 
have its school. This, however, had not been accom- 
plished by the end of the century. Over most of the 
Highlands not even a beginning had been made. 
All the towns, of course, had their burgh schools. 
The Universities were still poor, but now profited 
by a share of the rents of the dispossessed bishops. 
Noblemen's sons and others capable went abroad 
to finish their education. As a result of the system 
set up by James VI even many of the Highland 
chiefs had their share of learning, and were known 
at the Universities of Aberdeen or St. Andrews. 
Campbells and Mackenzies had given Scotland able 
administrators. There was, indeed, a high level of 
learning among the professional men of Scotland — 
lawyers, clergymen, and doctors — and among most 
of the country gentlemen. These were the men who 
wrote the books of the time, for there was no distinct 
literary class. But they wrote in Enghsh, with some 
Scotch words and phrases, or in Latin. Only poets, 


such as Robert Sempill of Beltrees, carried on the 
tradition of the ancient ' makars ' by composing in 
Scots. The writings of the time were almost en- 
tirely on religious or political subjects arising out 
of the wars and controversies of Church and State. 
Samuel Rutherford, in his Lex Rex (' Law and King'), 
maintained the position of Major and Knox and 
Buchanan that the King was not above the laws, 
but subject to them. This book was, after the 
Restoration, burned by the hangman, and to have 
it in one's possession was a crime. The ablest 
opponent of this view was Sir George Mackenzie, 
the King's Advocate. He was a writer on many 
subjects, and, as such, highly thought of among 
the English wits. He resented the contempt of the 
English for the Scottish idiom. The gentry of both 
countries, he maintained, used nearly the same 
forms of speech, ' nor do our commons speak so 
rudely as those of Yorkshire.' ' Our pronunciation,' 
he wrote, ' is, like ourselves, fiery, abrupt, sprightly, 
and bold.' Another champion of Scottish excel- 
lencies was Sir Thomas Urquhart, Sheriff of Cro- 
marty, also a Cavalier, who made an unsurpassed 
translation of part of the great French writer 
Rabelais. Writers and books of all sizes on the 
controversies of the century are past numbering. 
Of the historians, the most distinguished and best 
known for the first part of the century are John 
Spottiswoode, Archbishop of St. Andrews on the 
Episcopal side ; and David Calderwood, on the side 
of the Presbyterians. The period after the Restora- 
tion had its chief historians in the Presbyterian, 
Robert Wodrow (died 1734), and Bishop Gilbert 


Burnett. The work of the latter, however, was 
mostly done in England. It was the Church that 
made the history of Scotland during the seventeenth 
century, and the records of the struggle are the 
Scottish literature of the time. 


ANNE (1702-1707) 

1. The Situation in Scotland. — Queen Anne, like her 
sister Mary, had not chosen her father's part in the 
Revolution. She was a firm Protestant, but 
' entirely English.' Still she was a Stewart, and 
so not displeasing even to the Jacobites. William 
had died in the act of shaping great events. He 
ihad started the War of the Spanish Succession 
, against his old enemy Louis XIV of France. The 
problem of the union of the Parliaments had again 
been brought to the front. The arrangement of 
the succession to the throne had not yet been 
adopted by Scotland. By the English Act of Settle- 
ment (1701) the Crown, if Anne left no heirs, was 
to pass to a Protestant granddaughter of James VI, 
Sophia, wife of the Elector of Hanover. Other 
descendants of James were ruled out as Catholics. 
In Scotland, in its present temper, these were all 
dangerous topics. The independence of the Scottish 
Estates had been successfully attacked, and the 
nation shamed. This was the fact uppermost in 
the Scottish mmd. 


2. The Crown and the Estates. — It was no longer 
possible to muzzle the Estates. The Lords of the 
Articles, who had served this end, were gone. Being 
gone, other means had to take their place. By the 
distribution of offices of State, by pensions and 
such-like ways, a Court party of ' Old Whigs ' had 
been built up which formed the Government. Its 
head was the Royal Commissioner, the Duke of 
Queensberry, another Douglas and a cool, capable 
statesman. The Parliament which still sat was the 
Convention Parliament of the Revolution. Contrary 
to law, it was not dissolved, and Commissioners 
were at once appointed to proceed with the treaty 
for union. They stuck fast at the outset. The 
English would do nothing for the African Company, 
and plainly were not willing to throw open the 
colonial trade. Thereupon the Parliament was at 
last dissolved. A free pardon had been granted 
to all w^ho had been guilty of acts of treason since 
the Revolution, and the Queen had requested the 
Council to protect Episcopalians * in the peaceable 
possession of their religion.' On these grounds 
Queensberry appealed for the support of the 
Jacobites, or Cavaliers. The result of the elections 
was a large reduction in the numbers of the Whig 
Opposition or Country Party, while the Cavalier 
Opposition shared in the offices of the Government. 

3. The Riding of the Parliament. — Now was seen 
for the last time, as it turned out, the imposing 
ceremony of the ' Riding ' of the Scottish Parha- 
ment. From Holyrood to the Parliament House 
the street was cleared of traffic, and a way railed 
off and lined with soldiers, by which the procession 


should pass. The towering houses and forestalls 
on either side were hung with tapestry and crowded 
with spectators. All the members rode on horse- 
back, two abreast. First came the burgesses, each 
attended by one servant, with their horses decked 
in trappings of black velvet. Then the barons in 
scarlet mantles, each with a number of servants 
according to rank, rising to eight for a Duke. These 
wore above their liveries the coats of arms of their 
masters on velvet cloaks. In the most conspicuous 
part of the procession were carried the treasured 
* Honours ' — the crown, sceptre, and sword of 
State, their bearers alone riding with uncovered 
heads, attended by the heralds. The Commissioner 
with a numerous train brought up the rear. In 
the Parliament House special benches at the upper 
end, near the throne, were reserved for the nobility, 
while the burgesses had their seats lower down. 

4. The Estates Assert their Independence. — The first 
business of the Parliament should have been the 
settling of the succession and the voting of supplies. 
But the Opposition took its own way. The 
Cavaliers soon showed that they were there not to 
support the Government, but to make all the 
mischief they could. With their support the 
Whigs of the Country Party who had fought for the 
Darien scheme, introduced and carried a series of 
Acts which amounted to a declaration of war 
against the Parhament of England. The leader of 
the Opposition as a whole was the Duke of Hamilton, 
son of the Duke of the Revolution. His father 
was a Douglas who had secured the dukedom 
through his wife. The son had all the boldness 


and violence of the Douglases; while as indecisive 
and unsure as all the Hamiltons had been. But 
the most prominent member of the Opposition was 
Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun, a Lothian laird. 
Distrustful of all Kings, he would reduce their power 
to a mere shadow. He was ' a low, thin man, 
brown complexion, full of fire, with a stern, sour 
look,' who had seen active service in Hungary 
while an exile under Charles H. Under such guidance 
the Estates passed a War Act, which affirmed that 
the Sovereign should have no power to make war 
on behalf of Scotland without the consent of the 
Scots Parliament. To make this clearer, a Wine 
Act allowed the importation of wines from France, 
with which country Britain was now in a state of 
war. This Act ' made a great noise ' in London ; it 
seemed as if the ' back-door ' was again being 
opened to the national enemy. 

5. The Act of Security (1703). — But the triumph 
of the Opposition was the Act of Security. It was 
mainly the work of Fletcher. It provided that, in 
the event of Anne dying without a successor, the 
Estates should select a Protestant member of the 
royal family, who should not be the successor 
chosen by England, unless such conditions of govern- 
ment were established as would secure ' the honour 
and sovereignty of this crown and kingdom, the 
religion, freedom, and trade of the nation, from 
English or any foreign influence ' ; and unless there 
were granted to the Scots, ' a free communication 
of trade, the freedom of navigation, and the liberty 
of the plantations.' A further clause summoned 
the nation to arms by providing for the immediate 


arming and drilling of the militia in every shire and 
burgh. The debates on this grave measure were 
long and disorderly. The Government was helpless. 
Queensberry gave the royal assent to all other Acts, 
but to the Act of Security he refused the necessary 
touch with the sceptre. The passions of the 
members broke out uncontrollably. Queensberry 
pressed for the vote of supplies. But the Opposition 
knew that if this were granted he would adjourn 
Parliament. The House was crowded with people. 
The members accused, threatened, and stormed at 
each other, sometimes with their hands on their 
swords. Darkness fell, and candles were lighted. 
Then for two hours there was a ceaseless din while 
members and strangers of the national party 
shouted, ' Liberty and no subsidy !' Compromise 
was impossible. The Act of Security was not 
' touched,' no supplies were voted, and Parliament 
was prorogued. 

6. The Scots Plot (1703). — Queensberr\7's Jacobite 
allies had failed him, even the Duke of Atholl, a 
member of the Government. This was the proud, 
passionate Lord John Murray who had disappointed 
Dundee, and had received a dukedom from William. 
But Queensberry had now a weapon put into his 
hand with which he hoped to destroy both Atholl 
and Hamilton. A few years before Simon Fraser 
of Lorat had been guilty of an atrocious crime 
against a member of the family of Atholl. He 
avoided a sentence of death by a flight to France. 
There he professed to become a Papist and an ardent 
Jacobite. He won sufficient credit at the exiled 
Court of St. Germains with the Pretender and his 


mother to be sent back to Scotland as a Jacobite 
agent with a sum of money, and an unaddressed 
letter apparently for the Duke of Gordon. But 
Simon was a rogue intent only on his own interests. 
He addressed the letter to the Duke of AthoU, his 
enemy, and then handed it over to Queensberry. 
He could also tell of a scheme on the part of 
Hamilton, AthoU, and others for a Highland 
' hunting ' that very summer, which was to be 
the beginning of a rising. Queensberry, seeing 
his enemies delivered into his hands, continued to 
employ Fraser as a spy, and sent his information 
to the Queen's Ministers in London. Then another 
' plotter ' disclosed the whole affair to AthoU. The 
indignant Duke posted up to London. The House 
of Lords ordered an inquiry into the ' plot,' a step 
in which the Scottish Parliament saw further inter- 
ference with their rights. The chiefs of the Country 
Party supported the wronged AthoU. The inquiry 
disclosed nothing but some vague plotting, which 
was always going on. But Queensberry and his 
friends were removed from office, and their places 
taken by the leaders of the Country or New Party. 

7. The Country Party in Office. — In her letter to 
the Estates the Queen urged with all the earnestness 
of which she was capable ' the settling of the succes- 
sion in the Protestant line.' To this the new Govern- 
ment was agreeable, having been granted their 
claim that the royal offices should be filled by vote 
of the Estates. Thus the English Ministers would 
no longer be able to control the affairs of the inde- 
pendent kingdom. But the Country Party was the 
smaUest section of the Estates. The Queensberry 



From an engraving by Du Guernier after the portrait by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller. 


Whigs would not support them. The CavaHers 
would certainly do nothing in the interest of 
Hanover. The action of the House of Lords in 
the matter of the plot was protested against. The 
Act of Security was again introduced and passed. 
Until the royal assent had been given to that Act 
the Estates declared they would not pass the Act 
of Supply, and there was no money to pay the 
troops in Scotland, already in arrears. Both Acts 
had therefore to be accepted together. Another 
Act permitted the free exportation of wool — an 
attempt to undersell England (1704). 

8. The Aliens Act (1705). — Thus the rent between 
the kingdoms was steadily becoming wider. England, 
while straining every effort against France, was in 
danger of being crippled by a hostile Scotland. In 
a House of Lords debate a leading peer declared 
that things should not have been allowed to come 
to such a pass. He continued : ' There are two 
matters of all troubles : much discontent and great 
poverty ; and whoever will now look into Scotland 
will find them both in that kingdom.' Still, as 
Scotland was being armed in terms of the Act of 
Security, the English Parliament could only follow 
its example. An Aliens Act declared that all 
j Scotsmen not residing in England, Ireland, or the 
j colonies, or serving in the army or navy, should be 
' treated as aliens ; forbade the bringing of English 
horses, arms, or ammunition into Scotland ; and 
excluded from. England Scottish cattle, coals, and 
linen, the most profitable exports. At the same 
time the Queen was requested to take measures 
for the defence of the great northern towns, to place 


troops on the Border, and call out the miUtia of the 
four northern shirks. 

9. Queensberry Returns to Power (1705). — The two 
kingdoms were now within sight of war. The 
Government of the Country Party had been a failure. 
The English Whigs forced its dismissal, and Queens- 
berry and his friends again took office. A new 
member of the party was the first Duke of Argyll, 
a young, fiery soldier who had commanded the 
Scots Brigade in Holland. He had ' seen most of 
the Courts of Europe/ and his wide possessions, 
the number of men he could bring into the field, and 
the power he possessed of ' trying and executing 
within his own territories,' with his skill as a speaker, 
made him a person of the first importance. The 
Earl of Seafield (Ogilvie), a ' man of all parties,' was 
Chancellor. Queensberry became Commissioner. 
He took a new line. Instead of the succession the 
question of union was brought to the front. The 
Opposition was out-generahed. To the dismay of 
the Jacobites, the Duke of Hamilton moved that 
commissioners for the Treaty of Union should be 
appointed by the Queen, and this was carried. 
Hamilton is a puzzle. Early in the following year 
thirty-one Commissioners were appointed by the 
Queen to draw up the Articles of Union. With 
one exception, all the Scots were of ' the Court or 
Whig interest.' 

10. The Treaty of Union (1706). — In about three 
months — April to July, 1706 — the Commissioners had 
completed their task, and the twenty-five Articles 
of Union had been agreed to. One difficulty was 
got over at the outset by the understanding that 


there was to be no question of altering the Church 
government or service of either kingdom. In the 
matter of trade England made a full surrender, 
insisting only that the African Company should 
be dissolved after compensation. The chief articles 
of the Treaty were as follows. The kingdoms 
were to be united under one monarchy and one 
Parliament. Thus the Union was to be an ' incor- 
porating ' and not a ' federal ' union. Scotland 
was to be represented by sixteen peers and forty- 
five members of the Commons. The Electress of 
Hanover and her Protestant heirs were to succeed 
to the throne. Within the United Kingdom and 
to the colonies all trade was to be free. The 
coinage and weights and measures were to be the 
same for both countries, also the duties on imported 
and exported goods. From certain duties, how- 
ever, imposed for war purposes, Scotland was in the 
meantime to be free. The Scottish legal system 
was to be retained, subject to the control of Parlia- 
ment. To recompense Scotland for financial losses, 
and to lighten at the beginning the new burden of 
taxation, especially the share in the English 
National Debt, a sum of nearly £400,000 was to be 
contributed by England. Of this ' Equivalent,' 
part was to be used in getting rid of Scotland's 
official debt, mainly salaries in arrear ; part was to 
go to pay off the capital, with interest, of the 
African Company, thus making good the losses at 
Darien ; and the rest was to be applied to the 
encouragement of fisheries and manufactures. 

11. The Act of Union {January 16, 1707). — The 
Treaty had now to be ratified by both Parhaments. 

.^^^■tJNION of the parliaments 385 

To S^BKncl was given the honour of being first. 
In the last session of the Estates Queensberry 
was again Commissioner. Mild, prudent, and 
steady, no better man could have occupied so 
critical a position. The Scottish Parliament was 
now a free debating assembly, and as the rules 
of debate were also rather free and the orators 
many, che discussions were long and bitter. All 
through tiie stormy sittings, pamphlets and other 
writings were showered on the country, almost 
entirely against the proposals. The evil which they 
were likely to do was exaggerated, the good made 
light of. The national independence, that ' most 
noble monument of antiquity,' was to be bartered 
' for some hogsheads of sugar, indigo, and stinking 
tobacco of the plantation trade.' Such arguments 
were mainly the work of the Jacobite party, who 
noisily opposed every step in the proceedings. 
Nationalists like Fletcher argued for a ' federal ' 
instead of an ' incorporating ' union. Petitions 
against the Treaty poured in from many burghs and 
shires, and from some presbyteries. The scornful 
Duke of Argyll proposed making kites of them. 
Outside, the populace of Edinburgh ' cursed and 
reviled ' Queensberry ' to his face ' as he drove to 
Holyrood under the protection of the Guards, and 
gave their cheers and approval to Hamilton in his 
sedan-chair. Edinburgh, of course, would lose by 
the disappearance of Parliament, both in dignity and 
business. In Glasgow, too, there was a riot because 
the Council would not petition against the Union. 
At Dumfries and at Kirkcudbright a copy of the 
articles was publicly burned. The Church, as a 



whole, maintained a watchful, impartial^PitucW. 

Its fears regarding a Parliament in which the great 
majority should be Episcopalians, were provided for. 
The opening words of the Act of Ratification made 
the ecclesiastical establishment of Scotland, as it 
stood, ' a fundamental and essential condition of 
the Union/ The wise action of the Church helped 
much to the success of the measure. That, however, 
was assured when the Whig Country Party, now 
known as the Squadrone Volante (Flying Squadron) 
gave in its support. Led by the brilliant young 
Duke of Roxburgh (Ker), they held the scales 
between Courtiers and Cavaliers. They were not 
affected by the tearing passion of the Earl of 
Belhaven, who delivered the most famous oration 
against the Union, which he took care to print. 
He pleaded for united action against a conquering 
enemy. * Hannibal,' he said, ' is at our gates. 
Hannibal is come the length of this table — he is at 
the foot of this throne ; he will demolish this throne 
if we take not notice — he'll seize upon these regalia 
— he'll whip us out of this house never to return 
again.' This appeal he repeated on bended knees. 
But against the eloquence of Belhaven the Govern- 
ment could count on the more pow^erful oratory 
of the Earl of Stair, still under the shadow 
of Glencoe. He had held no office since that 
occurrence, though admitted to be the ablest of 
the Scottish statesmen, and now worked in the 
interests of his country as a ' volunteer.' He died 
suddenly just as the end was in sight. The twenty - 
second article, which fixed the number of Scottish 
representatives, was a critical stage. The carrying 


of this article was to be the signal for a great 
protest on the part of the Opposition. They were 
to retire in a body from the House. Hamilton was 
to lead. When the time came, Hamilton had to be 
sent for, and then refused to take action.' Oppo- 
sition was over. On January 16, 1707, the Act of 
Ratification of the Treaty of Union passed the 

12. The Union Completed. — It is clear from the 
names on the division lists that the nobles provided 
a greater share of supporters of the Union than 
either of the other two estates. Many of them 
owed to the Government offices or pensions or places 
of profit. It was also maintained that not a few 
had been directly bribed out of a sum of about 
£8,000. On the other hand, much of this was 
due for expenses incurred in official work and not 
yet paid. The Duke of AthoU got £1,000, but he 
did not support the Union. Others who received 
payments were not members of Parliament. To 
favour the trading classes, also, certain changes were 
made in the terms of the Treaty. These considera- 
tions, with the prospect of the cash Equivalent 
which would make up for the money lost at Darien, 
helped to tone down the opposition to a measure 
which was not pleasing to the national sentiment. 
The Jacobites called the Equivalent ' the price of 
Scotland.' The Union got a warmer welcome in 
England than in Scotland. It was made clear to 
the English Parliament that it would be wise to 
accept the Treaty without change, in the form in 
which it had come from the Estates. This was 
cleverly managed, and on March 6, 1707, the 



royal assent was given to the ratifying Act on the 
part of England. It came back to the Estates in 
this form at their meeting on March 19, and when 
the Earl of Seafield, ' as Chancellor, signed the 
engrossed exemplification of the Act of Union, he 
returned it to the clerk, in the face of Parliament, 
with this despising and contemning remark : Now 
there's ane end of ane old song.'" On May i the 
two Parliariients became one, and, amid scenes of 
public rejoicing, Anne drove to a thanksgiving 
service in St. Paul's. 


ANNE (1707-1714); GEORGE I (1714-1719) 

1. The New Duties and Smuggling. — The accomplish- 
ment of the Union left a feeling of soreness in Scot- 
land even among those who had not opposed it. 
The benefits could come only in course of time, while 
the burden of English taxation fell at once on a 
country still suffering from the effects of the famine 
years. English officials had to be brought down to 
make a beginning of the collection of the new duties 
in the English way. This was very strict, which 
the Scottish practice had never been. On such 
articles as wine and brandy, largely consumed in 
Scotland, the duties were now five to eight times 
heavier than they had been. There was thus great 
temptation to smuggling. What had been worth 


Emery Walker. 

PRETENDER ' (1688-I766). 

From the painting by Anton Rafael Mengs in the National Portrait 
Gallery^ London, 


little before now became a very profitable business. 
But it was also more dangerous, for swift revenue 
vessels watched the seas for the Dutch ' luggers ' 
which brought over the stuff, while mounted ' pre- 
ventive men ' kept guard on the coast. To deal 
with such offences among others, Justices of the 
Peace were revived in Scotland. But people of all 
classes sympathized with the smugglers, and the 
* fair trade ' soon became a glaring feature of 
Scottish life. 

2. A Jacobite Armada (1708). — Of these circum- 
stances the friends of the Pretender, or Chevalier 
St. George, were not slow to make use. Their hope 
was in help from the aged King of France. He, of 
course, was ready to do what he could to cripple 
his victorious enemy of England. Colonel Hook, 
the Jacobite agent, reported Scotland, in disgust at 
the Union, ready for a rising. Really, the Scottish 
Jacobites were divided between the parties of Hamil- 
ton and AthoU. The Chevalier, too, was a firm 
Catholic, and Protestant Scotland would never excite 
itself to restore a Catholic dynasty. However, a fleet 
was gathered at Dunkirk to transport to Scotland 
5,000 men and a large supply of arms. That 
country was quite defenceless. In Stirling Castle 
was only one barrel of gunpowder. But in England 
a fleet was hastily got together under Sir George 
Byng. It reached the Forth a few hours after the 
arrival of the French. At first the British ships 
were taken for the Danish merchantmen which 
came yearly to Scotland for coal. When their true 
character was discovered, the French sheered off. 
James pleaded to be landed anywhere, but he was 



not listened to. The Scottish Jacobites were left to 
their ' grief/ 

3. Hamilton Gets off the Arrested Jacobites. — On 
suspicion of being concerned in this invasion, twenty- 
two gentlemen were arrested, including not only 
Hamilton and Lord Belhaven, but also Fletcher of 
Saltoun. They were taken up to London for trial 
— another insult to Scotland. But Hamilton made 
a compact with the Whig Ministry, then much in 
need of political help. On condition of the prisoners 
being released, he and his friends promised to act 
with the Scottish Whigs, whose leaders were the old 
Squadron. This ' was one of the nicest steps the 
Duke of H?.milton ever made.' All the prisoners 
were set free except three Stirlingshire gentlemen, 
who had actually appeared in arms. These were 
sent down to be tried in Edinburgh, where they 
secured a verdict of ' not proven.' This case showed 
that the Scottish law of treason was too easy, and 
an Act ' for improving the Union ' was passed, 
making that law the same as in England. The 
measure was opposed in vain by all the Scottish 
representatives, including the Squadron Whigs. 
Another ' improvement ' was the abolition of the 
Scottish Privy Council — another ' old song.' 

4. Trouble with the Episcopalians. — The Scottish 
Members of Parliament were not finding their posi- 
tion a pleasant one. They were made fun of for 
what seemed to English eyes oddities of behaviour 
and speech. They met with ' uncivil, haughty 
treatment.' When united in opposition to some 
change to be made in Scotland, they were bluntly 
outvoted. The interests of their country became 


party weapons in the bitter warfare of Whigs and 
Tories. The bargain between the former and the 
Scottish Jacobites for the first General Election in 
Scotland failed to secure its end. It brought out 
the Presbyterians against them. They returned 
only a small number of the members of both Houses. 
The Union and its Whig framers were even already 
in deep disfavour. The many Englishmen who had 
crossed the Border were mostly Episcopalians, and 
brought north their own ministers. The English 
Book of Common Prayer had been introduced earlier 
in the reign. The English kept apart from the 
Scotch Episcopalians, who were to a man Jacobites. 
But the Presbyterians made no distinction. They 
were bent on putting down the ' meeting-house 
preachers.' In the east they proceeded against 
them by law ; in the west and other districts they 
mobbed the preachers and their congregations. The 
House of Lords declared against the Presbyterian 
claims to close the meeting-houses, and the English 
people took it as a great offence that their national 
Church service should be made a crime in the United 

5. The Toleration Act (1712). — The Tories had now 
ousted the Whigs from power, and to settle this 
question they peissed a Toleration Act. It allowed 
Episcopal ministers to hold their services, and 
^ordered the m^agistrates to protect them. When the 
Whig House of Lords insisted that Episcopal 
ministers should pray for the Protestant heirs to 
the throne, and take em oath abjuring the Pretender, 
their opponents made these provisions apply also to 
the Presbyterian clergy. Thus a division was created 



on both sides. The Jacobite Episcopahans, mostly 
Scotch, refused the oath, and were known as ' Non- 
Jurors/ The Presbyterians resented the claim to 
direct them in their prayers. Moreover, the abjura- 
tion oath made them swear to accept monarchs who 
were members of the Church of England. The form 
of words was afterwards altered to avoid this, but 
a cause of quarrel was planted in the Church, many 
refusing to comply and condemning those who 

6. The Patronage Act (1712). — But ' the greatest 
crush to the ministry ' of the Church was the revival 
of patronage. By an Act of the same year the right 
of selecting ministers was taken from the elders and 
the heritors, or in towns the magistrates, and re- 
stored to the great proprietors. This was a Jacobite 
move. Many of the gentry were Jacobites, and it 
was hoped that in this way they would be able to 
fill their parishes with ministers favouring a restora- 
tion, or at least of moderate opinions in politics and 
religion. The General Assembly pronounced against 
the Act, and for many years no patron ventured to 
exercise his right. The irritation caused by such 
treatment of Scotland at last became so strong that 
in the summer of 1713 the Scottish members had a 
proposal made in the House of Lords to dissolve the 
Union. The Whigs voted for this step, the Tories 
against it. Neither party was honest. Each was 
seeking an advantage in view of the crisis which 
should arise at the Queen's death. The proposal 
was lost by four votes. 

7. Failure of the Jacobite Plans. — If the Union was 
unpopular in Scotland, no less so was the Hanoverian 


succession in England. Anne was a Tory, and 
favoured the doctrines of hereditary succession and 
passive obedience. But the standing obstacle to a 
restoration, what ruined every chance, was that 
James was a Roman Catholic. On the other hand, 
the Electress Sophia was dead, and her son George, 
while a Protestant, was clearly partial to the Whigs. 
The Tory leaders, therefore, adopted the Jacobite 
cause. They placed the army under the Duke of 
Ormond, who was supposed to staff it with Jacobite 
officers. The shifty Earl of Mar was Secretary for 
Scotland. The Duke of Argyll, commanding the 
forces in Scotland, accused him of distributing 
;£4,ooo yearly among the Highland chiefs. He was 
able to reply that this had been done since the time 
of William. In fact, the way was being secretly 
paved for the succession of James. It was hoped 
he would sacrifice his religion for a crown. James 
was too honest to do anything of the sort. But 
before the preparations were complete Anne sud- 
denly fell ill, and in a couple of days was dead 
(August I, 1714). The Whig leaders, including 
Argyll, took prompt action, and on the very day 
of Anne's death George, Elector of Hanover, was 
proclaimed King. 


8. The Jacobites in France. — The accession of the 
first King of the House of Hanover was received as 
peaceably in Scotland as in England. In Edin- 
burgh and Aberdeen a few reckless spirits shouted 
for ' James VIII ' in the streets, and there was drink- 


ing of toasts to ' the King over the water/ But the 
Earl of Mar promptly ordered the magistrates of 
Aberdeen to put down such treasonable perform- 
ances. For the present he was more than anxious 
to secure the good-will of George. He was even 
able to promise him the allegiance of the Highland 
chiefs. But, as a member of the late Government, 
he was a marked man, and he was removed from 
being Scottish Secretary. The General Election gave 
the Whigs a majority both in England and Scotland. 
To escape impeachment the Tory chiefs fled to the 
Pretender in France. Arrangements were set on 
foot for an invasion of Britain, with the assistance 
of France ; but in September the great Louis died. 
The new King of France was a sickly boy, and the 
Regent desired no trouble with Britain. 

9. ' The Fifteen.' — But less than a week after 
Louis' death the disappointed Mar had taken action 
on his own account, and at a gathering of Jacobite 
gentlemen at Braemar proclaimed the Chevalier as 
James VIH. A similar proclamation was then made 
at Aberdeen by the Earl Marischal (Keith) ; at Dun- 
keld by the Marquis of TuUibardine (Murray), eldest 
son of Atholl, who did not move ; at Castle Gordon 
by the Marquis of Huntly, heir to the Duke of 
Gordon, who himself followed AtholFs example ; at 
Brechin by the Earl of Panmure (Maule) ; at Mont- 
rose by the Earl of Southesk (Carnegie) ; at Dundee, 
and later at Perth and other places. They did not 
find it so easy to raise their tenantry. Even Mar 
had to resort to burning cornyards to force out the 
backward ones on his own estates. In Ross-shire 
the Earl of Seaforth called out the Mackenzies, not 


without some protests. A body of Macintoshes under 
WiUiam Macintosh of Borlum, not the chief, seized 
Inverness, and Seaforth provided a garrison. Farther 
north the Munroes, Rosses, and Mackays remained 
loyal under the Earl of Sutherland. Fort William 
held out behind its twelve-pounders. Argyll's- 
brother, the Earl of Islay, checked a raid of Appin 
Stewarts, Macleans, and Macgregors in Argyllshire ; 
but when these and the other Jacobite clans — 
Camerons and Macdonalds — joined the men of the 
east at Perth, Mar had under him a force of 16,000 
men, and held the country from the Moray Firth to 
the Forth. Arms and ammunition arrived in the 
eastern ports from France, and a troop of cavalry 
made a raid which resulted in the capture of a 
similar cargo on board a Government vessel in the 

10. Argyll at Stirling. — Meantime, the royal troops 
had occupied and entrenched themselves at Stirling. 
They thus held the only easy passage into the Low- 
lands. The Duke of Argyll, ' Red John of the 
Battles,' who had seen service under Marlborough, 
arrived to take command. His little army was 
increased by levies from the towns. Edinburgh 
and Glasgow sent large bodies of volunteers, and 
the smaller towns contributed according to their 
size. The Whig Presbyterians sank their dislike of 
the Union in hatred of a Catholic King. The 
ministers in town and country urged their flocks to 
take the field, and even some of themselves appeared 
in arms. Still the royal army did not rise beyond 
three or four thousand men, but they were well 
equipped, and had capable officers. 



11. The Jacobites in England. — Their presence at 
Stirling cut off Mar from his Border and Enghsh 
friends. Macintosh, now a Brigadier, was, there- 
fore, sent with a column of Highlanders to their 
assistance. He cleverly brought his men across the 
Forth, and marched to Kelso. There he was joined 
by the English Jacobites under Mr. Forster, a gentle- 
man of Northumberland, and the Earl of Derwent- 
water, with whom was the small Border following 
led by the Catholic Earl of Nithsdale (Maxwell) and 
Viscount Kenmure (Gordon). But the Border lairds 
generally either remained inactive or donned the 
black cockade* of Hanover. Against the wish of 
the Highlanders, many of whom now deserted, it 
was determined to march into the West of England. 
But the little army of 1,400 men received few 
recruits there. Like the Engagers of 1648, they 
met their fate at Preston. General Wills attacked 
them in that town. Macintosh took command, and 
fighting in the streets went on all day, and by the 
light of the burning houses through the night. The 
arrival of strong reinforcements for Wills enabled 
him to surround the town. The Highlanders would 
have fought it out with the broadsword, but were 
overruled. On the morning of November 14 the 
Jacobites, seven lords and over a thousand men, laid 
down their arms. 

12. The Battle of Sheriffmuir {November 13). — The 
day before the surrender at Preston the issue had 
been decided in Scotland. Mar, ' Bobbing John,' 
— he was a hunchback — had no soldierly experience, 
and none of the qualities of a leader. But having 

* A white cockade was the Jacobite badge. 


received all likely to join him, he had to cease 
' amusing ' himself at Perth. With about 12,000 
men he advanced to force the passage of the Forth. 
But Argyll was not to be shut in at Stirling. He, 
too, advanced, to the first rise of the Ochils over- 
looking Dunblane and the Perth road. On his 
right was the slightly frozen morass of the Sheriff- 
muir. Mar could get no farther without fighting. 
Both armies, therefore, drew up for battle, but 
neither understood the position of the other. Argyll 
saw only Mar's right ; he was ' vastly outflanked ' 
by Mar's left behind some rising ground. There the 
Highlanders swarming down upon their opponents, 
discharged and threw away their muskets ; then 
turned aside the bayonets with their targets, and 
attacked with sword and dirk. The regular soldiers 
' being unacquainted with this savage way of fight- 
ing, against which all the rules of war had made no 
provision,' gave way in confusion. The mingled 
mass swept down the road to Stirling. But Argyll, 
with his cavalry, had also driven Mar's left off the 
field. The remnants of both armies re-formed within 
sight of each other. Mar, however, waiting for his 
victorious right, did not attack, and, when the short 
day closed, drew off towards Perth. This check was 
as good as a victory. Three days before, Inverness 
had fallen, partly through the efforts of Simon Fraser 
of Lovat. He had brought back the Frasers from 
Mar's side, and was rewarded with a pardon and the 
restoration of his estates. 

13. The Chevalier in Scotland. — Mar's retreat was 
the signal for the Highlanders to begin to slip away. 
Strong reinforcements reached Argyll, but a heavy 


snowfall blocked the roads. Late in December the 
Chevalier, with a few attendants, appeared at Peter- 
head. Aberdeen gave him a becoming welcome. 
But the silent, pale, melancholy figure put no spirit 
into his disheartened soldiers at Perth. He busied 
himself with issuing proclamations, and preparing 
for his coronation at Scone. He had come, he said, 
to relieve Scotland from ' the late unhappy Union.' 
When at last Argyll cleared a way through the 
snow, the Jacobites began a retreat eastwards. 
They had not sufficient powder i:o last an engage- 
ment. Then the Highlanders went off in crowds. 
At Montrose the Chevalier, Mar, and some other 
leaders, suddenly embarked for France. At Aber- 
deen the army broke up ; the ' Fifteen ' was over. 

14. Fate of the Prisoners. — The prisoners from 
Preston suffered worst. London clamoured for 
severe punishment. Brigadier Macintosh, however, 
forced his way out of Newgate. The Earl of Niths- 
dale, with the help of his wife, made his escape from 
the Tower ' dressed in a woman's cloak and hood, 
which since are called Nithsdales." ' Thirty of 
the men of lower rank were hanged, and many 
banished to the plantations. Eighty-nine of the 
prisoners taken in Scotland were brought for trial 
to Carlisle. The Government had good reason to 
fear that a Scottish jury would not convict them 
out of sheer spite to England. After all, Jacobitism 
was only extreme patriotism. But trial at Carlisle 
was received as an affront, a reflection on the loyalty 
of Edinburgh, and a breach of the legal arrange- 
ments of the Union. Even good Whigs subscribed 
to a fund for the defence of the prisoners, and Scottish 


lawyers were sent to act for them at Carlisle. They 
were let off easily. None suffered under their sen- 
tence of death. The Scottish statesmen advised 
gentle dealing. An Act of Grace in 1717 set all the 
prisoners free. The estates of the Jacobite leaders 
had been forfeited, and they, with the Ishmaelite 
Macgregors, were not included in the benefits of this 

15. The Episcopal Clergy and the Rising. — The 
Scots Episcopal clergy had not been backward in 
showing their devotion to the hereditary succession. 
While Mar held the North, they had driven away 
the parish ministers, occupied their pulpits, and 
preached and prayed for ' King James.' Many 
were now arrested and fined under the Toleration 
Act. This class, however, was also included in the 
Act of Grace. But it had been made clear that the 
Scots Episcopal Church as a body was bound up 
with the Jacobite interest, while the Presbyterian 
Church was on the side of the reigning house. The 
Lowland gentlemen who were Jacobites were so 
because they wished to see Episcopacy restored. 
In 1719 an Act was passed forbidding any Episco- 
palian minister to hold service with more than nine 
persons besides his own household, until he had 
taken the oath disowning the Pretender and had 
prayed by name for King George. 

16. The 'Nineteen' (1719). — The cause of the 
Chevalier continued to be the sport of European 
politics. At one time it was taken up by the mad- 
cap King of Sweden, Charles XII, who had a per- 
sonal quarrel with George. But the British Govern- 
ment discovered what was going on, and the plot 


fell through. The British Ambassador at Paris, the 
second Earl of Stair, insisted upon the expulsion of 
the Chevalier from France. He became ' Jamie the 
Rover,' and finally settled down under the protec- 
tion of the Pope in Rome. Next, Britain opposed 
the ambitious schemes of Spain, and the Spanish 
Minister, Alberoni, invited the Earl Marischal, 
Ormond, and finally James himself, to Madrid. A 
fresh scheme was prepared for the invasion of Eng- 
fand and Scotland. 

17. Battle of Glenshiel {April 10, 1719). — Ormond, 
with a fleet, started for England, but the expedition 
was destroyed by a storm. Three other ships, how- 
ever, carried the Earl Marischal, Tullibardine, Sea- 
forth, and Lochiel, with 300 Spanish soldiers, 
to the island of Lewis. Thence they crossed 
to Loch Alsh in Seaforth's country. The Spanish 
vessels were sent away ; none too soon, for five ships 
of war presently appeared on the coast. These de- 
stroyed the stores of ammunition and food which 
had been landed. The Highlanders, who had been 
summoned by their chiefs, were slow to come in. 
' Not above a thousand men appeared, and even 
these seemed not very fond of the enterprise.' The 
Jacobite leaders were at odds among themselves. 
General Wightman marched West with the Inver- 
ness garrison, and attacked their little army in the 
pass of Glenshiel. After some hours of hard fighting 
(the Highlanders were driven up the mountain. 
Next morning the helpless Spaniards surrendered. 
* Everybody else,' wrote TuUibardine, ' went off to 
shift for themselves.' The Spaniards were conducted 
to Edinburgh, but set at hberty six months later. 



18. The Exiled Court, — The quarrelsome leaders 
in this luckless affair found their way back to the 
Continent. James returned to Rome, and his resi- 
dence there under the protection of the Pope helped 
to blacken his cause in Britain. He married Maria 
Clementina Sobieski, granddaughter of John Sobieski, 
the heroic King of Poland. In 1720 was born their 
son, Charles Edward, ' the young Pretender.' The 
Jacobite cause almost flickered out amid jealousies 
and unpleasantness. Mar played a doubtful part, 
and was for a time a pensioner of the British Govern- 
ment. Seaforth fell out with James, made friends 
with George II, and came home. James Keith, 
brother of the Earl Marischal, entered the Russian 
service, following the example of an earlier Scottish 
soldier, Patrick Gordon, commander of the army 
of Peter the Great. There was not at this time a 
camp or a Court in Europe in which Scotsmen were 
not to be found. 




1. Groi£)th of the Linen Industry. — For the first 
quarter of a century after the Union Scotland had 
little good of it. Her few carefully nursed manufac- 
tures of the better class went down before the 
competition of England. Those for which she was 
naturally fitted, such as the production of linen, 
had to make a fresh start. An able Provost of 


Edinburgh, also its member of Parliament, urged 
his countrymen to devote themselves to the linen 
manufacture, on the ground that every nation 
should confine itself to the industries for which it 
had natural advantages. He even spoke of it in 
1735 as ' the only way now left us to prevent our 
utter ruin/ By this time it was being pursued 
in twenty-five counties, though its chief seats were 
in Forfar and Fife, where they still are. Some of 
the balance of the Equivalent was applied to its 
encouragement. Schools were set up for instruc- 
tion in spinning. The spinning-wheel took the place 
of the distaff. The quality of the flax grown was 
improved. French weavers were settled in ' Little 
Picardy,' Edinburgh, to instruct the native workers 
in the making of fine cambrics. The Duke of 
Argyll was the head of a company of nobles and 
merchants who formed the British Linen Company 
to aid the rapidly growing industry. Within 
twenty years the company could be turned into a 
bank to supply capital to enterprising merchants. 
A special branch of the linen trade arose at Paisley 
in the making of thread. The beginning was made 
by a clever spinster, Christina Shaw, daughter of 
the Laird of Bargarran. The fine ' Bargarran 
thread ' was soon famous in both kingdoms. At 
first it was ail made by hand. Then another member 
of the family, being in Holland, discovered the 
secret of the machinery used in the thread manu- 
facture there. The secret could not be kept in 
Scotland, and in about twenty years (1742) nearly 
a hundred mills were at work. In the same way 
Mrs. Fletcher of Saltoun managed, b}^ a trick, to 

26 — 2 


get information as to the kind of machinery by which 
the Dutch weavers produced their fine hnen or 
' Hollands/ This, too, grew into a valuable industry. 
But the merchants had still to dispose of their goods 
mainly by travelling with their samples on horse- 
back to the fairs and markets of the English towns. 

2. Wool and Cattle. — On the other side were 
serious losses. Scotland's attempts to match English 
broadcloth were a failure. And the new duties 
killed the export of wool to the Continent. England 
became the only market outside the home country. 
When so much coarse wool was raised this meant a 
fall in price. The farmers of the Border counties 
and the Highlands might have been ruined but for 
a rise in another direction. There was a great 
English demand for cattle. At the ' trysts ' of 
Falkirk and Crieff English drovers bought up the 
' black cattle ' from the Highlands. Some of the 
beasts would have been * lifted '* from neighbouring 
clans or from lowland farms. Formerly in the 
Highlands beef had been as cheap or cheaper than 
oatmeal. Now it was three or four times as dear. 
The Galloway landlords began to improve their stock 
by introducing animals from Ireland, and to evict 
their tenants to make way for large cattle-farms. 
Many Scottish nobles did not disdain having 
a hand in this profitable business. The Earl of 
Seafield spoke scornfully to his brother about his 
meddling in such a trade. ' Better sell nowt (cattle) 
than nations/ was the reply, an unkindly cut at Sea- 
field's share in the Union. Cattle thieves flourished, 
too, on the Borders as well as in the Highlands. 
* I.e., stolen. 


3. Decline of the Eastern Ports. — But while the 
cattle trade prospered, another equally important 
almost perished. The English duties on salt ruined 
the curing of fish. Fishing became quite unprofit- 
able. This terrible falling off, with the loss of the 
overseas trade in wool and fish, told heavily on the 
eastern seaports. Most of the once busy little Fife 
towns sank into ' heaps of decay.' Dunfermline 
w^as saved by its damasks, Dysart by its salt-pans. 
The seafaring population took to smuggling — run- 
ning their goods into distant creeks and coves, and 
so helping to the ruin of law^ful harbours. Only 
the clergy and the merchants of the towns de- 
nounced the ' fair trade.' The other classes were 
too pleased to get their brandy and tea and tobacco 
free of the hated English taxes. 

4. Glasgow and the Tobacco Trade. — Commerce, 
\indeed, had gone West. For many years back, before 
the Union, an illegal trade had been carried on 
between the Clyde and the American colonies. 
Now the ' plantations ' were open. Glasgow sent 
out its plaidings, linens, and cured herrings, and 
took in return the tobacco of Maryland and Virginia. 
The great merchants of Glasgow became ' tobacco 
lords/ They ousted the English western towns, 
such as Bristol, from the American trade. At first 
Glasgow had to hire its ships in England. But in 
1718 the first Clyde-built vessel entered the trade. 
Next year Greenock, having since the Union built 
for itself the biggest harbour in Scotland, sent a 
ship of its own. In less than tw^enty years the 
Clyde could boast of sixty-seven vessels trading 
with \^irginia, Boston, and the West Indies. The 


Clyde being at low water only a shallow stream, a 
port was established for Glasgow lower down the 
river. Pack-horses then carried the goods to and 
from Port Glasgow. In 1727 Glasgow was a 
' stately and well-built city/ with busy factories, 
sugar and tobacco houses, and so reputed for its 
cured herrings ' that a Glasgow herring is esteemed 
as good as a Dutch one/ Aberdeen made an effort 
to share in the plantation trade, but its position 
was against it. Glasgow even robbed Inverness of 
its customers in the Western Isles. 

5. Beginnings of a New Agriculture. — The first 
half of the century saw little change in the rude 
methods of farming. The first step to improvement 
was to enclose the fields with dry stone walls or 
hedges. This provoked opposition. The herdsmen 
saw their occupation gone. Farmers, with good 
reason, feared an increase in rent. So in Galloway 
bands of men and women, ' levellers,' went out at 
night and threw down the enclosing walls. Soldiers 
were needed to ' calm ' them. It was in Scotland 
as it had been in England, where enclosing the fields 
began earlier — only very slowly did the practice 
spread. Hard as it is to imagine the Scottish 
farm lands without hedges or fences or dikes or 
belts of wood, it is harder still to think of them 
without potatoes or turnips or rich pastures of grass 
and clover. Yet for the greater part of the century 
these plants were almost unknown. There was a 
marked advance by the time that potatoes were 
Icarried on horseback from Kirkcudbright to Edin- 
burgh, and sold by the pound. Turnips were a 
garden crop and a table delicacy. For years not 


even bribes could induce farmers to sow them in 
their fields. The Duchess of Gordon — an English- 
woman — in Morayshire, and the Earl of Haddington, 
in East Lothian, introduced to their tenants the 
improved farming methods of England, and sowed 
artificial grasses. Practical farmers scoffed at the 
' Enghsh weeds.' They regarded the experiments 
of their landlords as simply a new form of aristo- 
cratic amusement. Nor was the soil yet in a 
condition to give satisfactory returns on the new 
crops. Moreover, the tenant farmers did not care 
to lay out in this way the little capital they pos- 
sessed. They feared a rise in rents. They were a 
saving class who, with the burgesses of the towns, 
could loan money at interest to extravagant noble- 
men. The Scottish peasantry might live and dress 
poorly, but they were, on the whole, satisfied with 
their lot. Not till the century was well advanced 
and a new generation had grown up did the revo- 
lution in agriculture make headway. 

6. Mechanical Improvemenis. — Even of their crops 
of coarse barley and oats Scottish farmers, with 
their rude contrivances, could not make the best 
use. The grain was beaten from the straw with 
flails, and the chaff separated by exposure in a windy 
place. Then the barley was pounded in a stone 
mortar, and the oats coarsely ground in a mill or 
by hand in the quern. There were some windmills, 
and Lochiel set up water-mills for the use of his 
clan. Here, again, the Saltoun family borrowed 
Dutch inventions. They employed two clever 
mechanics in James Meikle and his son Andrew. 
Henry Fletcher,, brother of the famous Andrew, was. 


tenant of Saltoun Mill. His enterprising wife, who 
had already started the making of Hollands, now 
conveyed from Holland a winnowing machine, or 
fanners, and a barley-mill. The result was the 
'Saltoun barley meal,' which became a household 
name in Scotland, and the secret of which was long 
jealously kept by Mrs. Fletcher. In the closing 
years of the century Andrew Meikle, the first of 
Scotland's great engineers, invented the threshing- 
mill. To spread and add to the new knowledge 
there was formed in 1723 the Society of Improvers 
of Knowledge of Agriculture, which did most valuable 

7. Roads are Made in the Highlands. — The project 
of opening up the Highlands by means of roads had 
already been put forward in Parliament by the 
Scottish members. Great forests of pine and fir 
still existed there, while the Lowlands imported 
timber all the way from Norway. The Govern- 
ment was at last forced to undertake this work for 
military reasons. It was begim in 1726, and went 
on for about eleven years. In that time General 
Wade and his soldiers had completed about 250 
miles of roads with forty small bridges, carried 
through glens, up moimtain-sides, and blasted out 
along the steep margins of lochs. These, a leading 
engineer claimed, were * bating ups and downs,' as 
good as any to be found in England. The main 
branches were from Crieff and Perth northwards to 
Inverness, and from Inverness down the Great Glen 
to Fort WilHam, while another branch joined Fort 
Augustus to the main highway from Perth. The 
line of military stations was completed by ' Fort 


George ' at Inverness. An armed ' galley ' was built 
on Loch Ness, and smaller military posts were 
scattered over the country. By such precautions, 
in addition to the roads, it was believed another 
Jacobite rising was put out of the question. 

8. Disarming the Highlands. — More direct measures, 
too, were taken to the same end. Highlanders were 
made formidable by their habit of wearing weapons 
and being regularly trained in their use. Peace with 
England had caused this practice to cease in the 
South. After the ' Fifteen ' an Act was passed 
imposing a fine on Highlanders found to possess or 
use arms. But the fines could not be exacted, and 
only old, useless weapons were given up in return 
for the Government's reward. In 1725 the Act was 
strengthened. The Lords-Lieutenant were given 
power to search for and force the surrender of 
weapons. This brought in a large amount, but 
chiefly from the northern and loyal clans. The 
disaffected ones managed to palm off on the officials 
what was of little service, and ' to keep and secure 
the best.' An outlet for the warlike leanings of 
Highlanders was wisely found in the revival of the 
Government police, known from their dark tartan 
as the ' Black Watch.' The companies were after- 
wards raised to a regiment, which was sent abroad, 
and as ' the only regiment that could be kept to its 
duty,' formed the rearguard at the disasttous retreat 
of Fontenoy (1745). 

9. The Malt Tax and the Riots (1725). — Since the 
close of the last war (1713) Scotland had been sub- 
ject to a tax on malt, but owing to the feeling of 
the country it was not thought wise to enforce it. 


Now, however, money had to be raised, for the 
Scottish Government barely paid expenses, and in 
1712 half the proper amount, or threepence a bushel, 
was imposed upon Scotland. Resistance at once 
took a violent form. The Excise officers found it 
impossible to enter the malt-houses of G]asgow\ 
To their support Wade sent across two companies 
of soldiers from Edinburgh under Captain Bushell. 
They were received with threats and jeers. As the 
keys of the guard-house could not be found, the 
soldiers had to be billeted am_ong the inhabitants. 
That night the mob rose and destroyed the house 
of their Member of Parliament. In the afternoon 
of the next day they assembled in even greater 
numbers, and beset the soldiers now in the guard- 
house. When these turned out they were received 
with volleys of stones. At last Captain Bushell 
ordered them to fire, and several fell dead and 
wounded. The rest scattered, only to return shortly 
with arms of their own. The Provost advised 
the soldiers to retire, which they did, marching to 
Dumbarton, but again having to fire on their pur- 
suers. Eleven persons had been killed and seven- 
teen wounded. For this affair the Provost and 
magistrates were arrested, but afterwards released, 
when the city was fined a sum of £5,000 to repay 
their member for the damage he had suffered. In 
Edinburgh another method of resistance was adopted. 
The brewers organized a strike among themselves. 
The vigorous action of the Earl of Islay and the 
new Lord Advocate, Duncan Forbes, strengthened 
by a decision of the Court of Session that the com- 
bination was illegal, brought the strike to an end. 


after it had lasted a week. Bushell, who had fired 
on the mob without proclaiming the Riot Act, was 
formally tried for murder and found guilty, but 
received a royal pardon. Riots in other large towns 
were prevented by Wade's promptness in sending 

10. Politica' Changes. — The outburst over the 
malt tax brought about a change in the political 
arrangements of Scotland. It could not escape the 
effects of English party strife. Until now the 
Government had been in the hands of the Squadron 
Whigs, and their leader, the Duke of Roxburgh, 
was Scottish Secretary of State. Argyll had fallen 
into disfavour with George I, and had joined the 
party of the Prince of Wales, afterwards George II. 
But the Prince and he quarrelled, and Argyll took 
over his Whig allies to the support of the King's 
party and the first of the Prime Ministers, Robert 
Walpole. Walpole took occasion of the Malt 
Riots to dismiss Roxburgh. The office of Secretary 
was suspended. In the meantime Scottish affairs 
passed into the hands of one of the ordinary Secre- 
taries of State, the eccentric Duke of Newcastle. 
Really, however, Scotland for more than a dozen 
years was managed by the Earl of Islay and Lord 
Advocate Forbes, who in 1737 became Lord Presi- 
dent of the Court of Session. 

11. The Secession. — Though some of the more 
zealous clergy could deplore that in Scotland in- 
terest in Church politics was fading before the new 
interest in trade, enough of the old spirit was left 
to make trouble. The cause of contention was the 
outcome of the Patronage Act. So far it had been 


almost a dead-letter, and the earlier custom of choos- 
ing a minister had generally continued. The elders 
and heritors made the choice, and the congregation 
the formal ' call/ But in some cases a difference 
arose. The people objected to the person proposed 
for their acceptance. When the Presbytery sup- 
ported the congregation, the Assembly sent down a 
* riding committee ' to override the local courts 
and settle the presentee. ' Intrusion ' of this sort 
was met by a rain of protests. Then in 1732 the 
Assembly passed an Act transferring the power to 
' call/ as well as propose, to the heritors and elders. 
Of those who opposed this measure the leader was 
the Rev. Ebenezer Erskine, minister of Stirling. 
He protested that the Assembly was slighting the 
people of the Church in order to favour ' the heritors 
and the great ones of the world.' He preached a 
sermon at Stirling in which he denounced the 
majority in unmeasured language. For this he was 
called to account by the Synod. He appealed to 
the Assembly, which in 1733 approved of the action 
of the Synod and censured Erskine. Erskine re- 
fused to submit to the sentence, and thereupon he 
and three ministers who supported him were sus- 
pended for three months. When that time expired 
the ministers were still rebellious. Thereupon they 
were ' loosed ' from their charges. The four pre- 
sented a protest in which they declared themselves 
under the necessity of separating from ' the pre- 
vailing party in this Established Church.' Early 
in 1734 they constituted themselves the Associate 

12. The Associate Presbytery. — At this division in 


their ranks the Assembly took alarm. In the hope 
of winning back the seceders, who had a consider- 
able following, everything that had given offence 
was quickly undone. The Act of 1732 was repealed. 
' Riding committees ' were forbidden. Several 
appeals against ' intrusion ' were upheld. The 
Assembly recorded a protest against patronage, 
and in 1736 affirmed it to be a principle of the Church 
that no minister should be forced on an unwilling 
congregation. Meantime the vSynod was requested 
to restore the ministers, which they did handsomely, 
electing Erskine their Moderator. But the seceders 
were not satisfied. They still found many faults 
in the Church. They would not return except on 
stringent terms, and these the Assembly could not 
accept. After much bitter controversy the seceders 
were finally deposed in 1740. They now numbered 
eight ministers, including Erskine's brother Ralph. 
Their adherents were most numerous in the smaller 
burghs. Four years later the seceders revived the 
Covenants, and made their acceptance a condition 
of membership. 

13. Episcopalian Divisions. — The Presbyterians 
were not alone in their differences. The Episcopal 
Church, too, was divided. Up to their disestablish- 
ment at the Revolution there had been no Prayer 
Book in use. Now one party adopted that of Eng- 
land, the other the old Scottish book of Laud, 
accompanied by certain ' Usages ' in the ritual of 
a Romish cast. The poverty of the Church, too, 
made it extremely difficult to have bishops in 
settled districts or dioceses. Thus had grown up 
the ordination of ' bishops at large,' who formed a 


XoUege/ This body was favoured by the ' Trustees ' 
who looked after Jacobite interests, and by James 
himself, who, though a Catholic, wished to retain 
his prerogative of appointing bishops. On the 
other hand, a strong party demanded diocesan 
bishops, elected by the Church itself. This was 
the party which favoured the vScottish Liturgy. A 
compromise was arrived at on both heads in 1731. 
But the Jacobitism of the Church was the burden 
which was soon to grind it almost to powder. 

14. The Porteous Affair (1736). — In the thick of 
the excitement over the Church controversies 
occurred the mysterious affair of the Porteous Riot. 
Two smugglers, Wilson and Robertson, had broken 
into the lodging of the Custom-House officer at 
Pittenweem, and possessed themselves of a large 
sum of money. Wilson had been ruined by recent 
seizures of his smuggled goods. Both men were 
arrested and sentenced to death. While confined 
m the Tolbooth Wilson had been the cause of a 
failure on Robertson's part to escape. He took the 
first opportunity to make up for this. On the 
Sunday before the day of execution (April 14) both 
were present at a service in the Tolbooth church, 
each guarded by two soldiers. As the people 
crowded in both fell upon their guards. Wilson, 
a big powerful fellow, held two with his hands and 
a third with his teeth, while Robertson, throwing 
aside the fourth, jumped over the pew, mixed with 
the people, and got safely away. This daring 
escape increased the sympathy of the people, 
always on the side of smugglers. In fear of an 
attempt at rescue on the day of the execution, the 


City Guard was strengthened by two compaines of 
soldiers. This precaution offended the dignity of 
John Porteous, Captain of the Guard, a rough and 
insolent personage. The execution took place in 
the Grassmarket, and the mob, as they not infre- 
quently did, threw mud and stones at the hangman 


and the soldiers. Porteous, ' inflamed with jealousy 
and wine,' ordered his men to fire on the threatening 
crowd, and seventeen persons were wounded, six of 
them mortally. 

15. Porteous is Hanged by the Mob, — It was the 
case of Captain Bushell over again. Porteous had 
acted without legal authority. He was tried for 
murder and found guilty. But the evidence was 


conflicting. Some witnesses swore that Porteous 
had tried to prevent the firing, and that the soldiers, 
annoyed by the mob, had acted without orders. 
On these grounds he received a reprieve. The 
original date for his execution was September 8. 
The night before an organized rising took place. A 
great mob, carefully directed, disarmed the guard 
and seized the Netherbow Port between the city and 
the Canongate where the soldiers were quartered. 
Next they forced their way into the Tolbooth, set 
free all the prisoners, and took possession of Porteous. 
He was conveyed by torchlight to the Grassmarket, 
and there clumsily hanged, or rather strangled, over 
a dyer's pole. Then the crowd quietly dispersed. 

16. Punishment of the City. — The whole thing 
came as an astounding surprise to the Government. 
The action of the mob had struck the magistrates 
' all of a heap.' An inquiry was immediately 
ordered. Nothing of any importance was dis- 
covered. The ringleaders were ' upon the wing,' 
whoever they were, and that was never known. It 
was determined, therefore, that punishment should 
fall upon the city. A Bill passed the House of Lords 
which purposed to dismiss the Provost of Edinburgh, 
and declare him incapable of filling any public office ; 
to abolish the City Guard, and to remove the gates 
of the Netherbow. But when the Bill reached the 
Commons it was stoutly opposed by the Scottish 
members, including Lord Advocate Forbes. The 
Duke of Argyll had protested against it in the Lords. 
Many of the English members, out of ill-will to 
Walpole, joined in the opposition. As the Act 
finally passed it merely deposed the Provost and 


inflicted a fine of £2,000 on Edinburgh for the 
benefit of the widow of Porteous. Even in this 
form it became law only by the casting vote of the 
chairman. A clause in the Act threatened with 
death all who should conceal the names of persons or 
the guilty ones. This was ordered to be proclaimed 
from the pulpit on the first Sunday of each month. 
Ministers resented this interference with their 
spiritual office. Though under a penalty of de- 
privation for the second offence, about half the 
clergy refused to read the clause. Others evaded 
the duty. A few escaped it by ioining the ranks 
of the Secession. 

17. End of the Prosecutions for Witchcraft. — Among 
the many ' public evils ' deplored by the leaders of 
the Secession was the repeal of the Acts against 
witchcraft in 1736. Some of the more recent 
examples of the popular frenzy had been quite as 
horrifying as any. Christian Shaw, of Bargarran, 
when young, suffered from fits, which she attributed 
to witchcraft. Her information led to a long trial, 
and the execution of seven people. Fife was a 
favourite scene of such outbreaks. There was one 
in 1704-1705. At Pittenweem an old woman was 
frightened into the usual absurd confession of being 
a ' trafficker with Satan.' The local magistrates 
and the minister allowed her to be brutally mal- 
treated by the mob, and finally crushed to death 
on the street under a weighted door. Humaner 
feeling and the increase in medical knowledge made 
an end of this form of persecution. 



THE • FORTY-FIVE ' (1745-1746) : 
GEORGE II (1727-1746) 

1. Fall of Walpole. — For twenty years Robert 
Walpole was the ruler of Great Britain, with Lord 
Islay and Duncan Forbes as his agents in Scotland. 
He was a peace Minister, for one reason because he 
knew that any foreign war would provide an opening 
for^the Jacobites. Scotland, in the form of the 
exiled dynasty, was again, as of old, a danger to 
the peace of the kingdom. The English Jacobites 
were never of serious importance, as their Scottish 
allies had found and were to find again. But 
Walpole, by his distribution of places and pensions, 
and his preference for mere tools in his Government, 
had aroused a strong and unsparing opposition 
against himself. Of Scotsmen it included the 
Marquis of Tweeddale of the Squadron Whigs ; the 
Duke of Queensberry, and the Earl of Stair a dis- 
tinguished diplomatist and soldier — sons of the 
Revolution lords ; the accomplished Lord Polwarth, 
son of the Earl of Marchmont, whom Walpole feared 
as much as he did young William Pitt ; and in 
time the hot-tempered Duke of Argyll, who was on 
friendly terms with the Jacobite leaders. George U. 
was no more popular than his father had been. 
England was dragged at the heels of Hanover, and 
Scotland at the heels of England. The popular 
determination to fight Spain for the South American 
trade brought Walpole's downfall. In the election 
of 1741 the efforts of Lord Islay to secure a Scottish 



majority for the great Minister were defeated by 
the activity of his brother the Duke. Walpole 
resigned office early in 1742. But the new and 
talented Ministry were soon at sixes and sevens, 
and no joy to anybody but the Jacobites. The office 
of Scottish Secretary had been revived and given to 
Tweeddale. The Secretary had the appointment of 
public officials in his hands, and Argyll had expected 
the office for himself. Still in Opposition as a 
disappointed man he died in 1743, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother. 

2. ' The Association.' — The fall of Walpole and 
the national dislike of the House of Hanover and all 
its works, revived the sinking hopes of the Jacobites. 
James himself could not play the heroic part that 
was needed, but his eldest son Charles Edward 
was growing up into a clever, athletic and attractive 
young man. Britain, in addition to the war with 
Spain, was being plunged into a welter of foreign 
complications in which the Jacobite party would 
become a valuable ally to an enterprising enemy. 
An ' Association ' was in 1741 formed by some of 
the Scottish Jacobites to prepare for a rising on the 
offer of foreign aid. Its moving spirits were 
William Drummond, or Macgregor, of Balhaldy, a 
needy adventurer ; Eraser of Lovat, with his eye 
on a dukedom ; and Donald Cameron of Lochiel, 
the only man of unselfish and devoted mind 
among them. Balhaldy was the go-between who 
excited the Scots by promises of plentiful assistance 
from France, and fed the imagination of the French 
Minister with accounts of the ' marvels ' which 
Scotland was ready to do. Similar delusions were 


spread about the strength and eagerness of the 
EngUsh Jacobites. In the summer of 1743 a French 
army on its way to Austria was defeated by the 
British and Hanoverians under the Earl of Stair at 
Dettingen. George II and his young brother, the 
Duke of Cumberland, showed great personal courage 
in the battle, and the royal family enjoyed a short 
day of popularity. Thus Louis XV was at last roused 
to effort. A French fleet was in January, 1744, 
assembled at Brest to carry over an army of invasion 
from Dunkirk to England. Young Charles was 
brought from Rome to accompany it with a com- 
mission as Regent from his father. But once again 
the wind listed to blow for Hanover, and on the 
voyage to Dunkirk the ships were disabled by a 
storm. The invasion was off. The French knew 
by this time how vain was any reliance on the timid 
Jacobites of England. 

3. Prince Charles Lands in Scotland. — The collapse 
of the French expedition was a sore blow to the 
' young chevalier.' His principal Scottish agent 
was now John Murray of Broughton, afterwards his 
secretary and a Government informer — ' evidence 
Murray.' To him Charles declared that he would 
cross to Scotland, * if he brought only a single 
footman ' with him. His Scottish friends, however, 
urged that nothing could be done without French 
aid. But Charles found encouragement among his 
Irish companions, such as his tutor Sir Thomas 
Sheridan, and Captain O' Sullivan. They had 
nothing in Scotland to lose. Louis gave him some 
money with which he bought field-pieces and 
muskets and hired two privateers. In one of these. 


La Doutelle, he sailed on July 5, 1745, with seven 
companions, including Tullibardine, whose younger 


brother had displaced him as Duke of AthoU, Sheri- 
dan and O'SuUivan. On the 23rd they touched 
at Eriskay, a small island in the Outer Hebrides. 


Two days later Charles arrived at Borrodale in 
Arisaig, whither he summoned some of the chiefs, to 
whom he made himself known. His reception was not 
encouraging. Clanranald's uncle in Uist had advised 
him to go home. Keppoch and Glencoe (Macdonalds) 
were of the same mind. The ' Seven Men of Mor- 
dart/ with some guns and ammunition, were not 
the army bargained for. Lochiel's action decided 
the waverers. He doubted the wisdom of the under- 
taking, but his honour bound him to do his best 
for the Prince who had thus thrown himself upon 
their loyalty. But nothing would move Sir Alex- 
ander Macdonald of Sleat, or Macleod of Macleod. 
On them the watchful Duncan Forbes, now Lord 
President of the Court of Session, had used his 
influence. It was Macleod who informed Forbes 
that Charles had actually arrived. On August ig 
the standard was unfurled at Glenfinnan on Loch 
Shiel in the presence of 1,200 Macdonalds and 
Camerons. Two days later they were joined by 
the Appin Stewarts. Charles's strength all through 
was in the western clans, who were Roman Catholics 
and anti-Whigs like the Macdonalds, or loyalists 
by tradition as the Camerons, or strong Episco- 
palians like the Appin Stewarts, whose name was 
royal ; while such men as the followers of Coll 
Macdonald of Barisdale and the Macgregors were 
professional cattle-lifters and blackmailers ready 
for any ploy. These western clans, too, had all 
lost lands to the Argyll family, and were subject 
to the hereditary jurisdiction of its head the Duke. 
Against him as their superior and judge, and against 
the Government for which he stood, they nursed a 


[To face p. 422. 



feeling of oppression and grievance. The northern 
and eastern clans were in a different case. Whig 
and Hanoverian were the Mackays and Munroes. 
Seaforth's son and successor had bought back most 
of the family estates, and was not prepared to risk 
them again. Some of his men he sent to serve the 
Government, the others he advised to stay at home. 
Simon Eraser doubled his part as usual. Openly 
he was, as yet, loyal ; secretly he corresponded with 
Charles. Other clans were uncertain, or divided, 
or Vv^ere forced out, or were, like the Skye Macleods, 
Government militia. 

4. General Cope Marches to Inverness. — The royal 
commander in Scotland was a very ordinary person, 
General Cope. The Government had neglected his 
warnings and appeals. With 1,400 men, young 
regiments, he set out for Fort Augustus, hoping to 
check the insurrection ere it had well begun. But 
learning that Charles was holding the pass before 
him, he turned aside to Inverness. There, too, w^as 
Lord President Forbes embodying the Whig clans 
at the direction of the Government, which never 
even refunded him his expenses. Charles, finding 
the road open, marched for the capital. At Perth 
he was joined by the Jacobites of the east, Lords 
Strathallan and Ogilvie, and Oliphant laird of 
Gask. The gentlemen of the east were anti- 
Presbyterian. Oliphant's tenantry refused to follow 
him., and he was only prevented by the Prince from 
making their crops suffer. More important recruits 
were the good Duke of Perth (Drummond) and Lord 
George Murray. Lord George had been out in the 
' Fifteen,' and had seen service abroad. He was 


certainly the ablest man in the Prince's company, 
and was soon in chief command. But he had been 
a Sheriff-Depute. He had gone to confer with 
Cope on his way north, and had written to the 
Lord Advocate giving what information he could 
about the progress of the rising. His overbearing 
temper made him enemies, and these did not fail 
to encourage suspicion of his loyalty to the Prince. 
Murray and his brother TuUibardine raised the 
AthoU men, not without some farm-burning, and 
these Stewarts and Murrays were most reluctant 
recruits. Cluny Macpherson had been captured, 
and was released on consenting to bring in his clan. 
Charles easily surprised Edinburgh before proper 
resistance could be organized, and took up his 
quarters in Holyrood Palace. His father was pro- 
claimed as James VHI, and he himself as Regent. 
At Edinburgh he was joined by Lord Elcho, and 
had now about 2,500 men. Charles was twenty-five, 
' tall and handsome, of a fair complexion,' and 
were ' a light-coloured periwig over his yellow hair,' 
' a tartan short coat,' and a blue bonnet. 

5. Battle of Prestonpans {September 21, 1745). — 
Meantime Cope had marched to Aberdeen and em- 
barked his army, which he landed at Dunbar. He 
was joined by Hamilton's and Gardiner's dragoons, 
who had never seen active service, and had retreated 
before the advance of the clans. In number his 
army was about equal to that of Charles. He took 
up a position in an unenclosed field lying inwards 
from Prestonpans. Between him and the High- 
landers advancing on the south side was a morass 
draining into a wide ditch. But Lord George 



Murray knew the ground, and that there was ' a 
small defile at the east end ' of the ditch. By four 
o'clock in the morning his army was on the march 
from Fawside Hill, and was safely led across in the 
mist to Cope's left flank. When his pickets were 
driven in, that General hurriedly changed front 
to face the attack. As the Highlanders ' ran on ' 
through the rustling stubble, the sun rose and the 
mist lifted. Cope had guns on his right, but no 
proper gunners. Under the dropping fire of the 
Camerons and Stewarts the guns were instantly 
abandoned. The dragoons who should have pro- 
tected them fled. The foot delivered one volley, 
but did not wait to load again. At the sight of the 
claymores they m.ade off. The rest of the dragoons 
followed, and ' in a very few minutes ' all was over. 
Not a bayonet had drawn blood. Guns, baggage, 
and over 1,500 prisoners were in the hands of the 
victors. Charles and the chiefs behaved with great 
humanity, giving every attention to the wounded, 
those of the enemy as readily as their own. 

6. Charles in Edinburgh. — The next six weeks were 
occupied with preparations on both sides. The 
Government brought across troops, British and 
foreign, from the Continent. Charles, too, filled up 
his ranks. vStrong measures had to be used in 
bringing back deserters and beating up fresh 
recruits. The Border Jacobites came in — Lords 
Balmerino and Kilmarnock and some Maxwells, 
including one ' called Lord Nithsdale.' But the 
Borderers generally were hostile or unwilling to 
risk. The local Jacobites, like those of England, 
were ' drinking friends/ not fighting ones. France 


was again appealed to ; some officers, guns, and 
gunners were sent over. But in Charles's Council 
there were two parties. The Scots were annoyed 
by his preference for his Catholic Irish friends, ' his 
favourites ' — the eternal canker in the White Rose 
of Stewart. The Prince proposed to engage the 
aged General Wade at Newcastle. Lord George, 
however, and the majority advised a march into 
England by the west, and avoiding a battle till their 
English supporters had an opportunity to join. This 
plan had to be adopted, and in two main columns 
the army of 5,000 men set out for the west Border. 

7. The Prince in England. — It was never Charles's 
hope to win the throne by such means as Scotland 
could afford. But a rebellion once fairly begun, he 
thought, ' the French must take off the mask, or 
have an eternal shame upon them.' Then there 
were the chances of a political reaction. Before 
entering England he issued a proclamation con- 
demning the Union and the National Debt, the 
' abuse of Parhaments,' the ' multitude of place- 
men,' the ' introduction of penal laws,' and other 
features of the Hanoverian Government, promising 
that the King on restoration ' will refuse nothing 
that a free Parliament can ask.' These lures had 
ceased to charm. Carlisle surrendered, but recruits 
did not hurry to the Prince's side. The army was 
kept under strict discipline, and there were no 
outrageous doings such as the English had been 
warned to look for. Lord George hastened to bring 
his troops across the Ribble to show that Preston 
was not to be the ' no farther ' of this campaign. 
More enthusiastic Manchester furnished a regiment 


of a few hundreds. On December 5 the swiftly 
marching army halted at Derby. Charles was for 
going forward, if not to London, at least to Wales, 
where he might be reinforced by the Jacobites of 
that country and the south-west. But the council 
of officers determined on a retreat. Wade was 
hurrying south after them. The Duke of Cumber- 
land was almost within touch. London, though 
panic-stricken, was arming its volunteers, and the 
local militia had been called out. Three armies of 
about 30,000 men, it was believed, would surround 
the little force. The Prince had to give way, and 
on the 6th the retreat began, as rapid and as skil- 
fully conducted as the advance. In a skirmish at 
Clifton Moor Lord George, with the rearguard, 
drove off Cumberland's dragoons. At the Esk had 
gathered a body of Galloway volunteers to oppose 
the crossing — Elliots, Armstrongs, Johnstones, Max- 
wells, etc. As the Highlanders, a hundred abreast, 
fearlessly plunged into the swollen river they took 
to their heels. One man stayed to fire a single shot. 
The Borderers studied war no more. Hanoverian 
Dumfries had to pay a heavy fine, as also, in articles 
of apparel, had Glasgow, which the first part of the 
retreating army entered on Day, 1745. 

8. Battle of Falkirk {January 17, 1746). — The 
Prince's successes had decided the laggards of the 
North. Lord Lewis Gordon raised a force of 
Gordons in spite of the opposition of his brother 
the Duke. Lovat sent out his eldest son, the Master, 
with unwilling Erasers. The Earl of Cromarty had 
summoned the Mackenzies of Easter Ross to serve 
under his son Lord Macleod. But other Mackenzies 



with Munroes, Skye Macleods, Mackays, and Grants 
were in the force under the royal commander, 
Lord Loudon (Campbell). It was civil war in the 
North Highlands. France, too, had sent a small 
body of troops and officers. To receive the new 
succours Charles moved to Stirling, where he himself 
took up his residence at Bannockburn. There was a 
siege of Stirling Castle as ineffective as that of 
Edinburgh Castle had been. General Hawley, with 
an army which included militia from Argyll, 
Glasgow, and Lothian, advanced from Edinburgh 
and occupied Falkirk. Charles, with a force double 
what it had been in England, and about the same 
number as Hawley's, engaged him there. The 
battle took place on the hill-slope under a tempest of 
rain. The Macdonalds on the Prince's right charged 
the dragoons opposite them, and drove them off. 
The regular foot, to the right of the dragoons, 
received the Macdonalds and their supports with a 
heavy fire, before which the clansmen retired in 
confusion. But, as at Sheriffmuir, neither side 
could follow the course of the fighting. ' Part of 
the King's army — much the greater part — was flying 
to the eastward, and part of the rebel army was 
flying to the westward.' The battle had begun late, 
night was falling, and the storm as violent as ever. 
Hawley withdrew to Linlithgow, leaving guns and 
baggage on the moor of Falkirk. 

9. The Retreat from Falkirk, — To this success a 
strange sequel. Charles had an unbeaten army, 
the largest he had yet commanded, whose reputation 
and method of fighting struck even veteran soldiers 
with panic; and he had just won a lucky victory. 


Yet the next step was another retreat. The Duke 
of Cumberland had arrived in Edinburgh. Some 
new regiments strengthened the shaken troops of 
Hawley. Charles was preparing to meet this force 
when a memorial reached him from Lord George and 
the chiefs. They affirmed that they were certain 
that ' a vast number of the soldiers are gone home/ 
that ' the inequality of our numbers to that of the 
enemy ' left them in ' the most imminent danger/ 
and that the remnant was to be saved only ' by 
retiring immediately to the Highlands.' This com- 
munication was signed by, among others, Lord 
George, Lochiel, Keppoch, Clanranald, and the 
Master of Lovat. Probably they resented Charles's 
reliance on his Irish and French officers. Not with- 
out a strong protest did Charles consent ; he could 
* see nothing but ruin and destruction ' as the result. 
The retreat, begun in the early morning of 
February i, quickly developed into a disorderl}^ 
rush. At Crieff order was restored, and from Perth 
the army went north in three divisions. Charles 
made straight for Inverness, and Loudon retired 
into Sutherland. Lord George took the coast road, 
picking up some stores and ammunition from Spain 
by the way, and quartered his men in the towns 
north of Aberdeen. Meantime Cumberland had 
received 6,000 hireling Hessians, and dispatched 
them to Perthshire to cut Charles's communications 
with the Lowlands. 

10. The Campaign in the North. — For six weeks 
the Highland army carried on a number of small 
but successful operations along a wide front. Fort 
Augustus was captured, though the Camerons had 


to give up the attempt on Fort William. The 
outposts of Campbells in Rannoch and Badenoch 
were surprised and captured by Lord George, 
and the Hessians threatened. Some horse and 
Argyllshire militia were defeated at Keith. The 
Duke of Perth scattered Loudon's regiment in 
Sutherland, and Loudon, Macleod, and Duncan 
Forbes took refuge in Sk3^e. Thus the army was 
widely spread. Many, too, * as it was seed-time, 
had slipt home.' The stock of money had given out ; 
a fresh supply from Spain was seized by Lord Reay ; 
and as the men ' had no pay for a month past, it 
was not an easy matter to keep them together.' 
But when the news came on April 12 that Cumber- 
land was advancing from Aberdeen, messages were 
sent to bring in the scattered details. The Duke by 
this time was actually across the Spey. Two days 
later he was at Nairn. Charles was concentrating 
at CuUoden. But the Macphersons were not up. 
Cromarty's men had been attacked on their way 
by the Sutherland mihtia and dispersed. The Earl 
himself and Lord Macleod were captured at Dun- 
robin. Some Macdonalds and Macgregors were too 
far off in Ross, and, on the whole, the Prince's army 
wanted quite a third of its full muster. 

n. Battle of Culloden {April 16, 1746). — Lord 
George did not like the position at Culloden : a 
plain field ' was certainly not proper for High- 
landers.' However, Inverness with its store of 
supplies had to be protected. The food depart- 
ment was badly managed, and the men were reduced 
to a biscuit each. An attempt at a night surprise of 
Cumberland's army at Nairn, was a failure. At the 



end of a six-mile march it was calculated that the 
sun would be up ere the attack could be begun. 
Hungry men were now also weary men. Scores 
straggled away to seek rest and food, overslept 
themselves, and awakened at the sound of the guns 
only to mingle in the flight. The Prince's army was 

100 (I KM) 'joo ;{o() S/'/ 

Scale of Vnr.N c^/ 'l^ 

From ' T/ie 45,' A. B. Tiilloch [Melven Brothers). 

drawn up between CuUoden House and some en- 
closed parks on the right. The clans were in the 
front line, the Macdonalds, to their anger, on the 
left instead of the right, where were the Atholl 
Stewarts and the Camerons. The Low^landers and 
French formed the second line, and there was ' a 



sort of reserve/ Cumberland had inarched from 
Nairn at daybreak. His men were well supplied 
from the fleet, and had been carefully trained in 
tactics suitable to the Highland charge — to reserve 
their fire, parry the target, and meet the broadsword 
with the bayonet. At one o'clock the artillery 
opened fire. The Prince's guns were ' e-xtremely ill- 
served and ill-pointed,' but those of the Duke cut 
lanes through the ranks of the Highlanders. Then, 
with the snow beating in their faces, the clansmen 
charged. The right, under Lord George and Lochiel, 


In the possession of the Society of Antiquaries, Scotland. 

first reached the enemy. As they struck the Duke's 
left the guns showered grape upon them, while 
Wolfe's regiment moved up from the second line 
and ' poured ' its fire along their front. Yet they 
pierced the line, to wither away before the steady 
fire of the regiments behind. In the centre the 
Macleans and Macintoshes were driven back from 
the bayonets. The Macdonalds tried in vain to 
draw the fire of Cumberland's right, but the men 
kept their firelocks to their shoulders, while the 
guns played on the clansmen. Three times they 
feigned to advance, but never got their chance for 



the broadsword. Keppoch fell mortally wounded. 
The Macdonalds broke. The whole line gave way, 
and within twenty minutes the Highland army was 
in disorderly flight. The victors were merciless. 
No quarter was the order, save for the French ! 
Charles was led off the field by his guards. 

12. The Clans Rally — Flight of Charles. — It was 
the Highland left that suffered most, as it retired 
upon Inverness before the cruel cavalry. The right, 
including the western clans, drew off to the hilly 
country across the river Nairn, and ' by chance ' 
the fragments of the army rallied at Ruthven in 
Badenoch. There assembled Lord George, Perth, 
Tullibardine, and other leaders with 4,000 to 5,000 
Highlanders ' cheerful and full of spirits.' The 
Macphersons added to their numbers, and all were 
ready for a fresh effort. To prolong the resistance 
might bring the Government to terms ; such, also, 
was the advice Lovat gave to Charles. But a 
message to the Prince brought only a warning to 
save themselves as best they could. For him the 
heart was out of the affair. He was hurrying west- 
wards to find means of getting to France. The 
Highlanders, realizing the price that would now have 
to be paid, broke up ' with wild bowlings and 
lamentations.' On April 26 Charles left Borrodale 
in a boat for the Outer Isles. 

13. Punishing the Highlands. — Heavy and brutal 
was the hand that now fell upon the unfortunate 
Highland people. ' Mild measures will not do,' was 
the maxim with which Cumberland earned for him- 
self the name of * the Butcher.' The honour of 
humanity during the year's campaign was certainly 



carried off by the Highlanders. Such as surrendered 
saved their cattle and houses, but in too many 
cases it was ' the King's pleasure ' to ship them to 
the plantations. ' Those who are found in arms/ 
wrote a Colonel, ' are ordered to be immediately 
put to death, and the houses of those who abscond 
are plundered and burnt, their cattle drove, their 
ploughs and other tackle destroyed.' The lands of 
the principal chiefs, such as Keppoch and Lochiel, 
were burned. Of the leaders, Balmerino, Kilmar- 
nock, and the ' old fox ' Lovat went to the scaffold. 
Cromarty and his son were pardoned. Perth died 
on his way to France. The ' gentle Lochiel,' severely 
wounded at CuUoden, died in France two years later 
sorrowing for ' the people he had undone.' As in 
1716, the trials of the inferior prisoners took place 
in the North of England towns, and about eighty 
suffered death. Scotland was treated as being under 
martial law, and the Highlands as a conquered 
province, till the interference of the civil courts 
brought lawless officers to their senses. 

14. Wanderings and End of Charles. — On the west 
coast Charles hoped to find a French vessel, or one 
which he could hire to take him away. For five 
months he was hunted by regulars and Highland 
militia and ships of war in and out of the islands, 
up and down Lochaber and Badenoch, with a price 
of £30,000 on his head, till a ship touched at Borro- 
dale, and he departed where he had landed. In 
France he met with a royal reception. But when 
peace was made with Britain Charles had to be sent 
* on his travels.' There were later intrigues for a 
rising that never could come to anything. The old 



Emery Walker. 

DUKE OF CUMBERLAND (1721-1765). 

F7'om the painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds in the National Portrait 
Gallery, London. 


Chevalier died in 1766. The spectacle of Charles's 
rapid degradation in drunkenness and vice, killed all 
feeling of devotion to the family. He died at Rome 
in the beginning of 1788. His one brother, Cardinal 
Henry, became a pensioner of George HI. Of the 
other notable men of the cause. Lord George Murray 
died in Holland a few years after CuUoden. The 
tenth and last Earl Marischal, who never liked 
Charles, became a friend and official of Frederick 
the Great, and through Frederick made his peace 
with the reigning house. His more famous brother 
left the Russian service to enter that of Frederick, 
and rose to be his most distinguished Field-Marshal. 
The vindictiveness of the Government and of the 
English people generally against those who had 
shared in the rebellion, and the sensitiveness of 
national feeling, kept Jacobitism alive as a sort of 
opposition among ' folks ol the old leaven ' for 
another generation, but it was never again a political 



1. After the Rebellion. — The fifteen years following 
the Rebellion have a character of their own. They 
produced the final series of Acts ' for rendering the 
Union more complete/ When the Rebellion was 
over, Scotland was still a country under political 
suspicion, especially the Highlands, where Cumber- 
land thought the very soil would grow disloyalty. 


He urged severe measures in the interests of his 
family, and many members of the Parliamentary 
Opposition were of his mind. Fortunately, there 
were wiser heads in the Government. A rearrange- 
ment of the Ministry in December, 1745, had brought 
about the dismissal of the feeble Tweeddale from 
the Secretaryship, and no successor was appointed. 
The Scottish law officers continued to be the chief 
advisers of the Government. No one had a better 
claim to be heard than Lord President Forbes, 
who disgusted Cumberland with his ' talk about 
humanity.' Henry Pelham, the Prime Minister, 
was in full accord with Forbes in preferring a 
healing policy. But the Government of Scotland 
as a whole, so far as it fell to any one person, fell 
to the Duke of Argyll, who, as Earl of Islay, had 
been the agent of Walpole. Forbes died in 1747. 

2. Disarming the Highlands, — The latest rising 
had again shown that the props of Scottish Jacobit- 
ism were mainly two — the clans and the Scottish 
Episcopal Church. Former Acts were, therefore, 
renewed and strengthened. A more successful effort 
was made to disarm, the Highlanders. They were 
again summoned to deliver up all weapons. Persons 
found bearing arms or concealing them after the 
date of their summons were for the first offence 
to be fined, sent into the army, or imprisoned ; 
and for the second to be transported to the planta- 
tions for seven years. A further clause in the 
same Act forbade, under the same penalties, the 
wearing of the ' Highland clothes ' — plaid, kilt, 
trews, or tartan coat — by any but soldiers whose 
uniform it was. It was hoped that by such a 


measure the clan sentiment would be slowly killed. 
To this provision the Government attached great 
importance. ' They must and shall obey it/ was 
the instruction to their officers. But to take his 
tartans from the Highlander was to leave him 
unclothed. The Act at first was not to come into 
force till August i, 1747 ; the date, however, had 
to be put two years later. Forbes thought little of 
this operation. Disarming, he said, was ' the most 
important medicine.' The carrying out of the pro- 
visions of the Disarming Act was placed in the hands 
of the Commander of the Forces in Scotland. Many 
absurd attempts were made to evade them. Every 
Highlander who appeared on summons had to take 
a comprehensive oath that he possessed no weapon 
of any description or used tartan in any form.. This 
oath was framed so as to appeal to his deepest 
feelings. ' If I do so,' he swore in conclusion, ' may 
I be killed in battle as a coward, and lie without 
Christian burial in a strange land, far from the 
graves of my forefathers and kindred.' The pro- 
hibition of the Highland dress was quietly repealed 
in 1782. Long before that date it had ceased to be 
strictly enforced. 

3. The Episcopal Clergy under Penal Laws. — The 
Presbyterian clergy had again shown themselves 
whole-hearted supporters of the Government. The 
Seceders were no less active in the royal cause than 
their brethren of the Establishment. The ministers 
of Edinburgh left their churches in a body when 
Charles occupied the city, and refused his pressing 
invitation to return. Cumberland sent a letter to 
the General Assembly of 1746 in reply to their con- 


gratulations, thanking the Estabhshed clergy for 
their * very steady and laudable conduct/ On the 
other hand, the clergy of the Episcopal Church 
found the old penalties revived against them in a 
more exacting form. In the North, Cumberland 
burned or pulled down their meeting-houses ; in 
Edinburgh these were closed. Non-jurors, or such 
as refused to take the oath of allegiance and pray 
for the King, were forbidden to hold service with 
more than five persons, or if in a dwelling, with 
more than five besides the family. The punish- 
ment for the first offence was six months' imprison- 
ment, for the second banishment for life. Only 
three or four out of 130 clergy conformed. More- 
over, hearers at an illegal m.eeting who did not 
inform the m_agistrate, were also made hable to 
heavy penalties. Two years later the Act was 
made even more drastic. No clergyman conse- 
crated by a Scottish Bishop was recognized as such 
by law. The Episcopalians were now ' the suffering 
remnant ' of Scotland, ministering to scattered flocks 
in secret or uncomfortable places. Their Church 
dwindled, and in the Highlands, where it had been 
strong, it was almost crushed out of existence. As 
the dread of Jacobitism^ disappeared the penal laws 
were relaxed, and in 1792, four years after the death 
of Charles, were repealed. Non-juring had ceased. 
The Scots Episcopal Church, w^hich in the seven- 
teenth century was little distinguishable from the 
Presbyterian, now drew closer to that of England. 

4. Abolition of Hereditary Jurisdictions (1747). — 
The most important measure for the country at 
large was that which abolished the ancient heredi- 


tary powers of administering justice, vested in the 
great landholders. This was a survival from the 
time when the vScottish Crown was too weak to have 
such work carried out by royal officers. The only 
check upon the hereditary Sheriffs and others in the 
exercise of these powers was the Scottish Privy 
Council, and that body had been dissolved. In 
rougher times the system had served well enough, 
but was open to abuse. To the great nobles it was 
an additional source of power. Its abolition was 
bound to come, and the Rebellion was only the 
occasion of it, not the cause. It did not much 
affect the Highland chiefs, few of whom had grants 
I of such jurisdictions, and whose power over their 
'people was due to other reasons. At the same time 
it w^as desirable to strengthen the Government. 
When, as in the risings, and as had happened in 
Covenanting days, personal interests and feelings 
came into play, the hereditary Sheriffs could not 
be trusted to do their duty. Still, the abolition of 
the jurisdictions met with strong opposition on the 
English side. No Scottish peer voted against it. 
But the Act was denounced by the Tory Opposition 
as a breach of the Union and a confiscation of pro- 
perty. The fines were the revenue of the justices, 
and there were, besides, certain small ' customs ' or 
payments due to them from their tenantry on 
account of the office. For these compensation was 
given. The claims made were very great, but in 
the end all were settled at an outlay ol about 
£150,000. Of this, £20,000 fell to the Duke of 
Argyll. The Marquis of Annandale was compensated 
with £5,000 for the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 


Others got much smaller amounts. The chief of 
the Grants was the only one of the lesser heads of 
clans whose claim was admitted. The vacant posi- 
tions were filled by professional lawyers, who at 
first had to be good Whigs. Most lawyers were 
Jacobites. In the same year another Act abolished 
the tenure of land on condition of military service. 
Such tenures had been abolished in England a 
hundred years before. Fixed payments took their 

5. The Highlands after Culloden. — The late rising, 
like all previous ones, left the Highlands in a very 
unsettled condition. Outlawed men took to the 
hills and became thieves. Bands of such gentry had 
long been common in the Highlands. Cattle was 
their chief plunder, because cattle could be driven, 
and fetched a good price in Lowland markets. 
These bandits had been drawn mostly from some 
branches of the Macdonalds, from the Camerons, 
the Glennioriston Grants, and, of course, the out- 
lawed Macgregors. Chiefs such as Lochiel and 
Keppoch, though bound to protect clansmen in diffi- 9 
culties, discouraged these practices. But farmers 
in the Lov/lands — even Forbes himself — had been 
glad to pay ' blackmail ' to save their stock. The 
Highland ' commons,' however, as a whole, were a 
hard-working people, wringing their daily bread 
from poor and unimproved soil. Had Cumberland 
and the Opposition now had their way, there would 
have been more thieves * forced by necessity.' But 
Pelhani and his Scotch advisers were for remedy, 
not repression. The estates of Lovat, Perth, 
Lochiel, Stewart of Ardshiel, and other leaders, 


were forfeited. Those in the South were sold by 
auction. But the Highland estates were retained 
as the property of the Crown. In 1752 an Act 
was passed devoting the rents to the improve- 
ment of the Highlands and islands, to ' pro- 
moting amongst them the Protestant religion, good 
government, industry, and manufactures.' The 
policy of this measure was put by one member of 
Parliament thus : ' Feed the clans, and they will 
obey ; starve them, and they must rebel.' The 
encouragement of Cumberland supported the Op- 
position in declaring that such easy treatment took 
all terror from rebellion. 

6. The Appin Murder (1752). — But it was scarcely 
possible for the people to realize the good intentions 
of the Government. There was a brief account of 
Parliamentary debates in the Edinburgh news- 
papers, the Edinburgh Evening Courant (Whig) and 
the Caledonian Mercury (Tory) ; but newspapers 
were not known in the West Highlands. There 
factors appeared to collect the rents. These were 
not large, but they had to be regularly paid. This 
the tenants were not always able to do, especially 
as many were at the sam.e time sending supplies to 
their chiefs in exile. Moreover, the factors were 
strangers and Whigs, and had to be protected by a 
military guard. Leases were readily given on easy 
terms, but leases seemed to the tenants to be a way 
of robbing them of all personal right in the land. 
Troubles arose, and families had to be evicted for 
non-payment of rent. In 1746 an officer was shot 
in Lochaber in mistake for another who had acted 
at an eviction. The assassin was known, but never 


arrested. In 1752 a more famous outrage occurred. 
The factor on Ardshiel's and Lochiel's estates was a 
Mr. Campbell of Glenure. His severity had already 
brought him a reprimand from his superiors. On 
his way to evict some tenants he was shot at from 
behind a rock on the road near Ballachulish, and 
killed. Suspicion fell upon Allan Stewart Breac 
(' speckled/ from small-pox) and James Stewart, 
kinsmen of Ardshiel. Allan escaped to France, and 
James was arrested as being 'art and part' in the 
murder, and for having assisted him in getting away. 

7. Campbells Judge a Stewart. — This case had an 
important political bearing. The Opposition had 
prophesied the failure of the Government's policy. 
If this murder were imitated, failure was certain, 
for severity would have to be used. It was, there- 
fore, determined to make an example of James 
Stewart. He was tried at Inveraray. Three judges 
sat on the bench, presided over by the Duke of 
Argyll as Justice-General, whose presence at a cir- 
cuit court was most unusual. Lord Advocate Grant 
prosecuted — another unusual thing — and tw^o of his 
assistants were Campbells. From the same clan 
were drawn eleven of the jury. With such judges, 
an Appin Stewart in the dock under a charge arising 
out of the murder of a Campbell, was as good as 
dead. On the very slightest evidence vStewart was 
convicted and hanged. These unfortunate affairs 
apart, this period was a fairly good one for the 
Highland tenantry. Rents were low, and the price 
of cattle was rising steadily. Improvements were 
made on the forfeited estates. Spinning-wheels were 
distributed among the people, and good flax sown. 


Schools were erected, and a knowledge of English 
spread. Feeling was dying down, and * female 
rebels/ such as Keppoch's daughter, danced with 
the officers of the garrison in the fortnightly assem- 
blies at Inverness. More men were raised in the 
Highlands for military service — an old project of 
Forbes and Argyll. In 1757 Lovat's son, though 
without an acre of the family lands, easily embodied 
a regiment, more than half of whom were Frasers, 
the rest being from other Inverness-shire clans. 
Thus old feuds were helped to rest. ' Eraser's 
Highlanders ' distinguished themselves at the cap- 
ture of Quebec in 1759. When disbanded, many 
settled down in America, while those who returned 
had news to tell of the great vacant country beyond 
the sea. 

8. ' Moderates ' and ' Popular s.' — During the 
latter half of the century a marked change of 
character came over the Church of Scotland. It 
was not without reason that the ministers who 
clung to the old ' zealous ' traditions deplored the 
preoccupation of the people with trade. Religious 
enthusiasm weakened. Quiet ways were preferred. 
There was not the old passionate interest in ecclesi- 
astical politics. The change had set in after the 
Revolution settlement, and the growing party in 
whom these effects showed themselves was known 
as that of ' Moderates.' It was recruited from the 
younger ministers. Until the middle of the century, 
however, the men who stood in the old ways of strict 
doctrine and freedom of the Church from outside 
control in what they believed to be spiritual matters, 
were in the ascendant. They received the name of 


^'Evangelicals/ or, on account of one special form 
of resistance, of ' Populars/ 

9. Disputed Settlements. — It was from this party 
that the Secession had been formed. Those who 
remained within the Church continued that conflict 
on the same lines. The appointment of ministers 
by presentation was now in full activity. In not 
a few cases it produced a serious division in the 
congregation. Heads of families claimed the right 
with the elders and heritors to refuse to accept a 
minister who did not meet with their approval. In 
many cases the Presbytery gave way to the con- 
gregation, and declined to admit the minister even 
when ordered to do so by the superior courts of 
the Church. The Evangelicals supported the 
' Popular ' side. The General Assembly still passed 
annual resolutions against the ' grievance ' of 
patronage. On the other hand, the Moderates 
insisted that the law of the land and of the Church 
must be obeyed. It was a principle of Presby- 
terianism that the lower courts must give way to 
the higher. 

10. ' The Relief.' — The turning-point in the con- 
troversy was in the year 1752. Hitherto the As- 
sembly had dealt easily with rebellious Presbyteries 
who refused to act against their conscientious beliefs. 
' Riding Commissions ' were sent to do their work. 
But this practice was now brought to a close. The 
Moderates insisted that Presbyteries which did not 
carry out the orders of the superior courts, must be 
compelled or punished. A test case arose in Inver- 
keithing (1751-1752). The majority of the Presbytery 
refused to take any steps to install a presentee who 


had only a small body of supporters among the 
elders and the congregation. On this account the 
Assembly deposed one minister, George Gillespie of 
Carnoch, as a warning, and suspended others. 
Gillespie, however, would not give up preaching, 
and ten years later (1761), being joined by two other 
ministers, formed the Relief Presbytery, the ' relief ' 
being from patronage. This case marks the be- 
ginning of the rule of the Moderate party in the 
Church. Their leader was Dr. William Robertson, 
afterwards Principal of Edinburgh University, and 
a distinguished historian in his day. Several cases 
like that of In verkei thing occurred, in some of which 
the congregation broke up and furnished recruits 
to the Secession or the Relief. But the Secession 
itself had split, some years after its formation, over 
the burghers' oath. All burghers had to swear that 
they professed ' the true religion ' as ' authorized 
by the laws ' of the realm. As this was accepted 
to mean the Established Church, many regarded 
the oath as opposed to their Secession principles. 
A heated quarrel resulted in a division into two 
bodies : 'burghers' who did not scruple at the oath, 
and ' anti-burghers ' who did (1747) . Further develop- 
ments occurred before the close of the century. The 
Moderates drifted into being actual defenders of 
patronage in itself as against the popular claims. 
In 1781 the resolutions of the Assembly against the 
practice ceased. The Moderates, now the majority 
in that body, soon found themselves in alliance with 
the Tories in politics. 





1. The Great Change. — George III was the first really 
British member of the House of Hanover. The year 
'in which he came to the throne coincides with the 
definite beginning of a new era in Scottish history. 
It was first, of course, most marked on the economic 
side. Later it led to a political change. An in- 
flow of wealth made it possible for the new ideas 
to be properly applied to the condition of the 
country. Compensation for their heritable juris- 
dictions placed ready cash in the hands of great 
proprietors, who used it in the development of their 
estates. Scots ' nabobs ' returned with fortunes 
made in the Indies, one of the fields opened to their 
enterprise by the Union. Others made money in 
various ways connected with the successful Seven 
Years' War (1756-1763), which laid firm the founda- 
tions of a colonial empire. The favourite invest- 
ment for these funds was in the profitable business 
of farming. Banks were opened in the country 
towns. There was a great and growing demand for 
cattle and grain. The new methods of agriculture 
borrowed from England and Ireland took fast root. 
Lords of Session devoted their leisure hours to 
experiments on their estates in planting and 
improving. Fencing, draining, planting of trees, 
' green crops,' finer grain, fertilizing of soil, and 
methods of science not of tradition, rapidly trans- 
formed Scottish agriculture. Barren lands were 



reclaimed and made productive. Bad seasons still 
came, but their effect was less felt : 1756 was a 
ruinous season, but potatoes eked out the grain. 
Within a few years these were grown in ' amazing 
quantities,' especially in Perthshire. The distress 
iof 1782-1783 taught a severe lesson to backward 
farmers, and brought the north-eastern counties 
into line with the Lowlands. Prices of farm pro- 
duce rose, and, with prices, rents and the whole 
value of land. Labour was in demand, wages were 
doubled, housing became more comfortable and 
cleanly, and the general appearance of the people 
altered greatly for the better. By the end of the 
century Scotch farmers could despise the less pro- 
gressive methods of England, and Scotch agricul- 
ture became the model for the other kingdoms. 

2. Effect on the Highlands. — Nowhere did the new 
movement produce more startling results than in 
the Highlands. There the rich natural pastures 
suddenly became of great value. The price of cattle 
had doubled within thirty years, reaching its greatest 
height at the end of the war in 1763. Sheep, too, 
were becoming as valuable as cattle. The chiefs 
still possessing their lands had no longer any interest 
in maintaining a warlike population. More rent was 
what was now desired. Of the new proprietors, many 
had been educated in the Lowlands and England. 
They had the new tastes, and cared little for the old 
attachment of clan and chief. These men did more 
to kill the clan feeling than all the enactments of the 
Government. Rents were squeezed up to the fullest 
am.ount. The proprietors and the great tenants 
profited, but the smaller men and the cottagers 


were unable to bear the new burdens. Emigration 
to America began — to lands where Highland soldiers 
had already settled. By 1770 it was in full swing, 

GEORGE III (1738-1820). 

From the painting by Allan Ramsay i7t the National Porti'ait 
Gallery, London. 

a perfect ' rage/ Inverness people generally went 
to Georgia ; those from Perthshire and Strathspey 
to New England ; from Argyll and the Islands to 

29 — 2 


Carolina: a choice determined by the presence 
of friends and relatives in these districts. The 
jfiow was checked by the outbreak of the war with 
.America in 1775, and for the time turned towards 
Canada. It soon caused alarm throughout the 
country, which needed its male population for 
service in the various wars. Yet recruits were still 
abundant. The Government, led by Pitt, now 
made full use of the fighting qualities of the High- 
landers. Between the time of the ' Forty-Five ' and 
the end of the war against Napoleon (1815) fifty-one 
battalions were raised from the Highland clans for 
service abroad, besides many others for home defence. 
So closed the clan history of the Highlands, in much 
the same way as it had done on the Borders two 
hundred years before. But it was a process which 
involved much personal suffering to a poor people 
ignorant of the conditions which prevailed beyond 
their mountain borders. Some, to cross the seas, 
had actually to sell themselves to employers, and 
many died of the miseries of the passage. 

3. The Manufacturing Towns. — This was a period 
I'of rapid growth in the towns. The working popula- 
tion employed in factories and in trades increased. 
While the displaced Highlanders went abroad. Low- 
landers, removed to make room for bigger farms, 
became craftsmen and shopkeepers in the towns. 
The royal and other privileged buyers no longer 
took first place. A fishing village like Greenock or 
a township like Paisley by commerce or manufacture 
forced its way to the front. Edinburgh, of course, 
as the centre of government and law, retained its 
importance. The increase in rents enabled country 



gentry to become town dwellers, and share in the 
excitements and gaieties of the larger centres of 
population. Edinburgh drew most of this kind, and 
so possessed a leisured, cultured, and titled class, 
with whom Edinburgh became the most fashionable 
and brilliant centre out of London. But the high 
fiats of the Canongate and Lawnmarket could not 
contain them. They left these noisome quarters for 
the villas and straight, open streets of the ' New 
Town ' across the valley to the north. The last 
twenty-five years of the century saw old Edinburgh 
abandoned to its poorer element. Where a Lord 
President of the Court of Session had lived and 
revelled became the home of a saleswoman of old 
furniture. In Glasgow successful commerce supplied 
the chief citizens, the ' tobacco lords,' who laid the 
foundations of the city's greatness. Through Glas- 
gow passed more than half of all the tobacco used 
in the three kingdoms. But the American War, 
which Glasgow, naturally, did not support, de- 
stroyed this profitable business. The supply ceased, 
and when peace returned, Virginia and Maryland 
sent their tobacco direct to the countries which 
used it. But Glasgow had other resources, and its 
merchants were enterprising. The climate of the 
I West w^as well suited to the manufacture of cotton. 
The first cotton mill in Scotland was set up in 
Penicuik in 1778, and the second in Rothesay the 
year after. Glasgow, however, was in the best 
position to develop this industry. Soon more raw 
cotton was coming into the Clyde than went to 
Lancashire, which had in time to draw most of its 
material from the Scottish port. Crowds of High- 


land and Lowland labourers flocked to the cotton 
factories of Lanark and Paisley. The old linen 
industry passed to the East Coast. In Aberdeen 
the flourishing hosiery trade suffered heavily from 
the war following the French Revolution. The 
linen manufacture, however, was extended, and 
before the end of the century Aberdeen was making 
more linen thread than any town in Scotland. Along 
Tweedside woollen mills were rising to rival those 
of England. 

4. Improved Communications, — Now, too, was 
seen the real beginning of an improvement in the 
highways. The only made roads were those of 
Wade in the Highlands. Beyond their reach, in 
Caithness and Sutherland, there was none even 
at the end of the century. A traveller from Glas- 
gow to Edinburgh in 1739 would find neither coach, 
waggon, nor cart on the rough track, over which 
he had to trudge or ride. Ten years later ' The 
Glasgow and Edinburgh Caravan ' began a public 
service, taking two days to do the forty-four miles. 
But the roads could no longer be left among the 
works of Nature. The Turnpike Act (1751) im- 
posed a toll on travellers for their improvement 
and upkeep, which speedily produced good results 
in the more frequented parts of the country. The 
' Caravan ' between the two chief cities had to yield 
to ' The Fly,' which justified its name by covering 
the distance in a day and a half ! Carriers' waggons, 
too, appeared as the roads became passable for 
vehicles. But the carrier from Selkirk to Edin- 
burgh took a fortnight to the journey, and in 
summer-time found the dry part of the bed of the 



Gala Water easier travelling than the high road. 
For passengers crossing the Border a stage-coach 
left Edinburgh for London once a month. The 
journey occupied from ten to fifteen days, accord- 
ing to the weather. Within a quarter of a century 
(1784) there were fifteen coaches for London weekly, 
and the trip might he done witti comfort in four 
days. English roads had been no whit better than 
those of Scotland. But the first mail-coach did not 
reach Aberdeen till 1798, and it was not till early 
in the next century that the connexion was ex- 
tended to Inverness. Farm roads were included 
in the general improvement, but for long only in 
the central Lowlands. There it now became possible 
to use carts in place of sledges, or ' tumblers ' not 
much bigger than wheelbarrows, with solid wooden 
wheels. In remoter districts, even in Ayrshire, 
pack-horses or women carrying creels continued for 
some time yet to be the common modes of bringing 
farm produce to the markets. Scotland was ready 
also to follow the southern example of constructing 
canals for the easy conveyance of bulky goods. 
Between 1768 and 1790, with many delays, a canal 
was cut between the Forth and Clyde. The traffic 
on this canal threatened to spoil that on the Clyde, 
which, by careful banking in of the channel, was 
now being made to provide water of sufficient depth 
at high tide to allow of vessels of a good size sailing 
up to the city. 

5. Scottish Minerals — The Steam-Engine. — As yet 
little use had been made of the rich stores of coal 
and iron in the country. Coal was still but little 
worked and difficult to transport. But a fuller 


demand set in when it was found how to use coal 
in the smelting of iron. In 1760 the famous Carron 
ironworks were set up near Falkirk. They gave 
the name to a class of short guns which they pro- 
duced, known as ' carronades/ Under the pressure 
of expanding industries inventors, too, were busy. 
Meikle's threshing-machine has already been noticed. 
The invention of labour-saving machines in spinning 
and weaving transformed these industries in Eng- 
land and Scotland. But it was James Watt, a 
native of Greenock, who supplied the new driving 
power in the perfecting, of the steam-engine. In 
1765 he hit upon the idea of the ' separate condenser,' 
and by this and other improvements made what had 
been little better than a cumbrous toy the greatest 
agent in the ' industrial revolution.' And through 
this revolution the United Kingdom became the 
greatest industrial and engineering country in the 

6. The Revival of Literature. — Ai the beginning of 
the century scholarship in Scotland had sunk to its 
lowest level, and literature had almost ceased to be. 
The schools were wretched, the Universities were 
sunk in poverty. Not till towards the end of the 
century were efforts made to improve these con- 
ditions. With the new life opening out in Scotland 
came the revival of Scottish letters, in the hands of 
philosophers like David Hume and Thomas Reid the 
founder of the ' Scottish philosophy of historians 
such as Hume, Principal Robertson, and Lord Hailes ; 
and of the fathers of political economy, Hume again, 
but especially Adam Smith. Smith's Wealth of 
Nations converted leading politicians to Free Trade, 



ALLAN RAMSAY (1686-1758). 
From the drawing by Aikman in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 


and is the most important book on its subject ever 
written. These men wrote in Enghsh. The Hterary 
vScots tongue was quite dead. Scottish terms and 
phrases became an offence when only by using 
correct Enghsh could readers be secured. The 
spoken Scots, the ' vernacular ' of the peasantry 
and the poor, found its place in verse. Allan 
Ramsay, the Edinburgh wig-maker and poet, gave 
it new life in his popular poems, and, besides, dressed 
up old surviving songs and ballads. He was fol- 
lowed by the unfortunate Robert Fergusson, whose 
Scots is of a more cultured character than that of 
Ramsay. These men furnished the example for 
the greatest of all Scottish poets, the Ayrshire 
peasant Robert Burns (1759-1796), who raised 
the later vernacular to a sure place in literature. 
But even he wrote much in the somewhat affected 
English of the Scottish writers of his time. 


REIGN OF GEORGE III (1760-1820) 

1. The Political Situation in Scotland. — The interests 
of Scotland during the latter part of the eighteenth 
century were industrial and social. Religious feeling 
was keen only among the Dissenters and the Evan- 
gelical minority of the Church. It was the calm 
reign of the Moderates. Party politics in the Eng- 
lish sense did not exist. A busy people were in- 
different to politics. They had no voice in the 


election of either town councils or Members of 
Parliament, and so no control over either. The 
representation of the country was in the hands of a 
few men. A vote at an election was something to 
be bought, in Parliament something deserving 
reward. Both municipal and parliamentary activi- 
ties were utterly corrupt. The Government of the 
country was directed by the Lord Advocate for the 
time being. Thus Scotland steadily supported the 
Government, whatever its colour. When George 
took the step of replacing the elder Pitt by 
the Earl of Bute, a Scotchman, Scotland was 
involved in the unpopularity of the new Minister. 
Bute certainly showed himself partial to his own 
countrymen. As a result, Scotsmen and the 
Scottish nation were mocked at and insulted in the 
interests of the Opposition. This burst of foolish 
prejudice renewed the old bitterness of feeling 
against the southern kingdom, and this bitterness 
marked Scottish politics for the next twenty years. 
Of the Scottish towns, only Glasgow and Kilmar- 
nock failed in 1775 to send addresses to the King 
in favour of the American War, which he largely 
helped to bring about. 

2. The Rule of Dundas, — In the same year Henry 
Dundas became Lord Advocate. He was an able, 
not very scrupulous, but genial statesman, whose 
hold upon the country steadily became greater until 
he was its uncrowned King. He retained office 
under Tory and Whig and mixed Ministries alike, 
but finally attached himself to the fortunes of the 
younger William Pitt, and became his close friend. 
During his earlier term of office an Act was passed 


(1775) abolishing serfdom among the coUiers and 
salters (see Chapter XXXIII, § 2). This measure had 
to be strengthened in 1799 before it became effective. 
The one pohtical proposal that aroused strong feel- 
ing in Scotland was that to repeal the penal laws 
against Catholics. They could not hold property, 
educate their children, exercise their worship, or 
even exist at all in the country, if the laws were 
enforced. In practice they were left alone, but the 
measure to remove the laws from the Statute-book, 
as had just been done in England, was fiercely 
resisted. There were anti-Catholic riots in Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow (1779), and much mischief was 
done to Catholic property. The Moderate party 
passed a resolution in the Assembly in favour of 
repeal. For this they suffered in popular favour. 
The measure had to be withdrawn, and the Assembly 
thereupon passed a resolution of congratulation. 
Charles James Fox and the English Whigs denounced 
this surrender by the Government to a ' little insur- 
rection in a small corner of the Empire.' 

3. Pitt and Dundas. — Dundas had supported Lord 
North and the American War, but he was also a 
member of the Ministry which recognized the inde- 
pendence of the colonies. He was too useful a man 
to be dispensed with. For a few months he was 
out of office till William Pitt the younger, after 
being three years in Parliament, became Prime 
Minister in 1784. It was Dundas who first urged 
the King to appoint Pitt. Thenceforward the two 
were bosom friends. Dundas became the first Secre- 
tary of State for India. As time went on, he filled 
other offices, becoming in turn Home Secretary, First 


From 'Kays Portraits' 


Secretary of War, and First Lord of the Admiralty. 
He was Pitt's right-hand man during his long term 
of twenty-two years as Prime Minister. In Scot- 
land he did as he pleased. He had the patronage 
of all public offices. ' It was to him that every man 
owed what he had got, and looked for what he 
wished.' He managed the elections. Scotland 
became entirely Tory. He had added to his popu- 
larity by the Act of 1784, which restored the for- 
feited estates to the descendants of families exiled 
for the rebellion of 1745. There was no opposition 
to this measure. The Highlands were peaceful ; 
Jacobitism was a lost cause dear only to minor 

4. Burgh Reform. — Meantime a great question was 
forcing itself to the front in Scotland — that of reform 
in the government of the burghs. The towns were 
being filled up with a large working population, and 
were being roused to a new life. They found them- 
selves at the mercy of a close tyranny. Since the 
days of James III the magistrates had been self- 
elected. The burgesses, as a body, had no voice. 
The magistrates raised what taxes they pleased, and 
spent them as they pleased. They were responsible 
to nobody, and the legal means of checking their 
extravagance it was impossible to put in force. 
They disposed of the property of the burgh. In 
many cases they burdened it with heavy debt. 
Aberdeen lay under a debt of which it could scarcely 
pay the interest. A hundred years before the 
burghs had been declared to be hopelessly corrupt. 
Now a new spirit was abroad. Delegates assembled 
from fifty-four burghs, and prepared a scheme 


for submission to Parliament (1787). They first 
approached Dundas and Pitt. Dundas declared 
himself an opponent ; Pitt avoided them. Then 
they turned to the Whig leaders. Fox and 
Sheridan took up their cause, and year after year 
pressed it upon the House of Commons. But 
the progress of the French Revolution alarmed 
the governing classes, and for the moment reform 
of any sort was beyond hope. The opposition of 
the Tory party to burgh reform proved the begin- 
ning of its downfall in Scotland. 

5. The State of Parliamentary Representation. — - 
The agitation for reform of the burghs opened up 
an even larger question. The power of Dundas in 
Scotland was due in part to his practical ability 
and his personal popularity, still more to the oppor- 
tunities he had of giving places to his friends, most 
of all to the ease with which he could manage its 
elections. Out of a population which now num- 
bered a million and a half, less than four thousand 
had votes. More than half of these were in the 
counties. Only heritors or freeholders possessed the 
franchise, and it was possible for great landowners 
to make a mock division of their estates in order to 
create votes for the purpose of an election. In the 
election of 1790 Ayrshire was the largest constitu- 
ency, with 220 votes ; Cromarty the smallest, with 
six. Of the burghs, Edinburgh was the only one 
which possessed a member of its own for its thirty- 
three voters. The other royal burghs, who alone 
had the right to be represented, returned members 
for groups of four or five, though both Glasgow and 
Selkirk had as many voters as Edinburgh. The 


average number was nineteen, the usual number of 
the town council. Each town council of a group 
appointed a delegate, and these elected the member. 
It was easy to handle such small numbers. Dundas 
also sent down the list of peers who were to be 
chosen at an election. Thus he was able in the 
election of 1802 to secure the return of forty-three 
Tory members to the House of Commons out of the 
total of forty-five. No wonder Dundas, who, like 
his friend Pitt, had begun as a reformer, became the 
stubborn enemy of all change in so convenient a 
system. At the same time, a blind terror at the 
sight of the upheaval and excesses of the French 
Revolution filled the minds of those in power. Early 
in 1793 France and Britain were at war. 

6. ' The Political Martyrs ' (1793-1794). — The popu- 
lar movement for reform in England and Scotland 
was directed by the Association of the Friends of 
the People. The first Scottish branch was formed 
at Glasgow. The purpose of the Association was 
to work by constitutional methods for a fuller share 
in the Parliamentary representation. The Govern- 
ment took alarm. Daring Whigs had not scrupled 
to express their sympathy with the French people 
and their new Constitution. The demand of the 
new wealthy class and of the working population in 
the towns for a share in political power seemed to 
be the beginning of a revolution at home. It was 
determined to crush the movement. One of its 
leaders was a young advocate, Thomas Muir. He was 
arrested and brought to trial on a charge of ' leasing,' 
or disloyalty — an old Scots offence — and of sedition. 
There was no pretence of a fair trial. The jury was 


packed to convict. The prisoner's witnesses were 
bullied, and one even sent to prison. The presiding 
Judge, Lord Braxfield, was a coarse, overbearing 
political partisan. He informed the jury that ' the 
British Constitution is the best that ever was since 
the creation of the world, and it is not possible to 
make it better.' Muir, he said, ' was poisoning the 
minds of the common people, and preparing them 
for rebellion.' The jury unanimously found the 
prisoner guilty, and he was sentenced to fourteen 
years' transportation at Botany Bay. A few weeks 
after the Rev. Thomas Palmer, an English Unitarian 
minister, received seven years for a like offence. 
But the formation of political associations went on. 
The meetings were held in secret, and the action of 
the Government led to threats of force. Thereupon 
three prominent members of the Society of United 
Scotsmen were arrested — Skirving, Gerrald, and 
Margarot — and each was sentenced to fourteen years' 
transportation. The methods adopted in these 
trials led to fierce debates in Parliament. ' God 
help the people who have such Judges !' was the 
comment of Fox. This set of trials closed with 
those of Downie and Watt on charges of high 
treason. They were accused of having formed a 
conspiracy to upset the Government, set Edinburgh 
on fire, rob the banks, and put the Judges in gaol. 
Both were convicted, but Downie was respited, and 
Watt, who had once served as a Government spy 
on the reformers, alone suffered the revolting death 
of high treason. For the time being the reform 
movement was discouraged. 

7. Scotland and the War. — Presently the nation 



had other things to think of. The successes of the 
armies of the French Repubhc roused a fear of in- 
vasion. Interest in reform and sympathy with the 
French people gave place to patriotic enthusiasm. 
Volunteer companies for defence were formed all 
over the country. In the great struggle which for 
twenty years convulsed Europe, and in its second 
stage passed into national resistance to the con- 
quering genius of Napoleon, Scotsmen played an 
indispensable part. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Sir 
John Moore restored the fighting efficiency of the 
British army. They forged the weapon with which 
Wellington later cut his way to victory. Sir Charles 
Stuart, a son of the Earl of Bute, was the most 
brilliant British officer of the first period of the 
war. Sir Thomas Graham Lord Lynedoch, Sir 
John Hope, and others of the school of Abercromby, 
were able lieutenants of Wellington. 

8. Distress after the War. — But the war left every 
country which had shared in it exhausted and im- 
poverished or burdened with debt. Britain had 
suffered a succession of bad harvests, and the 
natural scarcity was increased by the heavy tax 
on foreign corn. The National Debt was swollen 
to an enormous size. There was a tax on every- 
thing in use. When, on the conclusion of peace 
after Waterloo (1815), wheat became cheaper, a 
new Corn Law forbade its importation till the price 
at home rose to £4 a quarter — a famine price, double 
what it had usually been during the years 1760-1790. 
Commerce, too, suffered. Foreign nations needed 
time and money to replace their losses. The demand 
for British manufactures slackened. Prices fell, and 


many tradesmen were ruined. Employment was 
lessened. The improvements in industrial machinery 
displaced the hand- worker or reduced his wages. The 
widespread spinning-wheel industry was ruined. In 
the mills women and children took the place of men. 
The power-loom, first applied to cotton, but after- 
wards to the other textiles, threw thousands of the 
once prosperous hand-loom w^eavers out of work or 
steadily cut down their earnings. In Glasgow they 
tried to combine to raise the rate, but this was against 
the law, and some of the leaders were imprisoned. 

9. Revival of the Reform Movement. — It was the 
deep social distress that brought the reform move- 
ment back to life. The abuses still existed, but 
hunger and unemployment were added to them. 
The previous agitation had raised up a Whig party 
in Scotland. In 1802 was founded the Edinburgh 
Review, conducted by some of the brilliant young 
men of the capital — Francis Jeffrey, Henry Brougham 
and an Englishman, Sydney Smith. It became dis- 
tinctly Whig in tone, and the Tory writers seven 
years later started a magazine in the interests of 
their own party and the Dundases,* the Quarterly 
Review. Its most notable contributor was Walter 
Scott, a member of the Bar, and a successful poet, 
soon to become, as a novelist, the foremost literary 
figure in the country. But the seat of most activity 
in the cause of reform was in the West. The 
Government was alarmed by the report of a great 
organization among the weavers. They set a spy 
to work, who attended the meetings and provided 
them with information. 

* In 1 802 Henry Dundas became Viscount Melville. 



10. More Political Trials (1817). — Two arrests were 
made — Alexander Maclaren, a weaver, and Thomas 
Baird, a grocer. Maclaren was a skilled workman 
who had held a good position, but under changed 
conditions could now, by working fifteen hours a 
day, make only five shillings a week. He had been a 
sergeant in a volunteer company. Baird had been 
a Captain, but was also a steady advocate of reform. 
At an open-air meeting at Kilmarnock Maclaren 
had urged those present to petition the King. If he 
refused to listen to their grievances, then, he said, 
their allegiance was at an end. Baird had printed 
and published this speech. The sentence on both 
was six months' imprisonment. Contrasted with the 
trials of twenty-three years before, this result was 
a victory for the reformers. The cases which fol- 
lowed were certainly so. Neil Douglas, a preacher, 
had in his sermons compared George III to Nebu- 
chadnezzar — the King being now actually insane — 
and the pleasure-loving Prince Regent to his doomed 
son Belshazzar. Seats in the House of Commons, 
he declared, were bought and sold like bullocks in 
the market, which was literally true. On trial, the 
case for the prosecution collapsed, and Douglas was 
acquitted. The Government next took up a charge 
against Andrew McKinlay, another Glasgow weaver. 
He was accused of administering an unlawful oath. 
This oath had been made known by the Govern- 
ment spy as the means of holding together a secret 
conspiracy in Glasgow. The person who took it 
swore to work for the conferring of ' the elective 
franchise at the age of twenty-one, with free and 
equal representation and annual Parliaments,' and 


that he would support the brotherhood to the utmost 
of his power, ' either by moral or physical strength, 
as the case may be/ The Government agents tried 
to bribe one of the prisoners to turn King's evidence. 
In the box he described how this had been done. 
The Lord Advocate thereupon abandoned the case, 
and a verdict of ' Not proven ' was returned. But, 
with a slight improvement in trade, the reform move- 
ment again quietened down, and for the next two 
years peace reigned in Scotland. Earty in 1820 
George III died. 


GEORGE IV (1820) ; WILLIAM III (IV) (1830) ; 
VICTORIA (1837) 

L ' The Radical War ' (1820) . — The new reign opened 
storniily. George IV was unpopular. The reform 
movement had drawn to its ranks many able 
thinkers and workers both in England and Scot- 
land. But the Tory Government would make 
no concession. Among the industrial population 
there was still much distress. The note of revolt 
was again sounded. The more extreme reformers 
were now known as ' Radicals.' Late in March 
notices were fixed up in Glasgow, Paisley, and other 
western towns. By order of the ' Committee of 
Organization for forming a Provisional Govern- 
ment ' all persons were called upon to give up 
working until every man was granted the right ' of 
giving consent to the laws by which he is governed.' 


A general strike began. In Glasgow and the 
neighbouring districts 60,000 men went idle. Arms 
were seized and made. There was drilling in the 
night. On Wednesday, April 5, a rising was to 
begin. By that day 5,000 troops had been massed 
in the streets of Glasgow. A cavalry charge scat- 
tered the only attempt at organized attack. But 
at Bonnymuir, near Falkirk, there was a brief 
skirmish between the ' Radicals ' and the yeomanry. 
The general strike had affected Stirling, Glasgow, 
Dumbarton, Paisley, and Ayr. At these places 
courts were held for the trial of arrested ringleaders. 
In all twenty-four were sentenced to death, but 
only three suffered the penalty. The East, not so 
much troubled by industrial distress, showed its 
sympathy with reform in a more orderly fashion. 
A great public meeting held later in the year in the 
Pantheon of Edinburgh passed resolutions against 
the Government, Francis Jeffrey taking the lead. 
A petition supporting the resolutions was signed by 
17,000 persons. ' A new day dawned on the official 
seat of Scotch intolerance.' 

2. Rise of the Coal and Iron Industries, — Meantime 
a development of industry was taking place along 
new lines. The discovery of the rich ' black-band 
ironstone ' early in the century opened up a large 
source of wealth to Scotland. As the seams were 
mostly in Lanarkshire and Ayrshire these districts 
were soon covered with ironworks. A great 
demand followed for coal to be converted into coke 
for smelting purposes. But in less than thirty years 
the invention of the 'hot-blast' by Neilson allowed 
of the direct use of coal with iron. This was of 


Emery Walker. 

JAMES WATT (1736-1819). 

From the painting by Charles Frederick de Breda in the Natio?ial 
Portrait Gallery, London. 


enormous advantage to both industries. The West 
of Scotland, and especially Glasgow, became a chief 
seat for the manufacture of machinery now being 
applied in all directions. The greatest of all the iron 
products for Scotland was foreshadowed by the 
appearance of the first steamer on the Clyde, the 
Comet, launched for Henry Bell of Helensburgh 
in 1811. Five miles an hour was its top speed. 
Three years later Scotland had five steam-vessels, 
and England not one. It was then thought that the 
engines of a steamer would not stand the open sea. 
But in 1818 David Napier built the Rob Roy, which 
traded from Greenock to Belfast. Shortly after the 
second Comet plied between Glasgow and Inverness. 
The first iron steamer was constructed on the Clyde 
in 1827, but not till the close of this period did the 
use of iron in building ships become general. Thus 
the lead in Scottish shipbuilding passed from Leith 
to Glasgow. Since the last years of the eighteenth 
century the work of deepening the Clyde by 
dredging had gone steadily on. Land transit, too, 
received a great development. Telford's highways, 
Rennie's iron bridges, and Macadam's method of 
improving the surface of roads, made all sorts of 
travelling easy and rapid. Stage-coaches ran regu- 
larly between all the cJiief towns. The Caledonian 
Canal was opened in 1822. Above all, George 
Stephenson, a Northumbrian pit-worker, had, in 
the first quarter of the century, put Watt's pumping- 
engine upon wheels, and so formed the steam 
locomotive. After that the spread of railways 
took, for some years, the form of a craze. 

3. Sheep and Kelp in the Highlands. — The High- 


lands had its share of both industrial wealth and 
distress. Sheep-farming on a large scale with 
improved breeds had begun in 1763. Thereafter it 
proceeded rapidly. It was a profitable business 
for farmer and landlord, but the peasantry had 
to make way for the sheep. One track of country 
after another was ' cleared ' for the ' four-footed 
people.' In 1792 the people of Ross and southern 
Sutherland assembled to drive the sheep out of 
these counties. This had to be checked by the 
bringing of soldiers from Fort George. ' Clearances ' 
in Sutherland were carried out on a large scale, and 
led to much cruelty and hardship. The people 
crowded into fishing villages on the shore. Emigra- 
tion became almost a yearly event in the Highlands. 
On the West, however, and in the islands there was 
a contrary development. Riches were found in the 
rich seaweed of their shores. It was burned into 
kelp, and from the kelp was extracted the soda used 
in glass and soap works. A cheaper method of 
making this soda from common salt had already been 
invented, but the high duty on salt still rendered 
it more expensive than kelp. The population of the 
West Highlands became kelp-burners. The more 
people there were the more kelp, and so their num- 
bers increased beyond what the land itself could 
provide for. Agriculture was neglected, yet rents 
rose, but kelp paid for all. Then came the crash. 
In 1822 the salt duty was repealed. The price of 
kelp at once fell to half, and went on falling. High- 
land lairds were ruined, and historic and extravagant 
chiefs, such as Clanranald, had to dispose of their 
estates. An overcrowded population burdened with 


' kelp-rents ' had again to find an outlet across 
the sea. 

4. The Whigs in Office. — The closing years of 
George IV's reign saw the first breach in the ranks 
of the Tory Government. In 1827 the liberal- 
minded George Canning was chosen Prime Minister. 
He was favourable to Catholic Emancipation, and 
the leading Ministers, such as the Duke of Welling- 
ton and Sir Robert Peel, therefore resigned office. 
With them went the. second Lord Melville, First 
Lord of the Admiralty, who had succeeded his 
father, ' Old Harry Dundas,' in the management of 
Scottish affairs. This proved to be ' the extinction 
of the word Melville ' in high politics. In 1829 
Catholic Emancipation was accomplished with the 
approval of both parties in Scotland, as well as that 
of the rising leader of the Evangelical party in the 
Church, Thomas Chalmers. The following year saw 
the accession of William IV, and the Whig party in 
power. Francis Jeffrey became Lord Advocate. 
The policy of the Whigs was, of course, reform. 
Nowhere was it more needed or clamoured for than 
in Scotland. The population had now increased to 
more than 2,300,000, yet the number of voters had 
actually decreased. Half the country voters were 
' paper barons,' owning the necessary land on paper 
only (see Chapter XXXIX, § 5). Glasgow, with a 
population of 147,000, shared a member with 
Renfrew, Rutherglen, and Dumbarton. Other large 
towns of recent growth, such as Paisley and Kil- 
marnock, had not even a share in a member. 
Political feeling ran high. The elections often ended 
in serious rioting, not infrequently in a duel. 


Augustin RischgHz, 

THOMAS CHALMERS (1780-1847) 
From an engraving of the portrait by Thomas Duncan^ A,R.A.^ R.S.A. 


5. The Reform Bills. — The first Reform Bill was 
introduced in March, 1831. Petitions from Scotland 
in its favour ' whitened the benches like a snow- 
storm/ It passed the second reading by a majority 
of one only, and the Government dissolved. Thir- 
teen of the Scottish members had voted for the Bill. 
The election was marked by scenes of furious riot. 
Sir Walter Scott, returning from Jedburgh, where 
he had voted for the Tory candidate, was met with 
cries of ' Burke (murder) him '/ When Mr. Dundas 
was chosen for Edinburgh instead of Jeffrey, the 
crowd received the result with shouts of ' Down 
with the Dundases !' and the Provost narrowly 
escaped being thrown over the North Bridge. 
Scotland returned a small majority for the Whigs. 
The new Bill passed its second reading in the House 
of Lords on April 14, 1832. The news anxiously 
waited for was brought to Edinburgh next day, 
Sunday, by an express coach and four horses, which 
' had posted down in the short space of thirty-six 
hours.' But the Lords wrecked the Bill at its next 
stage. Popular indignation revived, and the royal 
family were roundly abused in Scotland — a sure 
sign to the Lord Advocate that discontent was deeply 
planted. In the end the Lords yielded and the 
third Reform Bill became law. The Scottish Bill 
followed on July 17, 1832, and brought Scotland 
eight additional members. A few^ weeks after the 
* Reform Jubilee ' was celebrated in Edinburgh. 
Combinations of workmen were no longer illegal, 
and the rejoicings with processions, bands, flags, 
and trade symbols were carried through by the 
Trades Council. In the election which followed 



From the painting by Sir William Allan, R.A,, in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London, 


Scotland returned forty-four Whigs and nine Tories. 
Yet the Reform Bill was a triumph only for the 
middle classes. The great body of workmen and 
the agricultural labourers were still without votes. 
Glasgow now had two members instead of a fourth 
of one, but its voters were very few compared with 
the population. In the new Parliament the reform 
of the burgh system was easily accomplished. 
Henceforward the councillors were elected by the 
townsmen. In 1846 the trading privileges of royal 
burghs and burghs of barony were abolished. 

6. Patronage and the Disruption (1843). — The 
assertion of popular rights was also making itself 
heard in the Church. Resistance to the presenta- 
tion of unpopular ministers had not been encouraged 
by the Moderates. But these were now in a 
minority. Thomas Chalmers, the ablest man in 
the Church, became the leader of the Evangelical 
party. While the Moderates had laid stress upon 
lawful presentation and the observance of the 
Patronage Act, the Evangelicals maintained that 
the consent of the majority of a congregation was 
necessary to any settlement. In 1834 they were 
able to secure the passing of the Veto Act by the 
General Assembly, which instructed Presbyteries to 
reject anyone presented to a charge who should be 
disapproved of by a majority of the members of 
the congregation. When the presentee to the 
parish of Auchterarder was thus rejected he appealed 
to the Court of Session. That Court decided that 
the action of the Presbytery was contrary to the 
Patronage Act, and ordered that the settlement 
should be carried through. This judgment was 


upheld by the House of Lords. A similar case 
occurred in connexion with the Presbytery of 
Strathbogie. When the Presbytery decided to obey 
the civil court against the instruction of the 
Assembly, the seven ministers of the majority were 
deposed. The Court of Session granted an interdict 
against the deposition, and forbade interference with 
the ministers, or any holding of services by outsiders 
within their parishes. Thus the question of patron- 
age was merged in the wider dispute as to the relation 
of the Church courts to those of the State. The 
Evangelists claimed that the action of the civil courts 
was an interference with their ' spiritual ' rights, 
and destroyed the historic independence of the 
Church of Scotland. The Moderates had all along 
urged that the Veto Act was beyond the power of 
the Church, and that the law, so long as it was the 
law, must be obeyed. There were various attempts 
at compromise, but the Government would take no 
decisive action. The result was the ' Disruption ' 
of the Church. When the Assembly met in May, 
1843, the majority tabled a protest, affirming that 
the conditions of Establishment now declared to be 
the law were contrary to ' the settlement of Church 
government effected at the Revolution, and solemnly 
guaranteed by the Act of Security and Treaty of 
Union.' Then with dramatic impressiveness they 
left the hall in a body, and proceeded to constitute 
themselves, with all who should adhere to them, 
the ' Free ' Church of Scotland. Four hundred and 
fifty ministers and a large section of the people, 
mainly dravm from the middle and working classes 
of the towns, formed the new Church. In the 


Highlands, where the Moderate ministers, lor per- 
sonal reasons and their attitude towards the 
' clearances,' were generally unpopular, the great 
bulk of the population came out. The Patronage 
Act, which had cost the Church so dear, was repealed 
in 1874. 





Steward [dapifer) to the Count 
of Dol and Dinan at Dol, Brittany 

dapifer: in 
First Crusade, 1097 

c. HOT 


Alan Fitz-Flaald, 
settled in England 
by Henry I 



William Fitz-Alan 


The Earls of Arundel 
merged in Dukedom 
of Norfolk 

Walter Fitz-Alan, 
brought to Scotland by 

David I 
Steward {dapifer) to the 
King of Scotland. 
Died 1177 
Founder of Paisley Abbey 

Alan the Steward 


first to adopt name of 
office as surname 
(Alexander II) 

Regent in minority of 
Alexander III 

1 243- 1 309 


m. Marjory Bruce 


Robert II 




Robert de Brus, 
of Skelton and Cleveland 
in Yorkshire, died about 1080 


Robert de Bruce, 
died 1141. 
Got Annandale from David I 

in Yorkshire 


Line ended 


' the Younger,' 
2nd of Annandale, 
and of Hert, Durham, 
died 1 190 

died before 

3rd of Annandale 
and of Haltwhistie, 

' the Noble,' 4th of Annandale, 
m. Isobel, 2nd daughter of David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, brother of 
William the Lion 


5th of Annandale, 
'the Competitor,' died 1295 

6th of Annandale, and of 
Cleveland in Yorkshire, m. Marjory, 
Countess of Carrick, 1271, died 1304 


1274-1329^ 7th of Annandale, 
Earl of Carrick and King of Scotland 

m. Walter, the High Steward 

David II 













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